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M A G A Z I N 



You ve always been there in spirit. 
Maybe it's time you brought yourself along, too. 


Duke Magazine is 
printed on recycled 



Robert J. Bliwise A.M. '88 


Bridget Booher '82, A.M. '92 
Dennis Meredith 
Brian Henderson '98 
Jaime Levy '01 
Mills/Carrigan Design 

Michele Clause Farquhar'79, 
president; John A. Schwarz III 
'56, president-elect; M. Laney 
Funderhurk Jr. '60, secretary- 

James R. Cook Jr. '50, B.D. 
'54, Divinity School; George J. 
Evans B.S.E.E. '56, School of 
Engineering; Barrett B. McCall 
M.F'91, Nicholas School of the 
Environment; Walter W. 
Simpson III M.B.A. 74, Fuqua 
School of Business; Judith Ann 
Maness M.H.A. '83, Department 
of Health Administration; Bruce 
W. BaberJ.D. 79, School of 
Law; David K. Wellman M.D. 
72, H.S. 72-78, School of 
Medicine; Linda Spencer 
Fowler B.S.N. 79, School of 
Nursing; Marie Koval Nardone 
M.S. 79, A.H.C. 79, Graduate 
Program in Physical Therapy; 
J. Alexander McMahon '42, 
Half-Century Club. 

Clay Felker '51, chairman; 
Frederick F. Andrews '60; 
Debra Blum '87; Sarah 
Hardesty Bray 72; Nancy L. 
CardweU '69; Jerrold K. Footlick; 
Edward M. Gomez 79; Kerry E. 
Harmon '82; Stephen Labaton 
A.M. '86, J.D. '86; Elizabeth H. 
Locke '64, Ph.D. 72; Thomas E 
McLarin '86; Michael J. 
Schoenfeld '84; Susan Tint 73; 
Jane Vessels 77; Robert J. 
Bliwise A.M. '88, secretary. 

$15 per year ($30 foreign) 
Duke Magazine, Alumni House, 
614 Chapel Drive, Box 90570, 
Durham, N.C. 27708-0570. 

Alumni Records, Box 90613, 
Durham, N.C. 27708-0613 
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© 1997 Duke University 
Published bimonthly by the 
Office of Alumni Affairs. 



Cover: With an electrifying rise to prominence, 
Duke now ranks among the best and the 
brightest. Graphic effects by Maxine Mills. 


Though he had no way of knowing it at the time, John Parrish's year in the killing fields 
would upend his personal life, render him apolitical, and leave him with a burden of 
survivor guilt common among medical providers who went to Vietnam 


The debate over euthanasia has polarized the country in much the same way as abortion 
or the death penalty; but it has also opened a window onto a much larger, and many would 
say more important issue: the quality of care for the dying 

GO TO THE HEAD OF THE CLASS by Robert]. BUwise 14 

With a mixture of planning and serendipity, Duke has managed to achieve a level of 
prominence that is nearly without precedent — and that finds expression not just in 
magazine rankings, but in changing profiles of the student body and the faculty 

GOING FOR THE SILVER by Michael Goldstein 37 

Since so few achieve the superstar status of life at the top, a Duke social scientist recommends 
we strive for the middle; the nation's economy and society will be the better for it 


Taking their inspiration from a book, a group of friends tested their undaunted courage 
on a westward trail blazed two centuries before 

WOMEN IN THE MINISTRY by Robert K. Otterbourg 

Today's clergywomen, like women in other professions, seek assignments commensurate 
with their experience, promotions to jobs once only held by men, equal pay, and the 
removal of social and lifestyle barriers that once comprised an all-male ministerial club 




The moderate life of the party, the legacy of great teachers 



A spelling test for freshmen, honors for Founders' Day, a symposium for Franklin 



A poet's finest achievement 



Foreign-language futures, Joycean jolts 








Though he had no way of knowing it at the time, 

John Parrish's year in the killing fields would upend his personal life, 

render him apolitical, and leave him with a burden of survivor guilt common 

among medical providers who went to Vietnam. 

War is a central institution in human civilization, 

and it has a history precisely as long as civilization. 

— Gwynne Dyer, War 

There were five of them bunking down 
in Hootch 75, men as good as any this 
country ever sent to war, and in that 
summer of 1967 each was trying to come to 
terms with a time 

and a place called 
South Vietnam. 

For thirteen 
months — Marines 
prided themselves 
on staying a month 
longer in- country 
than other branches 
of the U.S. military 
— each of the five 
lived amid the stench 
of diesel fumes and 
burning human 
waste, the gut-rat- 
tling thunder of F-4 
Phantom jets, heli- 
copters ferrying the 
quick and the dead, 

drinking water reeking of bleach, salt tablets 
the size of a dime, anti-malaria pills, monsoon 
rains, rear-area martinets, and, somewhere in 
the bush beyond the perimeter, a silent enemy 
waiting to kill. 

Hastily thrown up at a Marine Corps base 
near coastal Phu Bai, Hootch 75 consisted of 
little more than a concrete floor, a wooden 
superstructure, and 
an enormous amount 
of screen wire. The 
four naval officers 
and one Marine as- 
signed to the hootch 
were an intelligent, 
thoughtful, and 
rather cynical lot, a 
cast of characters who 
could have walked 
straight into an epi- 
sode of M*A*S*H. 
In 1972, one of the 
hootchies, a Navy 
doctor named John 
Parrish '61, would 
§ publish to acclaim 
i one of the most riv- 

War buddies: a 

mustachioed Alex 

Roland and John 

Parrish, the doctor in 

the hootch, opposite, 

in Vietnam, 1967; 

Roland and student 

Parrish today, at left, 

outside Roland's 

MALS classroom 






eting books sired by the war, A Doctor's Year in 
Vietnam, a cut-to-the-marrow, nonfiction no- 
vel about one man's life in the combat zone, 
the people he knew, and what he came to 
know about himself. 

Barely out of Yale Medical School, Parrish 
knew litde about Vietnam the country or Viet- 
nam the war when he arrived at Phu Bai — 
few Americans did. Sensing his disorientation, 
the men of Hootch 75 "adopted" Parrish during 
a round of beer drinking at the Phu Bai offi- 
cers' club. It was a pastime among regulars to 
see which table could build the highest pyra- 
mid of beer cans — all empty, of course. 
Parrish proved his mettle by demolishing 
Hootch 75's pyramid with a flying can and a 
roar: "Are we going to talk or are we going to 
drink?" Then and there, the men of Hootch 
75 knew they had found their man. 

One of the hootchies who took Parrish's 
measure that night would figure prominently 
in A Doctor's Year and his life after the war. A 
composite character, the hootchie is a gung- 
ho Naval Academy graduate and Marine cap- 
tain, Roland Ames. But that's getting ahead 
of the story. 

Phu Bai two years after the Marines landed 
in Vietnam amid flower leis, photographers, 
and the applause of local dignitaries was not 
M*A *S*H; it was more like a preview of hell. 
The blood flowing from 3rd Division Marines, 
slogging through the rice paddies and green 
hills west of Phu Bai, was copious and real. 
John Parrish's job was to patch up these wound- 
ed Marines and return them to combat. 

Today, Parrish is the chief of dermatology at 
Harvard Medical School. Then, he was a Navy 
medical officer working at the Phu Bai field 
hospital. Though he had no way of knowing it 
at the time, Parrish's year in the killing fields 
would upend his personal life, render him 
apolitical, and leave him with a burden of sur- 
vivor guilt common among medical providers 
who went to Vietnam. 

Parrish came home in 1968, finished his ob- 
ligation to the Navy, and began a civilian ca- 
reer in dermatology that has opened profes- 
sional doors for him around the world. A few 
years after his return from the combat zone, 
however, Vietnam began to creep out of the 
vasty deep of his dreams and into his everyday 
life. It was the classic manifestation of post- 
traumatic stress disorder, PTSD. The healer 
was becoming one of the wounded, too. With 
PTSD came nightmares of crushed, mangled, 
and burned bodies; Technicolor snippets of his 
assuring young Marines, though he knew they 
would be dead by morning; the depression of 
survivor guilt spawned by knowing that he 
would see the green grass of home and they 
would not. Trying to make sense of what was 
happening to him, Parrish began to correspond 
with his hootchie, "Roland Ames." By 1997, 
their letters filled a 500-page manuscript. 

The function of the profession of arms is the 
ordered application of force in the resolution of a 
social problem. 

— General Sir John Hackett, 
The Profession of Arms 

On paper, it all seems so neat, so pre- 
cise, so bloodless. In fact, war is a 
blood-swollen god, as Stephen Crane 
wrote, and soldiers are the raw material that 
feed him. Six months into his tour in Viet- 
nam, John Parrish was mentally and physical- 
ly exhausted from trying to salvage as much 
of that raw material one man could do. He 
had come to Vietnam as a tabula rasa; now he 
was beginning to question not only his coun- 
try's involvement in an Asian civil war, but 
also the very political and moral legitimacy of 
his government. 

When Parrish returned to the States in 
1968, he was a stranger in a strange land. 
He learned from rebuffs in San Francisco and 
elsewhere what others in uniform already 
knew: A lot of Americans had come to be- 
lieve servicemen were part of the Vietnam 
problem, not the solution. In the view of the 
anti-war movement, these soldiers had alter- 
natives to Vietnam — Canada and Sweden, 
among others — but they were culpable be- 

cause they refused to resist an immoral war. 

For Parrish, the Florida-born son of a Bap- 
tist minister who preached love of God and 
country, this was a world gone belly up. Par- 
rish had gone to Vietnam reluctantly but 
with a sense of duty. His moral imperative 
consisted of keeping wounded Americans 
alive, not in torching straw huts. Though he 
had been there, had been in combat, had 
saved lives, Parrish was increasingly troubled 
by what he saw happening in the United 
States as well as by his failure to decipher the 
"why?" of the war. 

Several top policymakers in the Johnson 
administration wrestled with the question. 
They, too, could discern no purpose in con- 
tinuing a pointless war. Chief among these 
nascent doves was Defense Secretary Robert 
McNamara, whose public support of the war 
masked a gnawing conviction that he had 
helped steer the United States into a disaster. 
McNamara was right. He and his advisers 
talked arrogantly after the 1965 U.S. buildup 
about the proper way to preserve South Viet- 
nam: Gradually tighten the screws until North 
Vietnam simply abandoned its struggle to 
annex the South by force. But in 1968, after 
the Tet Offensive shattered the Johnson ad- 
ministration's confidence and eroded much of 


Unlike soldiers in earlier 
wars, most of the 2 mil- 
lion Americans who 
served in Vietnam did not go 
there as members of military 
units. They went alone, and 
they came home alone. As a 
result, few long-term friend- 
ships seem to have survived 
the post-Vietnam years. Alex 
Roland and John Parrish are 
an exception. 

Their correspondence, which 
may be adapted for a book, 
consists of more than 500 
manuscript pages. Here are 
excerpts from two of their let- 
ters. The first excerpt, written 
by Parrish, suggests a flashback 
associated with his post-trau- 
matic stress disorder: 

June 4, 1995 
Dear Alex, 

As I write to you, my mind 
and feelings return to the first 
few days of the Tet Offensive... 
I know I sit in safe Boston in 
1995, but I feel entirely present 
[in] Phu Bai in 1968. 

Mixed into the sounds of the 
garbage truck outside my win- 
dow, I hear incoming rounds 
just beyond the airstrip.. .as I 
debride the injured hand of a 
lieutenant who could not be 
older than twenty-one. I give 
the lieutenant some sterile 
gauze and tell him...that if the 
rounds get closer, he is to cover 
the wound with gauze and roll 
off the litter onto the floor.... 
We lie on the floor without 

on the airstrip next to us. When 
quiet returns, several people 
head for the bunkers, but most 
of us continue working.... With 
each group of shells my heart 
beats faster. My hands shake 
so.. .it is difficult to continue my 
work, but there is so much 
work yet to be done. We have 
no place to carry die wounded 
to safety.... What bothers me 
most is the brains under my 


June 14, 1995 
Dear John, 

Your last letter has an edge to 
it, but I am thankful you are 
still writing.. ..You ask again, 
"What is the meaning of Viet- 
nam?" For some people, Viet- 
nam stands for all wars. For 
others it stands for wars of 
imperialism. For others it stands 
for a noble failure. For the Ram- 
bo crowd it stands for losing. 

In short, [the meaning of 
Vietnam] depends on who you 
are, just as what you carried 
home from the war depends 
on the baggage you took there 
in the first place. Ultimately, 
the meaning of Vietnam is tied 
to the meaning of life, which 
each of us must discern for 

...I flunk you swim about in 
a sea of emotions. Come ashore 
and build a personal philoso- 
phy. Read some philosophy, 
just as I will read some Viet- 
nam literature. And let's com- 
pare progress on our respective 


Parrish, at left: A Doctor's Year 
in Phu Bai never ended 


Air ambulance: UH-1D 

medevac helicopters 

guaranteed fast transport 

to a field hospital 



the remaining domestic support for the war, 
Washington scrambled to find a face-saving 
exit. That would consume another seven years, 
30,000 more American lives, and yet another 
president, Richard M. Nixon LL.D. '39. 

Still to come was the massive but disap- 
pointing U.S. "incursion" into Cambodia that 
sparked fatal protests at several American uni- 
versities, the Christmastime B-52 strikes on 
Hanoi, and the mining of Haiphong harbor. 
The Vietnam that John Parrish,"Roland Ames," 
and the other tenants of Hootch 75 knew in 
1968 had not reached its zenith. 

They told me later that somebody was in a spider 
trap to the left... I was paralyzed from the time I 
got hit. I knew that because the only thing I could 
move was my hands. 

— Danny Riels, interview, 1988 

Vietnam in 1967-68 was a new spot on 
the map for kids like Danny Riels, a 
football letterman fresh out of high 
school in Petal, Mississippi. Riels, however, 
didn't spend much time in-country. He was 
paralyzed in his first and only firefight. 

If the Danny Rielses of Vietnam were the 
raw material of war, John Parrish was a quality- 
control inspector with a medical degree. His 
job was to repair battle-damaged Marines and 
send them back to work, using the military's 
coldly efficient triage system. Here, the integ- 
rity of the group assumes precedence over the 
individual; the soldier with the best chance of 

survival usually merits first call on a combat 

Vietnam casualties taken to a field hospital 
like the one in Phu Bai had a better chance 
of survival than in any war up to that time. 
Thanks to fast UH-1D medevac helicopters, 
no American in Vietnam was more than thirty 
minutes from a field hospital. When a higher 
level of care was needed, another medevac 
chopper flew casualties to a Navy hospital 
ship just over the horizon. From graceful white 
ships with names like Repose and Solace, most 
patients who would leam war no more went 
on to U.S. hospitals in Japan and, eventually, 
to the United States. 

Parrish's place in this process was entry- 
level, which meant he and other Navy physi- 
cians at Phu Bai saw in all its immediacy the 
worst that could be inflicted on the human 
body by an enemy that preferred maiming 
over killing. His reasoning was sound: A Ma- 
rine with his legs suddenly rendered into pink 
mist by a Chinese-made land mine was a win- 
ning number in the lottery of combat. 

The dead required nothing from the living; 
the near-dead required a great deal. Anti-per- 
sonnel mines and booby traps were cheap, 
effective ways to sap a Marine unit's strength 
and morale. Furthermore, the regime of Ho 
Chi Minh reaped a bonus with every mangled 
American who came home from Vietnam: more 
home-front opposition to the war. Maiming 
was Hanoi's way of taking the war into Ameri- 
ca's living rooms, and it worked. 

What made me and the Americanization of the 

VietnamWar are the same. I am theVietnamWar. 

—John Parrish, M.D. 

On a pleasant July evening, thirteen 
graduate students in Duke's Master 
of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) 
program join Parrish and history department 
chair Alex Roland Ph.D. '74— the "Roland 
Ames" of A Doctor'sYear — in a Carr Building 
seminar room. These students, ages twenty- 
three to fifty-seven, signed up for "The Mean- 
ing of Vietnam," one the most unusual graduate 
courses ever offered by the university. From now 
until late August, they will search for meaning 
in the Vietnam War — indeed, whether the 
United States' eleven-year involvement in a 
Third World country's civil war has any shared 
meaning at all. 

The course is Parrish's idea, refined by Ro- 
land. The MALS students will not pore over 
military tactics and strategies. Rather, as Ro- 
land agreed to teach it, the seminar will ex- 
amine the ideologies, politics, and belief sys- 
tems of the 1950s and 1960s that led to the 
U.S. takeover of the Vietnam conflict. As the 
students will learn in readings, films, and class 
discussions, the takeover was the product of 
dubious, often false perceptions about the na- 
ture of the war. Perhaps the most fateful of 
those perceptions stemmed from the Johnson 
administration's embrace of the domino theo- 
ry, which held that a Communist victory in 
South Vietnam would soon ripple through 

November -December 1997 

other former colonial states in Indochina. 

Few people except historians talk about 
the domino theory today. But by the time 
John F. Kennedy took office, the theory was 
already looming over U.S. policy in Southeast 
Asia. The domino theory fundamentally mis- 
read events by holding up South Vietnam as 
a textbook example of monolithic Commu- 
nism on the prowl. Had not the West con- 
fronted the same menace a decade earlier in 
South Korea? 

Yes, but Vietnam was not and never would 
be the Korean War redux. The war in Vietnam 
originated in a nationalist movement dedi- 
cated to unifying North and South. In reality, 
the Ho Chi Minh regime privately gave little 
more than lip service to Marxist-Leninist doc- 


y the time an orange summer sun dips 
below the East Campus tree line, Ro- 
land is deep into the Socratic method, 
at which he excels. His questions center more 
on how the students themselves perceive 
Vietnam than on the who, why, and when of 
the war. If the domino theory grew out of 
Cold War perceptions of international Com- 
munism, Roland asks, what perceptions might 
we as individuals have of Vietnam — and are 
those perceptions similarly real or imagined? 

Each student, of course, "sees" a Vietnam 
colored by his or her beliefs and perceptions. 
Liberals in the class generally regard the 
Vietnam War as an internal nationalistic 
struggle that posed little or no serious threat 
to other Southeast Asia states and none at all 
to this country. Students with a more conser- 
vative bent tend to assess the war as a tenta- 
cle of international Communism that had to be 
cut off. 

MALS student Joyce Ward, fifty-five, who 
operates a 1,000-acre truck farm with her hus- 
band in Bladen County, North Carolina, found 
herself in the middle of the ideological spec- 
trum. "If there is an inherent meaning to the 
Vietnam War," she told me, "perhaps it is that 
no country should ever be so arrogant... as to 
believe it has discovered the best and only 
way a people should be governed." 

No one in Ward's immediate family went to 
Vietnam. Not so for Jennifer Madriaga, a his- 
tory graduate student and "Navy brat" whose 
father served in the war zone. Although she 
went into the course "thinking Vietnam was a 
tragedy, and that viewpoint did not change," 
Madriaga believes the seminar helped her find 
the right place for Vietnam within the larger 
context of the 1960s. Perhaps, she suggested, 
the war might be seen as a reflection of many 
other events — assassinations, urban riots, the 
civil rights and feminist revolutions — that 
defined a violent decade for Americans. 

To assign a common meaning to the war is, 
Roland argues, futile. For most Americans who 






were there, Vietnam to this day remains a sur- 
realistic journey into the nether reaches of the 
human experience. Events and people in Viet- 
nam often were not what or who you be- 
lieved. A South Vietnamese Army major might 
well be (and some were) in reality a colonel in 
the North Vietnamese army. The Vietnamese 
maid who swept your hootch or washed your 
jungle fatigues might be a Viet Cong agent 
(and some were) preparing a detailed map of 
your base for the Tet Offensive. An Army 
unit calling itself a "studies and observation 
group" might consist of volunteers going into 
Laos, Cambodia, or North Vietnam on com- 
mando raids. Many of these men were never 
seen again. 

Distinguishing between the real and the 

Parrish's three Vietnams: being in-country, suffering 
the stress disorder, looking for answers 

unreal in Vietnam was so difficult that writer 
Michael Herr, one of the best war correspon- 
dents of the era, suggested in his book Dis- 
patches that conventional, fact-based journal- 
ism collapsed in Vietnam. Most journalists 
were willing conduits for official facts because 
the paradigm of their craft required it. If a 
brigade commander said his troops had killed 
145 VC on the Michelin Rubber Plantation, 
his claim was accepted as fact. However, such 
"facts" usually consisted of numbers inflated 
by lower-level commanders who feared their 
career tickets wouldn't be punched if they 
failed to "produce" their quota of VC and 
NVA bodies. Even though everyone in the 
chain of command knew the body count was 
a work of fiction, and furthermore that they 
were participating in the deception, the prac- 
tice dutifully assumed a life of its own. Thus 
was the Vietnam War reported in newspapers 
and on TV newscasts back home. 

However Daliesque the war appeared to 
civilians, what the people in the belly of the 
beast lived with day and night was not the 
work of a creative imagination. In its darkest 
moments, life in the sandpit called Phu Bai 
went beyond imagination. 

Parrish knows that. He is one of thousands 
of Vietnam veterans with PTSD, warriors who 
left a part of themselves on a foreign field. 
Some go back, looking for the patch of red la- 
terite earth where they felt the hard thump of 
an AK-47 round, where a buddy "bought the 
farm," where visions of life after the war were 
shared amid gripes about C-rations, terminal- 
ly dumb second lieutenants, and Dear John 

Parrish has not gone back. There is no need 
to physically return, he says, to a place that 
lives within him. In a paper for Roland's sem- 
inar, he wrote, "I captured my one-year war 
into my soul and have not let it go." He really 
is the Vietnam War, bottled at the source. 

War, war, war. If either of you boys says 'war' just 

once again, I'll go in the house and slam the door. 

— Scarlett O'Hara, 

Gone With the Wind 

Soldiers who have yet to experience com- 
bat talk a great deal about it. Afterward, 
they prefer to talk about other things. 
For a couple of hours on an August after- 
noon, however, I joined Parrish and Roland at 
the latter 's house in Duke Forest to talk about 
war as they knew it. Half-jokingly, Roland 
says he long ago stuffed Vietnam into his file 
of "learning experiences," and today has more 
bad dreams about life as a Naval Academy 
midshipman than about his thirteen months 
at Phu Bai. The jocularity fades when Roland 


begins to talk about the U.S. military perfor- 
mance in Vietnam, much of which he dismiss- 
es as almost criminally inept. Vietnam, he de- 
clares, was a struggle between a Third World 
foe steeped in Mao's doctrine of protracted 
war and an American military whose mindset 
for twenty years had dwelled on defeating a 
Soviet invasion of Europe. 

Thus, Roland's Vietnam is one that we went 
into with arrogance, only to come out, as the 
French did, with our tail between our legs. We 
cannot change the past, so let's get on with 
what can be changed, the present. 

Parrish defines not one but three Vietnams. 
The first was his physical presence in-country, 
the only Vietnam in the past. The second 
Vietnam is his stress disorder. The third Viet- 
nam is his quest for answers. Parrish does not 
talk much this day about what he saw and did 
three decades ago. What he is seeking, and 
what Roland has tried to help him find, is a 
fourth Vietnam: coming home. 

I ask Parrish if he has read a classic medita- 
tion on war written by philosopher J. Glenn 
Gray forty years ago. It turns out Parrish had 
read Gray's book, The Warriors: Reflections on 
Men in Battle and found it, as I did, immense- 
ly thought-provoking. One of Gray's chapters 
bears an altogether curious and unforgettable 
title, "The Enduring Appeals of Battle." What 
could be appealing about the worst violence 
that humankind inflicts upon itself? The 
words in the title seem contradictory. Yet, Gray 
knew what he was writing about; as an Army 
officer in World War II, he discovered in 
himself the strange appeal of battle. War does 
hold many a soldier in thrall; only in battle 
does he stand on the very cusp of life and 
death. Only as a soldier is he permitted to 
wield so much individual power over the fate 
of others. 

For the rest of their lives, soldiers can recall 
with a fondness that astonishes civilians the 
thrill of power and the lure of war. What else 
could General Douglas McArthur have meant 
when, in a moment of Freudian candor, he told 
his aides the Korean War was "Mars' last gift 
to an old soldier"? 

It is here, just before our time runs out on 
that August afternoon, that Parrish utters what 
I had begun to sense and what Roland no 
doubt has long known. "I am afraid," Parrish 
says softly, "I will discover that I am fascinated 
by war." If so, coming to terms with the endur- 
ing appeals of battle will be the first step to- 
ward home for John Parrish, just as it was for 
the rest of us. 

Wilson A.M. '88, an Army officer in Vietnam 
in I966-6Z is the author of Landing Zones, 
Southern Veterans Remember Vietnam. He is 
editorial editor at Durham's Herald-Sun. 





















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November-December 1997 







The debate over euthanasia has polarized the country in much 

the same way as abortion or the death penalty. But it has also opened 

a window onto a much larger, and many would say more important, 

issue: the quality of care for the dying. 

As families come together this season 
to celebrate Hanukkah or Christmas 
or Kwanza, there's a topic of discus- 
sion that should — but probably won't — be 
broached. The subject is death, that in- 
evitable exit we all will make. While our en- 
trance into the world was likely a joyous occa- 
sion that required nothing from us, our deaths 
will demand more. Do you know how your 
parents want to spend their final weeks? 
Whether your sister would want to be kept 
alive on a ventilator if she had an incurable 
condition? What would make life not worth 
living anymore for you? 

Unfortunately, these frank reflections often 
take place when it's too late, when a loved 
one's prognosis is poor. We hope and pray and 
convince ourselves that everything will be all 
right. But suddenly we find ourselves standing 
next to a grandmother or son who lies barely 
conscious in a hospital bed, being asked to 
chart a course of care-giving that ranges from 
wait-and-see (while racking up astronomically 
expensive hospital bills) to questioning whether 
to withdraw artificial life support (Is there more 
we could do?). 

Ideally, dying should be easy. We fall asleep 

and don't wake up. Or we slowly drift from 
consciousness into a comfortable fog that ends 
with a natural cessation of our hearts or lungs. 
The reality, however, isn't always so peaceful. 
We no longer die the way we used to; most of 
us will take our final breaths in institutions 
like nursing homes or hospitals rather than in 
our own homes. As advancements in medical 
technology have made it possible to prolong 
life, we as patients expect — in fact, demand — 
that all resources are made available to us, 
even when we're faced with a terminal dis- 
ease. We die with tubes and monitors in place, 
technological experiments in resisting the 

In the larger public arena, there's been re- 
newed attention to death and dying in Ameri- 
ca. Most visibly, the debate over euthanasia — 
from the questionable tactics of retired path- 
ologist Jack Kevorkian to this summer's two 
Supreme Court decisions allowing states to 
continue banning physician-assisted suicide — 
has polarized the country in much the same 
way as abortion or the death penalty. (While 
the word euthanasia is often used as a euphe- 
mism for mercy killing, its literal meaning is 
"good death.") The controversy has divided 





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physicians, patients' rights groups, ethicists, 
economists, religious leaders, nurses, legal ex- 
perts, and theologians. But it has also afford- 
ed a window onto a much larger, and many 
would say more important, issue: the quality 
of care for the dying. 

"Our society in general is a very death- 
denying culture," says James Tulsky, assistant 
professor of medicine at Duke Medical Cen- 
ter and Durham's Veterans Affairs (VA) Medi- 
cal Center. "My view is that assisted suicide 
may be permissible in those rare circumstances 
where patients are suffering so much that 
pain simply cannot be alleviated by the best 
that palliative care has to offer. But the real 
issue is that so many people are getting inad- 
equate palliative care." 

There are a number of reasons why this is 
so, none more central than the doctor-patient 
(and by extension, family) relationship. Phy- 
sicians aren't always comfortable talking 
about death, although it is a natural mile- 
stone in one's life. Doctors have been trained 
to view death as, if not outright failure, then 
the least desired outcome. Given the impos- 
ing armamentarium available, there's always 
one more test to run or one more interven- 
tion to try. Patients share this belief that the 
next assortment of drugs will make a differ- 
ence, or that even though very few people 
recover from a given procedure, they will be 
the exception. 

"Doctors don't usually relay the negative 
aspects of prognosis until the very end," says 
Tulsky. "The treatment team is trying very 
hard to communicate to the family that they 
should maintain hope and keep focused on 
the bright side of things. Meanwhile, the fam- 
ily is getting lots of different messages. They're 
being told extremely technical things — that 
blood pressure is constant or kidney function 
has improved — so they hold on to these 
minute changes even though, in the grand 
scheme of things, they mean very little if the 
patient has multiple problems." 

"What's going on in the doctor's mind," he 
says, "is that this patient is sicker than sick, 
and, if he really thought about it, the progno- 
sis is no higher than a 30 percent survival 
rate. Another week goes by — no improve- 
ment — and now the prognosis is about 10 
percent. But he doesn't communicate that to 
the family. So the day comes when the doctor 
goes to the family and says, 'Look, we should 
think about withdrawing treatment.' And the 
family is shocked. 'What?! But yesterday you 
said that kidney function was better.' So those 
transition periods can be very, very difficult." 

Tulsky, who came to Duke in 1993, is on the 
leading edge of a medical education revolu- 
tion. Through the Open Society Institute's 
landmark Project on Death in America, Tul- 
sky was chosen as one of the inaugural Soros 
Faculty Scholars (funded by philanthropist 

George Soros). With additional funding from 
the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, he is 
teaching medical students and residents how 
to grapple with the complex challenges of im- 
proving communication between doctor and 
patient, specifically in terms of end-of-life 

PRIME, a primary care training program for 
VA residents, is a combined inpatient/outpa- 
tient rotation that lasts for three months 
rather than the usual one month. The team- 
based arrangement simulates the demands 
and rhythms of private practice, with an addi- 
tional academic component that explores the 
practical and philosophical implications of 
practicing medicine. Tulsky says the inten- 
sive, four-year-long study will serve as a con- 
trolled trial to see how PRIME residents and 
their patients fare as compared to the resi- 
dents (and their patients) who did not go 
through the PRIME curriculum. 

Similarly, PRACTICE, a one-year-old in- 
novative curriculum at Duke Medical Center, 

exposes medical students to primary care 
training. Beginning in February, ten hours of 
classroom discussions will be added to students' 
educations; topics will range from how to 
break bad news to eliciting patient treatment 
preferences, and they may also visit hospices 
and keep journals of their experiences. 
Training medical students about death and 
dying is now starting to become an integrated 
part of the curriculum for many medical 
schools. But as recently as 1993, an American 
Medical Association study found that just 26 
percent of 7,048 hospital-residency programs 
included such a course. 

Trained as a general internist, Tulsky has 
spent his professional career examining the 
intersection of medicine and social science. 
As an undergraduate at Cornell, he majored 
in Biology and Society, an interdisciplinary 
program that combined biomedical science 
with courses on philosophy and ethics. As a 
medical student at the University of Illinois- 
Chicago, Tulsky developed an independent 


Do we have a constitu- 
tional right to end our 
own lives? That was the 
thrust of two cases decided by 
the U.S. Supreme Court this 
summer, and while both suits 
revolved around the 14th 
Amendment, the suits differed 
significantly in how they were 
argued. Still, in both instances 
the justices overturned earlier 
court cases that ruled in favor 
of physician-assisted suicide. 
The first case, brought by 
the Seattle-based group 
Compassion in Dying against 
the state of Washington, cen- 
tered on the due process clause 
of the 14th Amendment. If 
an individual has the constitu- 
tional right to make decisions 
about whether or not to bear 
children (the abortion debate), 
lawyers for the group argued, 
then having control over how 
one dies is a natural part of 
that continuum and the courts 
shouldn't interfere. 

The second case, Vbcco vs. 
Quill, centered on the equal 
protection clause of the 14th 
Amendment. A group of termi- 
nally ill patients and their 
physicians, including Timothy 
Quill (who set off a firestorm in 
1992 when he wrote a medical 
journal article about helping a 
patient commit suicide), main- 
tained that New York's ban on 
assisted suicide is inconsistent 
with a dying patient's legal 
right to refuse treatment or to 
be taken off life-support. In 

other words, a policy that only 
allows terminally ill people to 
decide their fates (and only 
under specific circumstances) is 

While nearly all major 
medical organizations oppose 
assisted suicide, surveys of 
physicians and their support 
staffs report that "passive 
euthanasia" is quietly and rou- 
tinely practiced. For example, 
instead of treating every 
infection that occurs in a dying 
cancer patient, a physician 
might recommend a less 
aggressive course of treatment 
that focuses on palliative care. 
Slow morphine drips have 
helped countless patients die 
peaceful deaths; while the 

underlying condition is what 
killed them, the morphine 
allowed the disease to take its 
course naturally without caus- 
ing undue pain. 

Despite the Supreme Court 
decisions, the debate surround- 
ing assisted suicide is far from 
settled. For example, most sur- 
veys show that the American 
public is fairly evenly divided 
on the issue, with a slight 
majority in favor. 

But a survey conducted by 
Duke psychiatrist Harold 
Koenig found that the popula- 
tion most likely to be affected 
by assisted suicide — elderly, 
frail patients — opposes it the 
most As reported in the 
October 1996 issue of Archives 
of Internal Medicine, the twenty- 
month study conducted at 
Duke Hospital found that only 
39.9 percent of patients at the 
geriatric evaluation and treat- 
ment clinic favored assisted 
suicide, as compared to 59.3 
percent of those patients' 

"These findings are provoca- 
tive and of great concern 
because the frail, elderly, poorly 
educated, and demented mem- 
bers of our society have little 
power to influence public poli- 
cy that may directly affect 
them," says Koenig. "If physi- 
cian-assisted suicide is made 
legal, then this population may 
warrant special measures." 


study in geriatrics and ethics, including a stint 
at the Hastings Center for Bioethics. His 
medical training at the University of Cali- 
fornia-San Francisco, augmented by a Robert 
Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Fellowship, 
paired him with Bernard Lo, one of the coun- 
try's leading ethicists. 

WhatTulsky and others have found 
is that doctors and patients gen- 
erally talk in two different lan- 
guages — medical terminology versus life ex- 
periences — which results in frequent, poten- 
tially life-altering misunderstandings. For ex- 
ample, a physician asks a dying patient, "Do 
you want us to do everything we can to save 
you?" That kind of phrasing, says Tulsky, gives 
the patient no other option but to say yes. But 
the communication doesn't even have to be 
that binary to have a negative effect. Instead 
of asking patients and their families to weigh, 
for example, the serious risks of CPR, a physi- 
cian might frame the procedure in vague terms, 
such as "sometimes it's futile, sometimes it's 
traumatic." (Unlike the almost routine suc- 
cesses of CPR on shows like ER and Chicago 
Hope, the procedure carries grave risks and is 
usually unsuccessful — just 7 to 14 percent ot 
hospitalized patients who undergo CPR sur- 
vive to be discharged.) 

In a study conducted by Tulsky, ethicist Lo, 
and Margaret Chesney in 1992, only 13 per- 
cent of medical residents at three teaching 
hospitals mentioned the patient's likelihood 
of survival after CPR. Less than 20 percent 
mentioned such adverse outcomes as neuro- 
logical damage or prolonged stays in intensive 
care units. Remarkably, these pivotal conver- 
sations lasted a median of ten minutes, with 
the physician doing most of the talking. 

percent? Because what really matters is what's 
going to happen to you, not what's going to 
happen to sixty out of a hundred patients.' 
You want to make sure that people have hope 
they'll be among the 40 percent, because 
study after study has shown that when people 
have a positive outlook, or feel they have God 

patient says, 'Oh, by the way...' and that's the 
thing that's really bothering them. At that 
point, you've already used up the allotted fif- 
teen or twenty minutes. 

"What I usually do is rob Peter to pay Paul, 
so if I have a patient who really needs thirty 
or forty minutes, I try to balance that against 
patients who only need ten. But the point is 
that when you get those 'Oh, by the ways...,' it 
indicates that your communication could 
have been more efficient. It's extremely hard. 
Even though I teach this stuff, and think I'm 
reasonably decent at it, the time factor is just 
so tough." 

Offering a range of medical options for ill 
and dying patients is crucial for mapping out 
day-to-day treatment plans. Yet a larger issue 
remains: How will a patient live out her final 
months or days when that time comes? If 
each of us can articulate a personal vision of 
the good life, what then do we hope for in a 
good death? Will there be pain? Will it be 
scary? Can we be in control? It's hard enough 
to ask ourselves these questions, much less 
articulate them for a physician who may only 
be with us for twenty-minute intervals at a 
time. Similarly, doctors responsible for dying 
patients can find it hard to make the transi- 
tion from focusing on curing to caring. 

Physician Keith G. Meador Th.M. '86 is an 
associate clinical professor of psychiatry and 
pastoral theology. He divides his time be- 
tween supervising medical residents and stu- 
dents at the VA on inpatient service, and 
teaching pastoral care courses at the divinity 
school. He's seen first-hand how difficult it 
can be for physicians to concede that "heal- 
ing" is no longer a prospect. "We're supposed 
to make life go on," he says. "We're not 
trained to be present and unafraid of suffer- 


(Perhaps not surprisingly, given the brevity 
and one-sided nature of these discussions, a 
patient's personal values and goals were 
addressed in just 10 percent of cases.) 

Duke oncology resident Amy Abernathy 
has worked closely with Tulsky and shares his 
sensitivity to the power of communication. It's 
a delicate balance, she says, to deliver frank 
details about a patient's condition while still 
providing encouragement. She admits to being 
frustrated when patients ask how long they 
have to live. "I never know what to say. We try 
to give general ranges — on the order of weeks 
to months, or months to a couple of years — 
instead of absolute times." If they persist, she'll 
tell them the percentages, but with a caveat: 
"I'll say, 'Now listen. That's what happens to 
60 percent of patients, but what makes you 
think you're not going to be part of the 40 

on their side, they do better. At the same time, 
you don't want to give them so much false 
hope that it's time to say goodbye to their 
grandchildren and they haven't done so." 

Given the demands on a physician's time, 
and the pressures of managed care to process 
as many patients as possible, is it feasible to 
expect successful, introspective exchanges to 
be the norm? Tulsky admits that it's challenge 
enough to gauge what matters spiritually and 
emotionally to each individual patient, much 
less incorporate that into every encounter. 
"What often happens is that the first thing 
out of a person's mouth tends to get ten min- 
utes, and that's not what's most important. 
Patients often don't say what's most impor- 
tant first because they're embarrassed. In the 
medical world, this is called 'Oh, by the way...' 
You're walking out of the exam room and the 

ing. That's hard for a lot of physicians. I think 
that's one thing the theological community 
has to offer the medical community. I do not 
think there's a split between the world of 
medicine and the world of theology. I think 
this is a place where that crossover is vital. So 
often when someone's dying, physicians feel 
like failures. But that kind of thinking dis- 
tracts from being able to sit with someone, 
not to have to answer them, not to have an 
intervention, just be quiet and be with them. 
The idea that a doctor would sit with a pa- 
tient knowing that things don't look good 
could be powerfully comforting." 

Meador says he clearly recalls his earliest 
experience with death in a clinical setting. He 
was a medical student in a large urban hospi- 
tal and a patient died of respiratory illness. "It 
happened in the middle ot the day, in a place 

November-December 1W7 


where people died every day, but I felt the 
need for something more, for some ritual or 
an acknowledgment. I was one of the younger 
people on the medical team, so I looked to the 
role models around me — how are we sup- 
posed to act? So you fall in line even though 
you feel uncomfortable." 


artha Henderson's 
first job after grad- 
i uarion from nursing 
school was working at San 
Francisco General Hospital. 
One of her patients, a frail, 
elderly patient with advanced 
arthritis, told Henderson B.S.N. 
'68, M.S.N. '78 that she was, 
essentially, ready to die. But 
when the woman went into 
cardiac arrest, Henderson and 
the attending physician began 
the customary CPR procedure. 
"We were pumping on this lit- 
tle lady's bony chest and doing 
resuscitation and I knew very 
deep down that this was not 
right," recalls Henderson. "I 
thought, this lady is ready to 
die. Why don't we just let her 

Now a clinical assistant pro- 
fessor at the University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill's 
School of Nursing, Henderson 
has committed her professional 
career to the practical and ethi- 
cal needs of the geriatric popu- 
lation. Like James Tulsky, she is 
interested in the social and spir- 
itual dimensions of caring for 
the dying, and in improving 
how such care is administered. 

In addition to her nursing 
degrees, she earned a master's 
from Yale's divinity school 
and a doctorate of ministry 
from the Southeastern Baptist 
Theological Seminary. She's 
worked as an adult and geri- 
atric nurse practitioner, written 
extensively on death and dying, 
been the director of outpatient 
and clinical services at a private 
retirement community, and 
served on hospital ethics com- 
mittees. In a sense, Henderson 
has devoted her life to thinking 
about dying. 

As an educator, she is skilled 
at leading families and individ- 
uals through the formidable 
task of talking about dying. She 
urges everyone who wants a 
natural death to have both 
advanced directives: a living 
will and a durable power of 
attorney for care (someone to 
act as a surrogate decision 
maker for your wishes in the 
event that you can no longer 
communicate). These docu- 

ments are available through a 
hospital's patient relations 
department and can be nota- 
rized at a bank. 

It's crucial to share copies of 
these documents, including 
specific wishes for end-of-life 
care, with family members and 
physicians. For those people 
who haven't yet addressed 
these issues, she recommends 
starting a family conversation 
with some very general, non- 
threatening observations. "You 
begin by saying something like, 
'Mother and Daddy, I really 
care about you and want to 
honor your wishes and I need 
some information from you. 
Even though I expect you to 
be with us for a long time, 
life is very unpredictable and 
you never know how it will 
unfold.' " 

After this affirmation of a 
person's current status, says 
Henderson, you can then in- 
quire about his or her health 
more specifically. How does 
your primary health-care 
provider think you're doing? 
How do you think you're 
doing? By building from the 
information people already 

Yes, death is a routine occurrence, says 
Meador, but it's important to weigh the phys- 
ical absolute with the recognition that "it 
happens in a very particular way for each per- 
son in their life. And I think there's a need to 
sort through how to honor that. Death is not 
something to be avoided at all costs, but to be 

have, it's a logical step to ask 
whether and how that person 
imagines his or her own death. 
"A good opening question is, 
'What makes life worth living 
for you?' And the corollary, 
'What would make life not 
worth living for you?' And 
from there you can get more 
specific, including thoughts 
about artificial life support in 
the face of terminal illness, 
depending on the person's com- 
fort level," she says. 

With her own patients, 
Henderson helps clarify the 
myths and fallacies surrounding 
the biological reality of death. 
For example, she's found that 
some people are convinced that 
living out one's days on life 
support is preferable to having 
it withdrawn. "Dying of dehy- 
dration and inadequate nutri- 
tion is actually a very comfort- 
able way to die if good nursing 
care is given," she says. "When 
people are dying, they often 
lose their appetite and thirst, 
and endorphins (natural opi- 
ates) are released. It's a natural 
part of the dying process. You 
become less conscious and you 
drift away and it's very gentle. 
People need to be reassured 
that it's not a painful death, 
that we can promise intensive 
comfort care, including pain 
medication as needed, while 
this process takes place." 

Once you're able to explore 
the scenarios that a loved one 
may fear, and discuss the medi- 
cal options available (preferably 
with thoughts from the primary 
provider), Henderson says it's 
important to bring the conver- 
sation full circle. 

"You can end by saying, 'I 
hope you will continue to live 
a long time. When your time 
to die comes, I will do all I can 
to honor your wishes.' I tell 
patients that this conversation 
is a gift to their families be- 
cause it helps them with the 
responsibility of end-of-life 
decisions for a loved one. 
Ultimately, an additional pur- 
pose of these conversations is to 
help families realize the pre- 
ciousness of life now." 

honored" with regard to how the patient and 
his or her family lived their lives. For that 
kind of recognition to develop, the health 
care team, family members, and patient must 
all work toward a satisfying final chapter. 
(Tulsky agrees, saying that doctors should 
routinely ask patients — not just those who 
are sick, but also those who are still young 
and healthy — what role spirituality plays in 
their lives. "I find the majority of people are 
incredibly happy and comfortable to talk 
about it," he says. "It opens up a whole new 
level of understanding and trust when they 
know I care about their religious or mental 
outlook. They may not come to me for their 
spiritual counseling, but at least they know 
I'm aware of that aspect of their lives.") 

Meador says he's keenly aware of how the 
depersonalized setting of hospitals can be- 
come counterproductive to meeting the psy- 
chological needs of the dying. It's important 
for people to feel that their lives have been 
important, he says, that the unique story of 
one's life is heard and appreciated. "Most of us 
no longer live rural lives surrounded by 
nature and animals and an understanding of 
the fullness of creation, which includes death, 
and an acceptance that we will die, too," he 
says. "Instead, we take people out of their 
communities and away from a place they 
understand and where they belong. We make 
their [life] story disjointed. I've seen people 
who could say unequivocally that they were 
ready to die — not that they had the right to 
die or wanted to take their own lives — but 
were ready to die. They'd told their stories and 
they were with family and surrounded by peo- 
ple they loved, and they were tired. I grew up 
in rural Kentucky and the phrase you would 
hear is, 'I'm ready to go.' I think that's great; I 
find that very believable." 

As a family physician in the Midwest, 
Harold Koenig M.H.S. '90 became 
fascinated with how his older pa- 
tients dealt with the enormous medical, emo- 
tional, physical, and social problems associated 
with late -life illnesses. He went back to school 
to study a host of geriatric issues, including 
depression in the medically ill. Now an asso- 
ciate professor of psychiatry and internal 
medicine at Duke, he is also the director of 
the Center for the Study of Religion/Spirit- 
uality and Health. He says he agrees with 
Meador that the end of life is a wonderful 
opportunity for growth and fulfillment. "Many 
powerful things can happen during those last 
days and weeks of life," he says. "What we need 
to do is figure out how to relieve suffering 
during that time so the person can work on 
those tasks of dying. That's absolutely essen- 
tial. Even if you're dying, you're still here now, 
and if you have anger or resentment toward 
family members, or unresolved issues, you 


have to come to terms with it. There's some of 
that in everyone's life." 

In a report published in the October issue 
of The American ]oumal of Psychiatry, Koenig 
and four colleagues (including Duke sociolo- 
gist Linda George Ph.D. 75) found between 
40 and 50 percent of patients at Duke Hos- 
pital over the age of sixty had significant de- 
pressive disorders. Because the study was a 
random sample of patients admitted for gen- 
eral medical services, the high prevalence of 
depression among this overall population has 
profound implications for terminal patients. 

"If you have a man who has worked all his 
life and has been very active in his communi- 
ty, and suddenly he's an invalid, that has to 
have an effect on him," says Koenig. "Our self- 
images are built upon what we do, what we 
accomplish, what we produce, and, suddenly, 
all that is gone. Now, in his mind, he's become 
a liability and he worries about his family hav- 
ing to take care of him. It's easy to see why 
people lose hope." 

Koenig, whose research documents the 
positive effects of religion and spirituality on 
health, says that the medical field needs to do 
a better job of diagnosing the emotional toll 
of debilitating illness. "I've seen it happen again 
and again: When you treat these people for 
depression, they get better; they learn how to 
cope with their disability. Once you treat the 
depression, you try to motivate people to get 
more involved and engaged in life, to give of 
themselves. Thinking about their own prob- 
lems is the worst thing they can do. I've had 
patients who are severely ill, but they find 
meaning in doing little things for other peo- 
ple. If you have the cognitive framework that 
allows you to see purpose in your life, you can 
tolerate almost any situation." 

viating pain, not hastening death. "Frankly, 
we don't need physicians to be killing pa- 
tients. They will die in due course. Once we sus- 
pect that a physician may not be committed 
to our living well-being, then I think we be- 
come suspicious of every physician. And that 
will undermine the kind of trusting physician- 

second moral maxim that both physicians and 
patients seem to have forgotten. "Physicians 
are under no obligation to offer, and patients 
under no duty to receive, treatments which 
are not beneficial. Now, that is logically as 
plain as the nose on one's face, but the inter- 
esting question is, what is beneficial? And 
that will vary from case to case. But apart 
from heroism and martyrdom, killing has 
never in Western culture been thought to be 

Proponents of assisted suicide contend that 
there are instances in which death is a release 
from pain and protracted suffering, and that 
each individual should be allowed to decide 
his or her own destiny. Smith says such think- 
ing runs counter to the realities of death. "I 
think the moral struggle has virtue. Dying is 
not without its tragic dimensions, but I don't 
know any aspect of the human condition that 
is without a tragic dimension. Health and 
happiness are among the most uneven and 
unequal claims any of us can make. I think if 
we had better acquaintance with death, 
nobody would ever talk about 'death with 
dignity.' Because dignity, at least as conven- 
tionally understood, seems to be the opposite 
of what in fact occurs when one is dying: You 
are deprived of all that autonomous indepen- 
dence you imagined you had throughout your 


:k in the hectic atmosphere of the 
VA hospital, James Tulsky's medical 
residents confront these moral de- 
bates head-on. During a session devoted to 
assisted suicide, Tulsky draws from ajoumal of 
the American Medical Association essay by 
physician Timothy Quill on communicating 
with dying patients. (Quill gained national 




In the absence of adequate treatment, says 
Koenig, it's no wonder that many clinically 
depressed patients come to view dying as an 
attractive option. "I can understand why peo- 
ple get angry and want to take control of the 
situation by considering suicide," he says. "With 
suicide, you often find that anger is present — 
anger because they feel neglected or aban- 
doned or misunderstood. And it's so much less 
expensive [for a doctor] to say, 'Go ahead,' or, 
'Here's something that will help you.' " 

Like Koenig, Harmon Smith says that calling 
on physicians to make those kinds of deci- 
sions sets a dangerous precedent. A professor 
in the divinity school and in the department 
of community and family medicine, Smith says 
that doctors should be in the business of alle- 

patient relationship that is absolutely essen- 
tial to therapy." 

Smith says if we as a society agree by 
thoughtful discussion (rather than judicial fiat) 
that assisted suicide has its place, physicians 
nonetheless should not carry out such proce- 
dures. "I'm willing to entertain as a serious sug- 
gestion that priests, ministers, and rabbis would 
be the prime candidates for this responsibility. 
I've never understood why physicians are the 
ones to perform abortions. Abortion, in some 
ways like physician-assisted suicide, seems to 
run counter to everything that physicians are 
trained to be and to do." 

In addition to the often-quoted phrase 
Primum non nocere ("First, do no harm") from 
the Hippocratic Oath, Smith says there is a 

prominence in 1992 when he wrote in the 
New England Journal of Medicine of helping a 
patient commit suicide by prescribing barbit- 
uates and instructing her on the needed dos- 
age.) In the JAMA essay, Quill presents the 
case of a sixty-seven-year-old man with in- 
operable lung cancer who required a fair 
amount of sedation to deal with pain. One 
night, the patient turns to his physician and 
says, "Doctor, I want to die. Will you help 
me?" Tulsky asks his students how they would 
respond. At first, there are a few seconds of 
silence, but the debate quickly gains momen- 

"If I were forced to answer him," says one 
young man, "I would have to say no, because 

Continued on page 55 

November- December 1997 






Jugust brought a milestone for the 
multiply-titled Terry Sanford, former 
fil North Carolina governor, former 
U.S. senator, former Duke president. It was his 
eightieth birthday. A campus celebration drew 
various dignitaries, including another president 
emeritus, H. Keith H. Brodie. Brodie reminded 
the crowd about a coincidence of events: The 
Sanford celebration came on the same day 
that U.S. News &World Report released its lat- 
est rankings. This year, the magazine showed 
Duke as the number-three university in the 
country, tied with Yale and behind only Prince- 
ton and Harvard. 

Magazine rankings are hardly precise meas- 
ures of educational realities. Duke isn't clearly 
better now than it was last year, when it 

ranked a place lower. But substance and strate- 
gy — along with serendipity — have propelled 
Duke into becoming remarkably "hot" remark- 
ably fast. 

To a great extent, institutional reputations 
hinge on perceptions of personal leadership. 
And Duke's current president, Nannerl O. 
Keohane, has assumed a high profile. When in 
the spring of 1995 the American Society of 
Newspaper Editors wanted to hear about 
"American Higher Education in the Twenty- 
first Century," Keohane was the speaker of 
choice. In a well-received address, she cov- 
ered such themes as information technolo- 
gies, student aid, federally sponsored research, 
and the erosion of public confidence in insti- 
tutions. The gathering featured just three other 





speakers: the presidents of Canada, Mexico, 
and the United States. 

A couple of months later, The New York 
Times published a lengthy look at how uni- 
versities were trying to ward off proposed cuts 
in federal support. The article began with an 
account of Keohane's meeting with Repre- 
sentative Richard Gephardt, the parent of a 
recent Duke graduate. It included a single 
photograph, which showed Keohane talking 
with Senator Mark Hatfield, chairman of the 
Senate Appropriations Committee. 

But those who follow such trends date 
Duke's surging reputation to Sanford's presi- 
dency, which extended from 1970 until 1985. 
It was a 1984 issue of The New York Times 
Magazine, after all, that ran a story on "hot 
colleges" and showed a Duke quadrangle 
scene on the cover. 

Eleven years earlier, in 1973, Duke had 
taken out a sixteen-page advertising supple- 
ment in The Times to showcase "the beliefs, 
undertakings, and achievements" of faculty 
members, students, and alumni. Colorful com- 
mentary was accompanied by colorful images 
of Duke's idyllic campus setting. Referring to 
"a new period" in Duke's history, the supple- 

ment said the university would draw on "the 
best of its past experience" and respond crea- 
tively to "the requirements of its second half- 
century." Joel Fleishman, who was recruited 
by Santord in 1971 to build a new public-pol- 
icy center, says Sanford's senior advisers 
thought it was "unseemly" for the university 
to promote itself so blatantly. But Sanford 
pushed the idea forward. One signal of Duke's 
current standing, he adds, is how superfluous 
such self-advertisement would be today. 

As Fleishman puts it, "There was really the 
sense that Terry was intent on leading Duke 
to new heights. Terry had a vision for Duke that 
was larger than the existing vision, and he was 
willing to experiment and get behind good 
ideas. And that is in fact what happened." 

What happened, in particular, was a policy 
that Fleishman describes as bringing those in- 
side Duke outside and those outside Duke in- 
side. One conspicuous effort brought groups 
of journalists to campus for several weeks to 
explore themes of their choosing. The pro- 
gram began in 1977 with support from The 
Washington Post; over the years it has attract- 
ed an international array of representatives 
from the print and electronic media. As a con- 

sequence of pursuing intellectual interests, of 
course, the journalists would come into con- 
tact with Duke's intellectual leaders. 

"There was a deliberate policy by a number 
of us to identify people in government, poli- 
tics, the media, the practicing professions, and 
business and to expose them to Duke — loads 
of them, constantly," Fleishman says. "At the 
same time, there was a conscious strategy to 
get Duke faculty and students off campus — 
to have faculty get to know leaders in the 
world of affairs, and to set up systematic intern- 
ship programs for students with practitioner 
mentors. Public policy was not the only place 
that encouraged this; it had been happening 
at the medical center for some time, and it was 
happening increasingly at the business school 
and the law school. But it's the kind of thing 
that happens at Harvard and Yale all the time. 
A complete, steady, constant interchange be- 
tween the university and the outside world 
had not happened frequently at Duke, cer- 
tainly not with any degree of regularity." 

Fleishman says the goal for him was not to 
make Duke more widely known, but to build 
the nation's best public -policy analysis de- 
partment. It was a theme brought out by San- 

Novemher- December 1997 


ford in his inaugural address, when he singled 
out Duke's responsibility to train leaders for 
society. "If we succeeded to some extent in 
doing that, that brought the ancillary benefit 
of public attention to the university," says 
Fleishman. "By virtue of creating an inter- 
change between the university and the out- 
side world, people found out about Duke. But 
we brought people here because we needed 
them to enrich our education." 

Sanford's own visibility contributed to the 
university's visibility. In 1972 and again in 
1976, he announced plans to run for the 
Democratic nomination for president; near 
the end of his Duke presidency, he sought the 
Democratic Party chairmanship. "Anybody 
who had been governor started with a certain 
amount of stature," Fleishman says. "He was 
widely viewed as the key education governor 
of the United States; he had been voted by 
one organization as one of the ten greatest 
governors in U.S. history. The combination of 
his independent stature and the hidden qual- 
ity of Duke was just a perfect match." 

"I said in my inaugural speech that we didn't 
want to copy any other university," Sanford 
says, "that our best success wouldn't be merely 
a carbon copy — that we wanted to be Duke 
University. We saw good things at some of the 
other universities, and we obviously were will- 
ing to steal a good idea anytime we saw it. But 
I always saw Duke as Duke. And in fact, I did- 
n't like at all the slogan that Duke was the 
Harvard of the South. I thought we had a far 
better undergraduate student body than 
Harvard had. I thought we ran our total uni- 
versity better than Harvard, because we ran as 
a single place rather than little duchies." 

It's a good thing that Duke has been true to 
itself and hasn't succumbed to Ivy imitation, 
says Robert Rosenzweig, past president of the 
Association of American Universities (AAU). 
"Duke was for many years the most distin- 
guished university in the South. And, like 
Stanford, it has broken out of its regional 
base. But turning around a university is like 
turning around a supertanker. Most of its fac- 
ulty have tenure, it has a donor base that has 
certain expectations about the place, it has 
financial limitations apart from that, and so 
it's hard to make fundamental changes. I'm 
not sure you want institutions to do that very 
often; you want them to be better at what 
they're doing, to judiciously add in areas in 
which they have genuine strength. What it 
comes down to is not so much reinvention as 
sensible planning." 

"Duke ought to be proud of what it has ac- 
complished," says Rosenzweig, who for many 
years was the vice president for public affairs 
at Stanford. "But U.S. News & World Report is 
not the measure of that. Any student who 
chooses to go to Duke because it's third this 
year rather than fifth — well, if you could 

tease that information out of the application, 
I say you should reject that student." 

Duke's director of undergraduate admissions, 
Christoph Guttentag, isn't a rankings enthu- 
siast himself — but he is quick to buy into the 
sensible -planning theme. "In our publications 
and elsewhere, we have focused our message 
more clearly on the personality of the school, 
trying to make the abstract concrete." A big 

But his contribution to campus dynamics ex- 
tended far beyond promoting a more power- 
ful student government. At a time of uproar 
over Vietnam and civil rights, students re- 
sponded warmly to his gestures — ranging from 
his pushing forward plans for a university cen- 
ter to his arranging bus transport to a march 
on Washington. "I'd say that we mildly en- 
couraged dissent; we certainly didn't restrain 

part of the message, he says, is that Duke's rel- 
ative youth gives the campus a "dynamism" and 
"vibrancy" less evident among its peer schools. 

"We are certainly reaching out to more 
areas of the country, and we are taking demo- 
graphic data into account: The three largest 
demographic-growth states are California, 
Texas, and Florida, and we're putting signifi- 
cant resources into those areas. And we are 
doing different activities — recruiting jointly 
with other colleges to an extent that we 
haven't in the past, using computer technology 
like the World Wide Web, tracking what activ- 
ities are most efficient and most effective. I 
think recruitment in general has become more 
thoughtful and more focused and more 
planned and less seat-of-the -pants." 

Guttentag also points to a basic admissions 
formula: Satisfied undergraduates attract po- 
tential undergraduates. From 1985 until 1993, 
the alumni office ran an exiting-Duke survey. 
Recent graduates ranked the "overall Duke ex- 
perience" at 8 or better on a ten-point scale; 
91 to 96 percent said they would choose Duke 

Student satisfaction may be one legacy of 
the Sanford years. Sanford's calming and car- 
ing manner won over formerly disaffected 
students to his leadership — and to their uni- 
versity. "I think that one of the things that we 
did right was to involve the students in their 
own lives at the university," Sanford recalls. 

it. In fact, I said to the parents that I would 
have been ashamed of Duke students if they 
hadn't protested the Vietnam War." 

"Terry Sanford's natural gregariousness and 
his political skills really did result in a presi- 
dency that was student-focused," says Fleish- 
man. "There was just an enormous affection 
for him that continued all during his admin- 
istration. And that good will was translated to 
the peers of those students and to the people 
they would run into all over the country." 

What's more relevant than a rise in rank- 
ings is "a different level of recruitment" for 
Duke, according to Guttentag. Duke is gener- 
ating more applications from prospective stu- 
dents — 13,367 this year compared with 
5,340 for the class that entered with Terry 
Sanford in the fall of 1969. It is drawing stu- 
dents from a wider area: Seventeen percent 
of this year's freshman class comes from the 
West and Southwest, compared with barely 5 
percent in 1969. (The top five states repre- 
sented in the current class also point to Duke's 
drawing power across a wide swath of the 
country. They are North Carolina, New York, 
California, Florida, and Pennsylvania.) 

And Duke is enrolling students with better 
credentials: More than 1,300 of those who ap- 
plied to the university this year were ranked 
first in their high school class. Among the 
matriculants who came with high-school 
class rankings, 74 percent in Arts and Sciences 


and 77 percent in Engineering graduated in 
the top 5 percent. In 1969, Duke didn't even 
break out the top 5 percent in reporting rank- 
ings for freshmen: About two-thirds graduat- 
ed in the top tenth of their high school class. 
Although it drew about 200 fewer applicants 
this year than the previous year, Duke had 
200 more applicants whose combined SAT 
scores exceeded 1400 — meaning that even 
when the pool isn't growing larger, it's growing 

While it once saw schools like Emory and 
Vanderbilt as its competition, Duke is com- 
peting against the Ivies, Stanford, and other 
top-tier universities for accepted students. 
"More students who are considering Duke are 
also considering the other top half-dozen 
schools in the country," Guttentag says. "In 
the past, our competition was predominantly, 
though not exclusively, regional Southern 
schools. Now that competition includes the 
most visible, the most selective, the most pres- 
tigious schools in the country." 

Among Duke's admitted students, the ap- 
plication overlapping is greatest with Har- 
vard, Princeton, Yale, and Stanford. Five years 
ago, 636 Harvard applicants were admitted to 
Duke; this year the number was 943. (Gut- 
tentag points out that those numbers under- 
state the overlapping, since they hinge on sur- 
veys completed by accepted students — in- 
cluding those who decide to matriculate else- 
where and never respond to Duke.) Duke still 
loses most of its admitted students who are 
also admitted to one or more of those schools; 
the same is true in the competition with 
Brown, another school with which Duke 
shares a large number of overlaps. But Duke 
pretty much splits the difference or wins out 
for students against other Ivies — Dartmouth, 
the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell, and 

Says Guttentag: "We're drawing more of 
their applicants into the applicant pool. Stu- 
dents who used to not consider us are now 
considering us. That's a reflection of the in- 
creased recognition of the quality of a Duke 
education. But it's easier to bring someone 
into the pool than to matriculate them. It's a 
different level of commitment. And the com- 
petition with top schools in the country is 
fierce. We still have our work cut out for us." 

If Duke finds itself in such company, the 
Stanford model — and in particular, the 
Stanford relationship with Silicon Valley — 
may suggest one reason. When he came to 
Duke as provost in 1983, Phillip Griffiths told 
the trustees that "Duke is a very good univer- 
sity with the opportunity to become a great 
one." (In 1991, Griffiths left Duke to take over 
as director of the Institute for Advanced 
Study in Princeton.) He said his specific goal 
was "to strengthen Duke's position as the 
leading private teaching and research univer- 

sity in the Southeast and improve its national 
position among such universities. In a word, 
Duke must play a role in the South as Stan- 
ford has in the West." 

"If you look back at what happened to 
Stanford during the late 1950s and 1960s, that 
was a period where what is now Silicon Valley 
was just beginning to open up," he says. "Stan- 
ford was a very creative institution in taking 

It was harder in the Sixties to move somebody 
out of the Northeast or from the San Fran- 
cisco Bay Area to North Carolina. But later, 
it was seen as a place that had employment 
opportunities for spouses, that had an active 
intellectual community." 

Griffiths' term as provost coincided with 
a large number of high-profile faculty ap- 
pointments. With an energetic recruitment ef- 

advantage of that particular geographical lo- 
cation. And one has the sense that the exter- 
nal environment here in North Carolina was 
somewhat similar, with the development of 
the Research Triangle as a partnership be- 
tween the state government, the business com- 
munity, and the universities. That sort of 
vision was something Duke could help devel- 
op and strengthen and take advantage of. The 
growth in high-tech industries here, especial- 
ly biomedical and pharmaceutical, but also 
microelectronics and other areas — all of this 
created an external climate that was very 
favorable for Duke." 

Institutions like the Microelectronics Cen- 
ter of North Carolina, the North Carolina 
Biotechnology Center, the National Institute 
of Statistical Sciences, and the National Hu- 
manities Center have served up opportunities 
for collaborative work, consultancies, and even 
joint appointments. With their computerized 
links, the libraries of Duke, the University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and North 
Carolina State University effectively form one 
of the largest universities libraries in the coun- 

But beyond such links, Griffiths says the 
sheer economic vitality of the Southeast has 
worked as an inducement for potential facul- 
ty members. "One way of looking at it is that 
the ability to attract faculty to this region was 
much greater than it had been in earlier years. 

fort, Griffiths focused on the area that Terry 
Sanford had targeted early in his presidency. 
(Sanford once declared, "I've tried to ac- 
knowledge in the allocation of all resources 
that the most important thing Duke can do is 
to build a faculty ever increasing in excel- 
lence.") He also was acknowledging an as- 
sumption of Robert Rosenzweig of the AAU. 
"Reputation consists of the distinction of the 
faculty," Rosenzweig says. "If you don't have 
that, you don't have anything, and if you have 
that, you can do a lot with it. Making visible 
and important faculty hires does two things. 
Immediately, it gets you visibility within the 
discipline and the larger academic communi- 
ty. And having first-rate people attracts other 
first-rate people." 

The media focused the greatest attention 
on faculty hires in English and literature. In a 
1988 cover story — "The Battle of the 
Books" — The New York Times Magazine put 
such Duke faculty members as Frank Len- 
tricchia, Jane Tompkins, Barbara Herrnstein 
Smith, and Stanley Fish front-and-center in 
the "lit.crit" trends of the time. "Canon revi- 
sion is in full swing down at Duke, where stu- 
dents lounge on the manicured quad of the 
imitation-Cotswold campus and the magno- 
lias blossom in the spring," reported the mag- 
azine. "In the Duke catalogue, the English 
department lists, besides the usual offerings in 
Chaucer and Shakespeare, courses in Ameri- 

Novemher- December 1997 

can popular culture; advertising and society; 
television, technology, and culture." 

A 1991 article in The Washington Post Edu- 
cation Review declared in a headline: "A Con- 
troversial English Department Deserves High 
Marks for Teaching." The article was by Nina 
King, editor of Washington Post Book World, 
who had spent a month at Duke as a visiting 
journalist. King observed that "the proof of the 
pudding is in the pedagogy," and by that crite- 
rion "Duke should be blessing its stars and 
superstars." But she noted that an Atlantic 
Monthly cover story had castigated prominent 
members of the English department for "radi- 
cal skepticism," and that a New Republic story 
had portrayed then- department chair Fish as 
"a kind of would-be Nietzschean Superman." 

As Brodie, the president at the time, recalls 
the literary- canon debates, "In the end, peo- 
ple didn't really remember what the argument 
was about. Indeed, it was at times somewhat 
difficult for us to determine what the argu- 
ment was about. But the public recognized 
the visibility of Duke faculty members. And 
that, in the end, proved to be a positive." 

Griffiths says the faculty hiring was broad- 
based. In fact, he says, more resources were put 
into the sciences than the humanities. "The 
idea was that if you made available to the fac- 
ulty the opportunity to do something special, 
to bring in some very well-known colleagues 
or to put in place an interdisciplinary center, 
then people would come forward with good 
proposals. Mathematics underwent enormous 
change and is now a first-rate department, and 
that's the case as well in social-science disci- 
plines like economics and political science. 
English and other humanities departments were 
struggling to make a critical mass in their 
graduate programs. The English department 
had an enormous number of retirements, and 
so it was a good time to make a bunch of ap- 
pointments at once." 

Part of his effort, says Griffiths, was to move 
Duke away from a model — the Dartmouth 
model, he calls it — that had centered on the 
undergraduate and professional schools to the 
neglect of the graduate school. As he told the 
trustees shortly after he became provost, "A 
principal barrier to recruiting faculty of the de- 
sired level of excellence is the size and quality 
of Duke's graduate student body. It is simply 
a fact that the best faculty want and require 
the stimulation of good graduate students." He 
proceeded to document a frustrating attempt 
to recruit a distinguished professor from an 
Ivy League school — and to describe a recent 
ranking of graduate programs as showing 
Duke performing only "moderately well." 

"My feeling was that the Dartmouth model 
had many strong points," he says. "But to be a 
really major university, you needed to be 
strong across-the-board, including your grad- 
uate programs in arts and sciences and engi- 

neering. And the faculty who are going to be 
intellectual leaders in their areas are going to 
be attracted to places where there are strong 
graduate programs." 

In 1992, the National Research Council con- 
ducted its once-a-decade survey of graduate 
faculty across the scholarly spectrum. The sur- 
vey showed that Duke has eight Ph.D. pro- 
grams ranked in the top ten (actually, all with 

nal affairs, including fund raising, straightened 
out. And we introduced many new initia- 
tives, for the right academic reasons." Those 
initiatives — enhancing the educational fab- 
ric of Brown in areas like public education, 
public service, and international education — 
"carried the concurrent value of being very 
public," he says. 

As Duke found with its reinvented English 

rankings of five or better), and eighteen in the 
top twenty. In the survey from 1982, Duke had 
placed just three departments in the top ten, 
and just eight in the top twenty. 

If Stanford and the Silicon Valley provided 
a model for Duke, there's another school that 
has paralleled Duke's path to "hotness." Brown 
University for years had a less than lustrous 
position (and the smallest endowment) in the 
Ivy League. But by 1980, Brown led the Ivy 
League in application numbers — "the first 
time anyone but Harvard had done that," 
notes its longtime vice president for public af- 
fairs, Robert Reichley. Brown traces the emer- 
gence of the second of what he calls "the two 
Browns" to the late Sixties. The university un- 
derwent a curricular revolution that, as Reich- 
ley observes, based much of its philosophy on 
the Brown curriculum a century earlier; at 
the same time, it remained immune from the 
violent student strife that afflicted its peer 
schools. When Stanford's then-president spoke 
in Providence, he was asked to explain Brown's 
sudden rise. The response, as Reichley recalls 
it, was, "This place is a magnet for indepen- 
dent students who want a role in planning 
their educations." 

According to Reichley, "Our greatest prob- 
lem was not explaining student protests — 
everyone had that — but getting rid of a tag in 
the media: 'financially troubled Brown.' We 
improved our management and got our exter- 

department, a rise in reputation has meant 
more media attention to Brown. But Reichley 
notes that even some of Brown's most un- 
pleasant time in the spotlight — as when two 
of its students were charged with prostitution — 
illuminated the university's educational dis- 
tinctiveness. "Good public relations is first 
and foremost good policy. Too many schools 
talk about getting good public relations when 
they mean good publicity. But you can't sim- 
ply go out and declare you're good. Policy has 
to come before public relations. If the policy 
isn't there, the public-relations side is dead." 

Brown's example suggests an essential in- 
gredient behind a rise in reputation: money. 
For its part, Duke had decided to expand the 
faculty, improve faculty salaries, and increase 
student financial aid in the Eighties. During 
Brodie's presidency, the university embarked 
on a two-tiered tuition plan. The formula fixed 
tuition increases at roughly the Consumer 
Price Index plus two percentage points for 
returning students; it charged students enter- 
ing in 1988 and thereafter $1,000 more than 
returning students. "It was very important if 
for no other reason than our faculty, when I 
came into the job, were grossly underpaid," 
says Brodie. 

Among comparable universities, Duke had 
seen its faculty salaries slip to fourteenth, 
according to American Association of Uni- 
versity Professors rankings; in time that rank- 


ing improved to eighth. (The AAUP's com- 
parisons don't factor in cost-of-living differ- 
ences.) While Duke was making high-profile 
senior faculty appointments and adding en- 
dowed chairs, the student-faculty ratio in arts 
and sciences improved to 11-to-l from 13-to-l. 
Funds for financial aid increased to $30 mil- 
lion from $13 million annually, and the per- 
centage of the undergraduate student body 

$700,000 in annual giving from alumni. Some 
prep schools at the time, Fleishman says, had 
$8- to $10-million annual giving totals. "Duke 
didn't deliberately maintain relationships with 
alumni. That was my biggest problem. Alum- 
ni were turned off by the university because 
the university hadn't paid any attention to 
them — it simply sent them out into the 
world and said goodbye." 








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StT proved to be A POSITIVE." 



*^^BlBk Vil H - KEITH H - BRODIE 


1" t 

/■ President Emeritus 

on need-based aid increased to more than 40 
percent in 1993 from 20 percent in 1985. 

Terry Sanford says the interrelationship be- 
tween reputation and resources is unmistak- 
able. "I used to laughingly say that our prob- 
lem was that we never had an alumnus die of 
old age. Consequently, we really didn't have a 
body of financial supporters like the older 
universities had," he says. "It's nice to have a 
good reputation. It's especially nice to have a 
good reputation if it promotes faculty expan- 
sion and student development. To me, that is 
what Duke's national standing would do." 

But financing such ambitions was hardly 
easy. Joel Fleishman headed Duke's first-ever 
comprehensive campaign for arts, sciences, and 
engineering endowment. Six years into the 
campaign, in 1988, Fleishman told Duke's 
trustees that the effort "has been the hardest 
job I've ever had.... And I'm not so much 
referring to the long hours, or to the endless 
travel and arm-twisting required. The hardest 
part of all has been persuading the Duke com- 
munity — and I mean faculty and trustees as 
well as students and alumni — that the cam- 
paign could in fact be a success." 

That effort was essential to Duke's contin- 
ued viability, Fleishman says. Over a period of 
twenty years, endowment income had gone 
from defraying 60 percent to about 10 percent 
of the university's budget. When Sanford as- 
sumed the presidency, Duke was bringing in 

Sanford, says Fleishman, worked to project 
a different attitude. The endowment campaign 
eventually raised $221 million; it created an 
additional forty-three professorships, fifty- 
seven graduate fellowship endowment funds, 
and 180 new undergraduate scholarship funds. 

If it takes money to produce educational 
excellence, and the resulting visibility, what 
contribution does success in sports make? Re- 
flecting on his Stanford seasoning, Robert Ro- 
senzweig isn't very keen on the significance 
of athletic reputation to greater reputation. 
"Athletic success attracts supporters of athlet- 
ics; it's not obvious to me that it does a whole 
lot more than that." He adds that neither 
football nor basketball at Stanford is "a threat 
to win a national championship." 

Duke has long harbored championship 
aims, at least in basketball. Brodie says that 
before his assuming the chancellorship of Duke, 
he had never been to a football or basketball 
game, and that he had never even read the 
sports pages during his school and college 
years. Still, "Coach K became the most valu- 
able Duke ambassador on the university's ros- 
ter of stars," he writes in Keeping an Open 
Door, a recent book of his collected speeches. 
Brodie specifically credits basketball suc- 
cess — certainly including Duke's two nation- 
al championships, in 1991 and 1992 — with in- 
creased media attention, along with increases 
in student applications, attendance at alumni 

events, and alumni giving. He also mentions 
the basketball-inspired financial windfall 
from TV rights and T-shirt sales. 

Tom Butters, the university's director of 
athletics since 1977, is uncomfortable drawing 
such tight correlations. Says Butters, who will 
retire at the end of this academic year, "Any- 
time a portion of your university is stretched 
across the newspapers from coast to coast in 
a favorable light, whether you're winning 
football games or basketball games, that can 
be — and I emphasize can be — very good. 
But it can only be that if you're doing all of 
the other things, it seems to me, that univer- 
sities are charged to do. We are an education- 
al institution. Athletics is a part of that, a 
fraction of that program." 

To Mike Krzyzewski, the men's basketball 
coach, it's important to keep the public per- 
ception of Duke basketball — and his own 
public perception — in perspective. "I'm more 
visible than anybody here just because I am 
on television so much. But you don't want to 
confuse visibility with importance. Even peo- 
ple who are running programs here at Duke, 
they don't get the visibility, and they're much 
more important than we are — all the re- 
search people who are working to improve 
lives and to save lives. But if we use our visi- 
bility properly, we can enhance the interests 
of the really important people. 

"When we went to those seven Final Fours 
in nine years, it mirrored the explosion of col- 
lege basketball in the media market. We got 
more recognition than some teams in the 
past. And because we were a presence there 
almost every year, we were almost branded a 
success in college basketball." 

The media pay attention to Duke players 
because they've tended to win games, but 
also, Krzyzewski insists, because they don't 
"cut corners" academically. "If you get to a 
certain point where you're getting all this 
notoriety, even if you lose in the Final Four or 
in the championship game, how you handle 
that loss sometimes means more than win- 
ning. I think Duke is about keeping things in 
perspective and keeping things balanced. 
When people think of Duke, they think of 
success, and they also think of character. 

"For a basketball player here, what I'm 
looking for is first of all somebody who under- 
stands the value of an education. Certainly, 
they have to have a high degree of basketball 
talent. But I don't want anyone who's skewed 
toward just basketball, because they probably 
wouldn't make it here. As good as our basket- 
ball program might be, our school is better. It's 
exciting to see Laettner hit great shots, it's 
exciting to watch Grant Hill play with grace, 
it's exciting to watch Bobby Hurley play with 
daring. But why did they choose Duke? In 
interviews, it's those kids saying that they love 
being at Duke, that they love being a student 

November-December 1997 

at Duke, not just an athlete at Duke. I think 
that it's not just the games but some of the 
interviews with these youngsters — print, 
television, radio — that have gone a long way 
to create a positive image for Duke." 

Among the signs of the reach of Duke bas- 
ketball, Krzyzewski says, are the thousands of 
requests for autographs and the personal let- 
ters that come his way. "Thousands is not an 

quality of Duke's applicant pool has remained 
high even as the pool itself has expanded. So 
the university is not seeing expressions of in- 
terest from marginal candidates whose chief 
quality is basketball worship. And it's not at 
all clear to what extent basketball-inspired 
visibility has contributed to Duke application 
activity. There is one notable peaking in that 
activity: For the freshman class that entered 





exaggeration; that's what we deal with. If 
we are number one in a particular year or if 
we win a national championship or make the 
Final Four, then you multiply that number 
several times. To have that kind of response, 
you know you're touching something out 
there in a lot of people." 

Krzyzewski says his program has worked 
hard to use such a public platform to commu- 
nicate a bigger story about Duke. "The fact is 
that we're on television twenty-five to thirty 
times a year. That exposure for a two-hour 
period for every game — I don't know how 
you measure that. We probably have more air 
time than first-run episodes of ER. People pay 
a lot of money to get a thirty-second spot, a 
sixty-second spot, on one of those television 
series. For the Final Four, the money that is 
spent for advertising is immense. Well, here 
we have free advertising for Duke. And if we 
are in an event like the Final Four, where 50 
million people might be watching worldwide, 
other aspects of the university can be shown 
through that medium. 

"I see that as one of our missions with the 
basketball program — to market the university, 
to get the name out there a little bit more. 
Then once people look at it, they'll recognize 
what Duke does academically." 

It seems the public has come to learn what 
Duke does — and demands — academically. 
According to Duke admissions officials, the 

in 1985, 12,679 applied. The following spring, 
Duke played in its first Final Four under 
Krzyzewski. And that fall, application numbers 
soared — to 15,120. But even with a couple of 
national championships, year-to-year totals 
have changed just incrementally since then. 

Basketball hasn't just served as a vehicle for 
national visibility; it has also helped define 
student life at Duke — and so presumably has 
boosted those student satisfaction rankings. 
This fall's "midnight madness" — the first offi- 
cial team practice — filled Cameron Indoor 
Stadium with frenzied student fans, along 
with the ESPN broadcast team. 

"I think basketball has become an integral 
part of what this university is doing," 
Krzyzewski says. "By no means is it the most 
important, or even one of the top five things. 
But it is much easier for everybody to identi- 
fy with it. When you have a great, multi- 
faceted university, there's not necessarily one 
rallying point, one cry that can bring every- 
body together. I think basketball has helped 
serve that purpose. Cameron is probably the 
biggest collection of Duke people in a really 
intense, unified atmosphere." 

Whether or not Duke continues its win- 
ning ways in basketball — and whether or not 
it holds to its number-three U.S. News & 
World Report ranking — it's not likely to slip in 
national visibility. But visibility doesn't come 
without quality; and quality costs. In his 1992 

capital campaign wrap-up report, Fleishman 
told the trustees that Duke must look to dou- 
bling its endowment base every eight or ten 
years, and that it needs to augment the en- 
dowment tour- or five-fold to be competitive 
with the very top universities. At the same 
time, universities nationally are feeling public 
and parental pressure to rein in tuition 
charges. So even as Duke looks to advance in 
reputation rankings, it may not want to 
advance in tuition rankings. 

In the view of President Emeritus Brodie, 
the job remains — as one trustee said to him 
when he became president — to bring the 
Duke reality in line with the elevated public 
perception. "We still may have an over-inflat- 
ed perception of Duke that we need to ad- 
dress, not by bringing that perception down 
but by stepping up to the level of that per- 
ception. And that gets translated into what 
we do for our undergraduates." 

Many of the schools that Duke regards as 
its peers emphasize small-group instruction, 
tutorials, or thesis projects in the junior and 
senior years, he says. They also draw their 
educational and residential sides closer to- 
gether. "I used to chastise our students for 
wanting to come here and then trying to do 
as little as possible and sort of get out the door 
with a diploma in hand," says Brodie. "Now 
we're seeing more students who are aggres- 
sively interested in getting an education and 
demanding the attention of the faculty." Duke 
doesn't have the faculty numbers to support 
one-on-one mentoring, he says. But motivated 
students are going to press their educational 
expectations on the university. 

In a larger sense, what Duke needs to be 
doing is constandy scrutinizing its institutional 
culture, constantly reinventing parts of itself, 
says Phillip Griffiths, the former provost. "It's 
always harder to maintain your position when 
you're higher up. It requires leadership and it 
requires resources. I think those two factors 
are obvious. What's less obvious is that it 
requires some process for change." 

"If you're winning, the temptation is to 
keep doing things just the same way you've 
always been doing them," he says. "So there 
needs to be built into the institution, into the 
financial planning of the institution, some 
process that facilitates change." Why should 
Duke not have the flexibility to try out an 
interdisciplinary program for five years, he 
asks, and see if it takes or not? "One thing 
that I was never able to do here is to have the 
financial ability to experiment in a new area 
or in a new program without making a com- 
mitment to it. 

"The intellectual market doesn't force 
change in academic institutions in the same 
way that the ordinary market does in compa- 
nies. But you won't stay on top unless you're 
constantly changing." ■ 



Spring spruce-up: DUMAA volunteers and the New York Junior League revived the PS. No. 2 playground 
in Chinatown; front row, Nick Tsilibes, brother of DUMAA president Chrys Tsilibes '87, center, and Erica 
Berg '96; back row, Duke mom and NYJL member Susan Stahly, Bob Brown B.S.E. '54, Ginny Goad 
MB. A. '93, Jeremy Stamelman '96, and Dan Napoli '96. 



ig-city blues? It's time you searched 
out a comfortable cohort by making a 
Duke alumni club connection. Most 
have websites and newsletters, and all provide 
a diverse range of activities to match the ex- 
citement of urban living. 

In New York City, there's DUMAA (Duke 
University Metropolitan Alumni Association), 
a longstanding club rich in community ser- 
vice and cultural offerings. Last fall, DUMAA 
played host to members of the Boys Town Up- 
ward Bound program when the Blue Devils 
played West Point. For the last three years, 
DUMAA has been a partner with Boys Har- 
bor, the Harlem-based community organiza- 
tion founded by Anthony Duke in 1937. Its 
Upward Bound program was established to 
help underserved youths gain admission to col- 
lege by guiding them through the pre -college 
academic and admissions process; several have 
been admitted to Duke. 

Each fall, the Duke Club of Boston pairs 
with other Adantic Coast Conference alumni 
clubs in Boston to offer a party tent for the 
annual Head of the Charles Regatta. In Octo- 
ber, the club arranged a special evening for 
viewing the Picasso exhibit at the Museum of 
Fine Arts and a day-long seminar, "Generations: 
Learning from Women's Lives," sponsored by 
Duke's Women's Studies, at the Hotel Le 
Meridien; Women's Studies chair Jean O'Barr 
and the head of Duke's libraries, David Fer- 
riero, joined historians Doris Kearns Goodwin 
and Sucheta Mazumdar on the podium. Sally 
Burks Schmalz '87 is the club's president. 

Whether you're inside or outside the Belt- 
way, the Duke Club of Washington's schedule 
covers the waterfront in variety, literally, from 
the Chesapeake to the Tidal Basin. A "Wel- 
come to DC." happy hour at Tony 6k Joe's and 
an Old Rag Mountain hike targeted young 
alumni new to the area. Club members sailed 
aboard Annapolis' newest schooner, Imagine, 
in October with the Annapolis Learning An- 
nex. Also in October, DCW members met 
Duke's new divinity dean, L. Gregory Jones 

M.Div. '85, Ph.D. '88, at an evening reception; 
attended a pre-theater reception and saw a 
performance of Rent at the National Theatre; 
and toured Hillwood, the former home of 
Marjorie Merriweather Post, before it under- 
goes a two-year renovation project. Nelson 
Jackson '53 is the DCW president. 

In Chicago, the Cubs are the stars of sum- 
mer, and the Duke Club of Chicago recently 
raised them to rooftop levels — for game view- 
ing, that is, playing against the Dodgers last 
une. There's no better way to watch the Cub- 
bies than from the outfield on a roof with un- 
limited hamburgers, hot dogs, brats, chips, 
desserts, beer, wine, and soft drinks, according 
to Scott Dickes '91, who helped organize the 
event. For those preferring inside events, the- 


The Duke Alumni Association's website: 

Get connected to a wealth of information: 

Reunion schedules 

Member benefits 

Career services 

Lifelong learning and travel opportunities 

Club events calendar and local club contacts 

Duke merchandise 

Duke Magazine 

Duke Club of Southern California 


Duke Club of Northern California 

Duke Club of DC 

Duke Club of Jacksonville, Florida 

Duke Club of Boston 

Duke Magazine 

November -December 1997 21 

ater is the ticket, with a block of them for 
Forever Plaid at the Royal George Theater in 
June and a gala event next spring for the Chi- 
cago premiere of Show Boat. Heather Howe 
'88 is the club's president. 

Continuing westward, the Dodgers and Rent 
appear to be popular attractions for club 
schedules. The Duke Club of Southern Cali- 
fornia watched the Dodgers battle the Phillies 
in July, and sponsored a pre-theater dinner at 
Tesoro Trattoria before walking three blocks 
to the Ahmanson Theater for a performance 
of the Tony Award-winning record-breaker 
Rent. Wine tastings, a trip to the zoo, and whale 
watching are some future club events still in 
the decision stages. Eva Herbst Davis '87 is 
the club's president. 

Club connections can be made for new- 
comers to most any U.S. city. Internationally, 
there are club contacts in Argentina, Costa 
Rica, England, France, Hong Kong, Japan, Jor- 
dan, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Switzer- 
land. A list of club contacts and locations is 
available on the Duke Alumni Association 
website (see CHECK IT OUT page 21); via e- 
mail from Bert Fisher '80, director of alumni 
clubs, at or from George 
Dorfman '85, clubs coordinator, at george.; by mail at Duke Clubs, 
Alumni Affairs, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, 
N.C. 27708; or by calling (800) FOR-DUKE 
or (919) 684-5114. 


Fall found President Nannerl O. Keohane 
on the road to meet alumni at various 
club events. 
On October 14, she spoke at a luncheon held 
at the Grand Hyatt by the Duke Club of Adan- 
ta.The club's president is Ann Elliott '88. In early 
November, she went westward for a reception 
at the Silicon Valley Capital Club in San Jose, 
sponsored by the Duke Club of Northern Cali- 
fornia. Mike Casey '87 is the club's president. 
On December 10, the Duke Club of Puget 
Sound sponsored a presidential reception and 
private showing of Leonardo Da Vinci's Codex 
Leicester at the Seattle Art Museum. Michele 
Sales '78 is the club's president. Also in Decem- 
ber, Keohane was guest speaker at a luncheon 
in Orange County, California, sponsored by the 
Duke Club of Southern California. Eva Herbst 
Davis '87 is the club's president. 

In the spring of 1998, Keohane makes her 
second presidential foray abroad, tentatively 
scheduled to speak to alumni in London in 
February. Details will be available at a later 
date in these pages, on the Duke Alumni As- 
sociation website, or by contacting the clubs 
office at Alumni Affairs. 




ine alumni were selected to receive 
Charles A. Dukes Awards for Out- 
standing Volunteer Service to the uni- 
versity for 1996-97. Established in 1983, the 
awards honor the late Dukes '29, who was di- 
rector of Alumni Affairs from 1944 to 1963. 
Recipients are selected by the Duke Alumni 
Association's Awards and Recognition Com- 
mittee and the Annual Fund's Executive Com- 

Charles B. Corley Jr. B.S.E. '49, who lives in 
Houston, Texas, worked for the Exxon Cor- 
poration and its affiliates for thirty-eight years 
in engineering and management positions. 
"His service and devotion to the school as a 
class agent now stands at seventeen years," 
says David Dittmann, assistant director of de- 
velopment at the engineering school, "and he 
is already planning for the fiftieth reunion." 

Corley, who served on Duke's Alumni Ad- 
missions Advisory Committee from 1986 to 
1995, says his volunteer work "is a pleasure. It 
allows me to keep in touch with classmates and 
the school," and offers him, he says, a chance 
to contribute to the university's many financial 
needs, "including aid for some of the extraor- 
dinarily talented students attracted to Duke." 

Robert A. Garda B.S.E. '61, who lives in 
Nashville, Tennessee, retired in 1994 as direc- 
tor and senior partner at McKinsey & Com- 
pany. In 1994-95, he was interim president and 
CEO for Aladdin Industries. He has served on 
the Dean's Council for the engineering school 
since 1988, is a past member of the Duke Alum- 
ni Association, and is a former member of the 
Alumni Admissions Advisory Committee. 

Garda recendy stepped down after five years 
as chair of the Fuqua School of Business's board 
of visitors, where he has been a member since 
1977. He was instrumental in the campaign to 
honor retiring Fuqua Dean Thomas Keller, 
which raised $16 million for the Keller Cen- 


ter. "Volunteerism," he says, "is the fourth leg 
— after family, faith, and career — in achiev- 
ing a fulfilling life." 

Cecelia Gassner B.S.E. '94, who lives in Pasa- 
dena, California, recently earned her law de- 
gree at Boston University and is an associate at 
the Los Angeles law firm Wood, Smith, Hen- 
ning & Berman. As a student, she was a mem- 
ber of the Dukes and. Duchesses and a class 
gift agent. After graduation, she immediately 
signed on to interview prospective students 
through Boston's Alumni Admissions Advis- 
ory Committee. 

In 1995, she became president of the Duke 
Club of Boston, which experienced huge growth 
in membership and participation during her 
tenure. Besides her community service activities 
with the Boston club, she made a connection 
with its membership and raised money for the 
Reggie Lewis Foundation in support of inner- 
city schools. She also initiated a financial and 
real-estate seminar, tapping alumni and local 
experts, and helped create the Duke Club of 
Boston's homepage on the Internet. "I carry 
deep pride for having gone to Duke," she says, 
"and volunteering for the university helps me 
keep in touch with the school, alumni, and 
with my community." 

Charles V. Ghoorah '91, J.D. '94, A.M. '94, 
who lives in Washington, D.C., is an associate 
at the law firm Williams & Connolly. As class 
president from 1988 to 1991, he was a student 
member of the Duke Alumni Association's 
board of directors. He has been the Class of 
1991's Annual Fund co-chair and a member 
of its executive committee since 1991. He has 
chaired his class' reunion planning commit- 
tee and co-chaired its reunion gift effort. 

Ghoorah is a lifetime member of the Duke 
Alumni Association and an active member of 
the Duke Club of Washington. For the Annual 
Fund this past year, he hosted a Young Alumni 



Breakfast for President Nannerl O. Keohane. 
"Duke has opened so many doors for me," he 
says. "Volunteering is my way of 'giving back.' " 

Edward M. Reefe B.S.E. '68, who lives in 
Boca Raton, Florida, recently retired as man- 
ager of the Florida office of Heery Interna- 
tional, an architecture and engineering firm. 
From 1987 to 1996, he was president of Reefe 
Yamada & Associates, Architects. Since 1993, 
he has been a member of the Dean's Council 
at the engineering school and has chaired its 
development committee since 1995. He has 
also been an engineering class agent, a mem- 
ber of the Alumni Admissions Advisory Com- 
mittee since 1983, and served on the board of 
directors of the Duke Club of Tampa from 
1991 to 1995. 

Reefe is also a member of the William Pres- 
ton Few Society and the Founders' Society, 
and a lifetime member of the Duke Alumni 
Association. "In order to sustain and enhance 
the university's stature," he says, "it is impor- 
tant that we as alumni respond by contribut- 
ing our time and talents." 

Nora Lea Rogers Reefe '67 lives in Boca 
Raton with her husband, Edward, whom she 

met at Duke; both of their children attended 
Duke. She was president of Consultant Man- 
agement Services from 1983 to 1994 and now 
president of The Carrick Group, a manage- 
ment and investment consulting firm. 

An Annual Fund volunteer since 1974, she 
is a member of Trinity College's board of visi- 
tors. She has worked with her class' twentieth 
and twenty-fifth reunion committees, and she 
recently chaired its thirtieth reunion leader- 
ship gift committee, personally sponsoring a 
five-year class challenge. Her efforts led to a 
President's Award to the Class of 1967 for the 
largest reunion gift. 

Since 1983, Reefe has been a member of the 
Alumni Admissions Advisory Committee and 
the Duke Club of Tampa's board of directors. 
In addition to membership in the William Pres- 
ton Few Society and the Founders' Society, 
she is founder of the Reefe Family Student 
Services Endowment. "Since I went to Duke 
on a full scholarship/aid package," she says, "I 
have wanted to ensure that other young peo- 
ple could have the same opportunity." 

Sheryl C. Sauter '97, who lives in Port Wash- 
ington, New York, is project director for Stra- 
tegic Insights, Inc. As a student, she served on 

the Annual Fund's executive committee, 
volunteered with the senior class gift effort, 
and was a member of the campus service 
group Dukes and Duchesses. She was also a 
student representative on the trustees' acade- 
mic affairs committee and co-chaired the 
1996 Homecoming planning committee. In 
the summer of 1995, she was a resident adviser 
for the Pre -college Program for advanced, 
rising high-school seniors and, in summer 
1996, was a resident adviser in England for 
Duke's Talent Identification Program. 

Conducting campus tours became Sau- 
ter 's specialty and she developed a remark- 
able knowledge of the campus. "Early in my 
undergraduate career," she says, "I discovered 
a deep interest in Duke's history. I was espe- 
cially fascinated by the lives of those who 
had devoted themselves to creating and 
supporting this institution. I found this com- 
mitment to Duke inspirational and have 
worked to emulate this concept of service to 
Duke in my own life." 

John L. Sherrill '50, who lives in Green- 
ville, South Carolina, retired in 1991 as vice 
president of Abney Mills. "I began working 
for the Duke 'Loyalty Fund' in 1953," he says, 
"and have been involved almost every year 
since then." President of the Class of 1950 
from 1975 to 1990, he was its chief class 
agent for twenty years. 

Sherrill was president of the Duke Alum- 
ni Association in 1977-78 and national chair 
of the Washington Duke Club since 1995. He 
has been a member of the Annual Fund's ex- 
ecutive committee since 1989, serving on its 
leadership gifts subcommittee for the past 
two years. 

Payor Wilkerson '83, who lives in 
Decatur, Georgia, is a partner in the Atlanta 
law firmTroutman Sanders. Active in Annual 
Fund efforts and reunions planning, she has 
been a member of her local Alumni Admis- 
sions Advisory Committee since 1990 and 
its chair since 1995. 

The Atlanta AAAC that Wilkerson over- 
sees has nearly 100 members who provide 
interviews for an applicant pool of more than 
350. She has repeatedly had above a 75 per- 
cent return rate on interview forms. She is al- 
so responsible for accepted- student receptions 
each April and seeing that Duke is repre- 
sented at high school college fairs. 

"I volunteer for Duke as thanks for the 
lifelong friends and love of learning that 
Duke gave me," she says. "Best of all, I see 
Duke's future in the wide-eyed high school 
students I interview." 

November-December 1997 23 

3fe Mnkt 

in pour 


Traditionally, bequests have been 

a significant source of Duke's 

financial support. Your bequest to 

Duke will help to ensure Duke's 

continued strength and 

academic excellence. 

High federal estate tax rates 

significantly lower the cost of 

making a bequest to Duke. 

Join more than 1,500 other Duke 
alumni and friends as a member 
of the Heritage Society, an honor- 
ary circle of University alumni and 
friends who have planned an 
estate gift to Duke. 

Please contact: 

Michael C. Sholtz, J.D., Director 

Office of Planned Giving 

Duke University 

3100 Tower Blvd. 

Suite 205 

Durham, NC 27707 

(919) 419-5070 

(919) 684-2123 


WRITE: Class Notes Editor, Duke Magazine, 

614 Chapel Dr., Durham, N.C. 27708-0570 

FAX: (919) 684-6022 (typed only, please) 


CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Alumni Records, 

614 Chapel Dr. Annex, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. 

Please include mailing label. Or e-mail address 

changes to: bluedevil( 

NOTICE: Because of the volume of class 

note material we receive and the long 

lead time required for typesetting, 

design, and printing, your submission 

may not appear for two to three issues. 

Alumni are urged to include spouses' 

names in marriage and birth announce- 

30s, 40s & 50s 

Jerome S. Menaker'37 retired simultaneously 
from private practice and the faculty of the University 
of Kansas School of Medicine. A volunteer at the 
Mid-American All Indian Center and at inner-city 
clinics, he lives in Wichita. 

S. WentZ '41 is the author of Patients Are 
a Virtue: Practicing Medicine in the Pennsylvania Amish 
Country, published by Masthof Press. The book is a 
collection of adventures that occurred in rural Lancas- 
ter County, Pa., between 1943 and 1988. Before he 
retired in 1988, he was a family physician and taught 
family medicine in the family practice residency pro- 
gram at Lancaster General Hospital. He lives in 

Jr. '49, M.Div. '52, a retired 
United Methodist minister, is president of the non- 
profit Va. United Methodist Housing Development 
Corp., an organization dedicated to providing afford- 
able housing for handicapped individuals. He lives in 
Locust Grove, Va. 

Carroll A. Weinberg '49, who earned his M. A. in 
speech and audiology and his M.D. at the University 
of Virginia, is a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst in pri- 
vate practice. He received the 1997 Human Relations 
Award from the American Jewish Committee. He is 
also vice president of the committee's Philadelphia 
chapter and co-chair of the Interreligious and Foreign 
Affairs Committee. He lives in Wynnewood, Pa. 

I. Gordon J.D. '54 was elected to Rotary 
International's board of directors, where he will help 
develop policies and establish priorities for the global 
organization of 1.2-milIion volunteers. He is an attor- 
ney and partner in the law firm Gordon & Scalo. He 
lives in Fairfield, Conn. 

H. Barnes Ph.D. '57 represented Duke in 
September at the inauguration of the president of the 
University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. He lives in 
Washington, DC. 

Kathleen Thomas Buckner B.S.N. '57 won a 
gold medal at the U.S. National Senior Olympics. She 
had rounds of 78 and 79 in golf, beating out 57 other 
women in her division. She lives in Oceanside, Calif. 

Nathan A. Ridgeway M.D. '57, an attending staff 
member and associate residency program director at 
Wellmont-Holston Valley Hospital and Medical Cen- 
ter, is chief of the division of general internal medicine 
at East Tennessee State University. He received the 

Dean's Distinguished Teaching Award in Clinical 
Science during the James H. Quillen College of 
Medicine Honors Convocation Program. He was one 
of the key individuals in establishing the University 
Physicians' Practice Group in Kingsport.Tenn. 

'59 represented Duke in 
October at the inauguration of the president of North 
Carolina's Fayetteville Technical Community College. 


Peter L. Rapuzzi '61 is group vice president of 
structured export finance for the Export-Import Bank 
of the United States in Washington, DC. He spent 35 
years with Chase Manhattan Bank. 

Ann Harrell '62, who earned her mas- 
ter's in comparative British and American literature 
from Columbia University, published her three -volume 
hook, Ijtve «! transition, in Romania in 1996. 

Rainey '62, a historian of 
American graphic arts, received the annual Charles C. 
Eldredge Prize, awarded by the National Museum of 
American Art of the Smithsonian Institution. The 
award recognizes a recent publication on the history 
of American art for its originality, excellence of 
research and writing, and significance for professional 
and public audiences. Her book, Creating 'Picturesque 
America': Monument to the Natural and Cultural 
Landscape, is published by Vanderbilt University Press. 
She lives in Charlottesville, Va. 

Letitia Smith Swaine '64 and her husband, 
William, opened an Integral Yoga Center in northeastern 
Pennsylvania. They live in Drums, Pa. 

Rackelman Pierce '65, a fiber artist, 
displayed a collection of quilts and stitched collages 
titled "Cutting the Ties" at the Gudelsky Gallery of the 
Maryland College of Art and Design. She lives in 
Rockville, Md.~ 

Philip Lader '66 is serving in London, England, as 
U.S. ambassador to the Court of St. James. He had 
served in the Clinton administration as head of the 
Small Business Administration and as White House 
deputy chief of staff. He is a former member of the 
Duke Alumni Association's board of directors. 

Jacquelyn Bowman Campbell B.S.N. '68 is an 
advocate for victims of domestic abuse and an Anna 
D. Wolf Endowed professor and director of the doctoral 
program at Johns Hopkins University's nursing school. 
She received the Distinguished Scholar Award during 
the University of Rochester's Ph.D. commencement 
ceremony in May. She lives in Baltimore. 

Larry C. Ethridge '68, secretary and general 
counsel for AAA Kentucky, is also vice chair of the 
American Bar Association's section on state and local 
government law, and co-chair of the steering committee 
for the ABA Model Procurement Code Revision 
Project. He lives in Louisville. 

Pender M. McCarter '68, an associate communi- 
cations director for the Institute of Electrical and 
Electronics Engineers in Washington, DC, was awarded 
accreditation by the Public Relations Society of 
America (PRSA). He also chairs the PRSAs associa- 
tion section, and he participated in the 14th Inter- 
national PR Association World Congress in Helsinki 
and a post-Congress tour to St. Petersburg, where he 
met with his Russian colleagues. 




Publishing is all 
about chance: 
the writer taking 
a chance that talent 
will be recognized, the 
editor taking a chance 
that an acquisition will 
be marketable, the 
reader taking a chance 
that a book will be 

Appropriately, Trish 
Carr Hagood's first 
project as publisher is 
devoted to "chance." 
"Chance" is part of a 
book series called 
Oxymoron; every year, 
Hagood's New York- 
based Oxymoron will 
issue another book 
devoted to a single 

The inaugural effort 
has a playful look to 
it — in its odd rectangle 
shape, and certainly in 
its vibrant typographi- 
cal effects. With 5,000 
copies printed, Hagood 
'65 is taking a chance 
that readers will "pay 
for quality," in her 
words, at $50 per book 
(reduced to $29.95 in 
a holiday discount). 

Folio, a publishing- 
industry trade maga- 
zine, acknowledged 
that quality in Octo- 
ber: It gave Oxymoron 
its "Ozzie" award for 
design excellence. 

After graduating 
from Duke, Hagood 
went to New York Uni- 
versity for her Ph.D. in 
comparative literature. 
In 1989, she earned a 
master's degree in 
early childhood educa- 
tion from Bank Street 

"At that time, I had 
already begun my 
search for 'soul work,' 
something I really 
wanted to do that 
wasn't predicated on 
money," she says. 
"Of course, I have a 
secret desire to prove 
that the arts can make 
money, since I see 
more hope for their 
endurance if they can, 
in fact, do that. There 
must be a way." 

One way, she hopes, 
is through Oxymoron. 
Hagood developed the 
idea for the book series 

Variations on a theme: Hagood's mega-book 
marries the literary and the graphic arts 

just over three years 
ago — "while petting 
my dog, Maggie," she 
says. "It seemed the 
perfect combination 
for me — literature and 
the arts — since I had 
taken up painting in 
the last ten years." The 
production would 
include provocative 
ideas in a striking visu- 
al accompaniment. 

"I have always loved 
children's books for 
their combination of 
text and art, and, with- 
out knowing it con- 
sciously, I think I 

she says. She was also 
reflecting her passion 
for illuminated 
manuscripts. That had 
been her speciality in 
medieval literature. 

The Oxymoron vol- 
ume on chance features 
essays on the mathe- 
matics of probability, 
what quantum physics 
tells us about causation 
and chance, Buddhism's 
resistance to logic, and 
Protestantism's equa- 
tion of good luck with 
God's grace. There are 
literary musings on 
chaos as a theme in 
Shakespeare, Dostoev- 
sky's preoccupation 
with losing, Poe's con- 
cern with random 
trajectories, and Don 
DeLillo's White Noise 
as a portrayal of a soci- 
ety steeped in techno- 
logical uncertainty. 
There are dialogues, 
poems, short stories, 
and photography 
spreads about chance 
encounters, random 
choices, and gambling 
addiction. (Hagood 

contributed two illus- 
trations: "Wheel of 
Darkness" and "Wheel 
of Light.") There is 
even a presentation of 
fortunes from fortune 
cookies. 'Terhaps even 
our greatest geniuses," 
observes one contribu- 
tor, "will never fully 
understand God's seem- 
ingly random methods." 

The project has a 
range of Duke connec- 
tions, beginning with 
editorial consultant 
Melissa Malouf, associ- 
ate professor of the 
practice of English. 
Diskin Clay, a classics 
professor, traces the 
origins of the Greek 
Tyche and the Roman 
Fortuna — both "pow- 
erful divinities, too 
powerful for any mere 
human to calculate or 
manipulate." He 
quotes Pericles, the 
Athenian statesman, as 
warning the Athenian 
assembly that "There is 
often no more logic in 
the course of events 
than there is in the 
plans of men, and this 
is why we blame our 
luck when things don't 
turn out the way we 

In another contribu- 
tion, Duke English pro- 
fessor Julie Tetel'72, 
an author of romance 
novels, muses about 
looking for love. 
Romance studies pro- 
fessor Marcel Tetel, 
Hagood's French 
instructor when she 
was a Duke student, 
considers Montaigne's 
efforts to reconcile for- 
tune, faith, and reason. 
The piece on Poe was 

crafted by another 
Romance studies pro- 
fessor, David Bell. 

or not, the print- 
oriented group main- 
tains a website: 

Hagood's other asso- 
ciation — "the money- 
making company," as 
she puts it — is Ox- 
bridge Communica- 
tions. Oxbridge pub- 
lishes the Standard 
Periodical Directory, the 
Directory of Magazines, 
the Directory of 
Newsletters, and the 
Catalog Directory. 

She began running 
Oxbridge in 1975; 
three years later she 
bought the company. 
In 1988, her husband, 
Louis Hagood B.S.C.E. 
'65, took over. That's 
when she began her 
search for a different 
kind of project. 

A self-described 
iconoclast, Hagood 
says she will keep 
Oxymoron's focus on 
words and images that 
engage the imagina- 
tion — and that break 
at least some of the 
rules. "I want people to 
be changed by reading 
it That should be the 
goal of any writer or 

— Robert J. Bliivise 

Judith Pfau Cochran A.M. '69, Ph.D. 74 is a 

professor of French language and literature at Denison 
University in Granville, Ohio. She has taught at Ohio 
State, Kent State, and Youngstown State universities. 
She is a past chair of Denison's modern languages 

Harry Edward DeMik'69, M.Ed. 73 was appointed 

university registrar of Florida Atlantic University. He 
was deputy university registrar at Duke. A 28-year 
veteran of its registrar's office, he was responsible for 
the implementation of numerous innovations, such as 
an on-line student records systems, student e-mail 
accounts, the Duke Card, and the Automated Com- 
puter Enrollment System (ACES). 

M. Miles "Sonny" Matthews '69, senior man- 
agement counsel at the U.S. Department of Justice 
in Washington, D.C., works in information technology 
services management and procurement. He and 
his wife, Patti, and their four children live in Mt. 
Vernon, Va. 

MARRIAGES: Elizabeth Bowers '67 to 

Nathaniel R. Justice on May 17. Residence: Black 
Mountain, N.C. 

BIRTHS: Third child and son to Caroline Reid 
Sorell '68 and Michael Sorell on Nov. 4, 1996. 
Named John Nathan Breedlove... Fourth child and son 
to M. Miles "Sonny" Matthews '69 and Patti 
Matthews on March 3, 1996. Named Kyle Edward. 


Terry R. Black J.D 70 is president and a senior 
partner in the law firm Campbell, Black, Carnine, 
Hedin, Ballard 6k McDonald in Mt. Vernon, 111. His 
area is business transactions, with an emphasis on 
energy-producing companies. 

J. Keith Kennedy 70, M.Div. 74 is a senior public 
policy adviser in the Washington office of the law firm 
Baker, Donelson, Bearman 6k Caldwell. He was in the 
U.S. Senate as staff director of the Committee on 
Appropriations for Sen. Mark Hatfield. He and his 
wife, Patricia, and their children live in Arlington, Va. 

Ellen Hammerlund Peach B.S.N. 71 was 

ordained an elder in the Pacific Northwest Annual 
Conference of the United Methodist Church. She 
completed seminary studies .it I he Saint Paul School 
of Theology in Kansas City, Mo. She was appointed to 
a bi-vocational ministry in the Kansas East 
Conference, focusing on rural church mission work 
and urban immigrant health care. She and her hus- 
band, David Reese, live in Admire, Kan. 

R. Scarborough Ph.D. 72 was named to 
an endowed professorship at Centre College in Dan- 
ville, Ky., where he teaches philosophy and religion. 

Robert Bruce Brower B.S.M.E. 73 is the manager 
of business systems at Black ekVeatch, an international 
engineering, procurement, and construction company. 
He and his wife, Susan, live in Overland Park, Kan. 

Linda Barlow Ferreri 73, who earned a master's 
in accounting and a doctorate in business administra- 
tion at Case Western Reserve University, is an associate 
professor of business administration at Peace College 
in Raleigh. 

Michael George Williamson 73 is president 
of the law firm Maguire.Voorhis 6k Wells. A past chair 
of the business law section of the Florida Bar, he now 
serves as Florida State chair of the Fellows of the 
American Bar Foundation. He lives in Orlando. 

Ken Shifrin 74 is the Halstead Scholar in music 
and the recipient of the British Academy of the 

November- December 1997 25 

Humanities Research Scholarship at Oxford 
University, where he is completing his Ph.D. in musi- 
cology. He was in the first trombone chair with the 
Israel Philharmonic, the Stuttgart Radio Orchestra, 
and, most recently, the City of Birmingham Symphony 
Orchestra in Birmingham, England. 

Stephen C. Baker 75 was elected to the hoard of 
directors of the law firm Stradley, Ronon, Stevens 6k 
Young. He specialises in commercial litigation and 
heads the firm's insurance practice group. He lives in 
Radnor, Pa. 

Paul W. Gwozdz B.S.E. 75, M.S.E.E. 76, who 

earned his M.D. at the University of Medicine and 
Dentistry of New Jersey, is a resident in family practice 
at UMDNJ in New Brunswick, N.J. He is also a regis- 
tered professional engineer and holds a second M.S. 
degree in computer science from N.J. Institute of 
Technology. He was technical manager tor AT&T Bell 
Labs. He lives in Denville, N.J. 

Richard Wagoner Jr. 75 was appointed to a 
three-year term on the board of visitors for the Fuqua 
School of Business. Named president of General 
Motors' North American Operations in 1994, he is a 
member of GM's President's Council and chairman of 
the NAO Strategy Board. 

Susan Benson Westfall 75 writes that she lives 
in Bristol, Va., on an 11-acre farm with eight horses, 
seven cats, two dogs, two children, and one husband. 

Patricia Goodson 76 is a concert pianist living in 
Prague. Her latest CD for Albany Records, Strange 
Aaractors: New American Music for Piano, includes 
compositions by Martin Herman 76 and Duke 
associate professor of music Stephen Jaffe. In its 
review, Czech Radio described her playing as "techni- 
cally masterful, her artistry and her variety of touch, 
admirable." She will be performing at the American 
Academy in Rome next season. 

76 teaches English at 
Armstrong Atlantic State University in Savannah, Ga. 
He has written two novels, Every Unhappy Family and 
Short Lease, scheduled for publication next spring. 

Carl Tandatnick'77 had a month-long one-man 
show, "Blood and Virus," of his art work and gave a 
lecture at the University of Miami's New Gallery in 
September and October. A physician in private prac- 
tice, he lives in Punta Gorda, Fla. 

Richard W. Graber'78, who earned his law degree 
at Boston University, is a shareholder and a member of 
the business organizations department in the law firm 
Reinhart, Boemer, Van Deuren, Norris & Rieselbach. 
He is serving an interim term on the board of trustees 
at the Medical College of Wisconsin Inc. He lives in 

Lisa E. Heimann 79 works with severely emotion- 
ally and behaviorally disordered junior and senior high 
school students in Atlanta. 

Steven Johnson Ph.D. 79, a professor 
of materials science and engineering at Georgia Tech 
in Adanta, received the 1997 American Society for 
Testing and Materials' Award of Merit. He was recog- 
nized for "exceptional leadership and outstanding 
technical contributions in the area of metal matrix 

MARRIAGES: Pamela B. Lemmons 79 to 

Patrick Murphy on May 3. Residence: Albuquerque. 

BIRTHS: Second child and son to Anne Turpin 
Cody 76 and Claude C. Cody IV on March 13. 
Named Braxton Turpin.. .Fourth child and third son to 
Laurie Lou Elliott 79 and Mark L. Elliott on June 
3. Named Philip Reid... First son and second child to 
Susan Feldsted Halman B.S.N. 79 and Mark 
Halman on December 23, 1996. Named David Thomas.. 


ost Fourth of 
July celebra- 
tions are 
marked by eye-pleas- 
ing explosions of color 
and light. But none are 
as breathtaking as the 
one spent by Comman- 
der Charles E. Brady 
Jr. M.D. 75 roughly 
200 miles above the 
Earth. As Duke's first 
astronaut, Brady 
passed a particularly 
memorable Indepen- 
dence Day witnessing 
not one, but two fire- 
works displays from 
space — one courtesy 
of pyrotechnic festivi- 
ties across the United 
States, and the other a 
natural lightning storm 
illuminating most of 

"Going up for the 
first time is nothing 
you can prepare your- 
self for. It's almost like 
you're expecting a high 
school basketball gym- 
nasium and, all of a 
sudden, you're walking 
right into Cameron," 
he explains. "The ex- 
perience humbles man 
right down to the cel- 
lular level." 

The STS-78 mission 
aboard the Space Shut- 
tle Columbia — the 
twentieth launch of the 

Duke's first astronaut: Brady, who spent 18 < 
aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia 

centered on scientific 
research. The overall 
goal was to test human 
physiological adaptabil- 
ity in space, prefigur- 
ing the possibility of 
extended stays outside 
the Earth's atmosphere. 

Brady himself was 
charged with supervis- 

time team physician 
at Iowa State and at 
UNC-Chapel Hill- 
proved beneficial 
aboard the shuttle. The 
bulk of his preparation 
for the launch, howev- 
er, came from outside 
his specialized field. 
Having survived 
NASA's rigorous two- 
year battery of ground- 
work, called "cross- 

that measured astro- 

exercises, and courses 
in flight instruction and 
in-flight engineering — 
Brady spent another 
twenty-four months 
preparing specifically 
for his eighteen-day 

cle physiology, and 
bone calcium count. 
He administered the 
majority of the sam- 
pling experiments with 
the crew — himself, 
four other Americans, 

"It was I 
out of a fire hydrant," 
he says. "Just trying to 
take in that deluge of 

Frenchman — as test 
patients. "I guess it was 
sort of payback for 
doing 'bad things' to 
patients all those years 
in med school." 

His sports medicine 
background — as one- 

feel like I was back in 
grad school again." 
Well-equipped by his 
years of training, Brady 
also acted as flight 
engineer for the shut- 
de's re-entry over 
Papua New 

school, he was strongly 
impressed by several 
conscientious teachers 

who dragged a televi- 
sion set into the class- 
room to showcase "al- 
most every moment an 
American was up in 
space." As a flight sur- 
geon with the Navy's 
Blue Angels in 1991, 
Brady was encouraged 
to apply for astronaut 
training by the unit's 
flight leader, who 
recognized his flying 
skills. The two-year 
selection process, allot- 
ing only 10 percent of 
its positions for appli- 
cations from military 
branches, culminated 
in an official visit to 
Lyndon B. Johnson 
Space Center in Hous- 
ton for a week-long 
barrage of interviews 
and physical examina- 
tions. Back on board 
the Navy aircraft 
carrier USS Ranger six 
months later, he re- 
ceived congratulatory 
notification to report 
back for training. 

Following his home- 
coming, Brady has 
taken charge of trainin 
and development for 

platform designed to 
accommodate a com- 
munity of research 
scientists. The under- 
taking, spearheaded by 
the United States with 
cooperation from four 
major partners — Ja- 
pan, Russia, Canada, 
and the European 
Space Agency — has 
its first in a series of 
launches scheduled for 
next year. 

Despite present pre- 
occupation with the 
state of the hobbled 
Russian MIR space sta- 
tion, Brady maintains 
that the coming decade 
will likely usher in an 
era of extraterrestrial 
colonization. He points 
out that the 1 
station was on 
built as a military stag- 
ing platform during the 
Cold War and was 
never intended to last 
the fifteen years it has. 
Newly-engineered sta- 
tions, on the other 
hand, will evolve in 
tandem with the devel- 
opment of cutting-edge 
space age technologies 
already being re- 
searched above the 
Earth's atmosphere. 

While issues of 
space station safety 
trouble NASA officials, 
Brady argues that die 
relative risk pales in 
comparison to the 
potential gains of hu- 

the solar system. "The 
next time a rocketship 
leaves for the Moon, it 
won't be going just to 
come right back. I'm 
confident that we will 
see lunar colonies, as 

ping of Mars, within 
the next ten to twelve 

Station project, i 


Third son to Lisa E. Heimann 79 on March 3, 
1995. Named Jacob Jones... A son and second child I 
Andrew Hemmendinger BSE. 79 and Ida B. 
Haugland on Nov. 2, 1996. Named Lars Alexander. 


Mark Steven Calvert '80, J.D. '83 is an adjunct 
professor at Campbell University's Norman Adrian 
Wiggins School of Law in Buies Creek, N.C. He teaches 
an upper-level course in real property planning. 

i M.D. '81 is chief of ortho- 
paedic surgery at Florida Hospital in Orlando. He 
practices with the Jewett Orthopaedic Clinic in Winter 
Park, Fla., where he specializes in joint reconstruction 
and sports medicine. He and his wife, Susan, and their 
daughter live in Winter Park. 

! Sheffey Ph.D. '82, who earned her law 
: Boston College, is counsel on the litigation- 
: and alternative dispute resolution team for 
the Atlanta office of the law firm Hunton & Williams. 
Her practice focuses on environmental litigation in 
federal and state courts. She received the firm's 1996 
Pro Bono Publico award for her leadership in developing 
the office's pro bono practice. She also directs the firm's 
Southside Legal Center, the cornerstone of its commu- 
nity service outreach. She lues in Atlanta. 

: L. Mullen '83, M.Div. '86, pastor of Haw 

River United Methodist Church, is the author of The 
New Testament Text of Cyril of Jerusalem, published by 
Scholars Press. He lives in Haw River, N.C. 

'8 i is president and 
CEO of First-Knox National Bank, based in Mount 
Vernon, Ohio. 

Julia Myers O'Brien M.Div. '84, Ph.D. '88 is a 
professor of the Old Testament at Lancaster Theologi- 
cal Seminary. A former teacher at Meredith College in 
Raleigh, she is the author of three books and numerous 
articles, is a frequent lecturer and preacher, and con- 
tributes to scholarly journals. 

J. Schoenfeld '84 is vice chancellor for 
media relations at Vanderhilt University and serves as 
chief communications strategist. He was senior vice 
president for policy and public affairs at the Corpora- 
tion for Public Broadcasting in Washington, D.C. He 
is a member of Duke Magazine's Editorial Advisory 
Board. He and his wife, Elizabeth Temple Scho- 
enfeld '84, and their daughter live in Nashville, Tenn. 

Grant Russell Simons '85, M.D. '90, who com- 
pleted a fellowship in cardiology and cardiac electro- 
physiology at Duke in July, has joined Cardiology 
Associates, PC, a group practice based in Washington, 
DC, and in Annapolis. He and his wife, Sunisa, and 
their children live in Annapolis. 

Mari Sugahara Lathrop '86, who graduated from 
MIT's Sloan School of Management in 1993, is a vice 
president with the fixed income management group 
of Loomis Saylesh Co. She and her husband, John, live 
in Boston. 

Kenneth Alonzo Murphy '86, J.D. '89, a commer- 
cial litigator with the law firm Miller, Alfano & Ras- 
panti in Philadelphia, received the "Men Making a Dif- 
ference" Award from the American Cities Foundation. 

i J. Pontes '86 is a vice president in the 
commercial workstation development group at Fleet 
Financial Group in Providence, R.I. He and his wife, 
Jane, and their children live in Cumberland, R.I. 

John Morse Elliott Storey M.S.C.E. '86, a men 
ber of the engineering technology division of the 
Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Labora- 

tory in Tennessee, received an award for technical 
accomplishment and team involvement in the 
Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles. The 
award was presented by Vice President Al Gore at the 
White House. He and his wife, Susan, and their chil- 
dren live in Oak Ridge. 

Jane Scott Cantus '87, who earned her M.B.A. 
at the University of Virginia's Darden School of 
Business, is a principal of Kom/Ferry International in 
Washington, D.C, where she is a member of the 
advanced technology and financial services specialty 
groups. She was with Bechtel Financing Services, Inc. 
She is also pursuing a law degree at George Washington 
University. In 1988, she was named one of the 
Outstanding Young Women of America. 

Lori Koenigsberg Holleran '87, who earned her 
master's in social work at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, is pursuing a Ph.D. at the Arizona State Univer- 
sity School of Social Work. She works as a chemical 
dependency therapist at Charter Hospital. She and 
her husband, John, and their child live in Phoenix. 

Erik Norris Johnson '87, a Navy lieutenant, com- 
pleted a four-month deployment to the western Pacific 
Ocean aboard the aircraft carrier L'SS Independence. 

Gookin Karslake '87 is director of devel- 
opment, stewardship, and communications for the 
Riverside Church in New York City. He and his part- 
ner, Russ Anderson, live m Manhattan. His Internet 
address is dkarsm 

Turzai '87 is a pedis 
Pittsburgh Pediatrics Associates. She and her husband, 
Michael Coyne Turzai J.D. '87, live in Bradford 
Woods, Pa. 

Marc Daniel Carpenter '88 is the founder of 
Purity Reformed Fellowship, a Calvinistic Christian 
assembly in Sudbury, Vt. He and his wife, Rebecca 
Eugena Sebastian Carpenter '89, and their 

four children, live in Vermont. 

Sonja Hospel Leonard '88, the president of 
Computer Dynamics, and her husband, Graham, pub- 
lish Kids' Web World, a newsletter she describes as "the 
ultimate parents' guide to the Internet for kids." She is 
also the author of The College Student's Cuide to the 
Internet and a supplement for high school juniors and 
seniors, L'sing Computers and the Internet to Conduct 
Your College Search. She and her husband and their 
child live in Mason, Ohio. Their Internet address is 
1005 50. 

John A. MacLeod II B.S.E. '88, '89 is a director of 
finance for John Hancock Financial Services in Bos- 
ton. He and his wite, Sarah, live in Wellesley, Mass. 

Lance Rowland MoritZ '88, a Navy lieutenant, 
completed shore duty at the Caribbean Regional 
Operations Center at NAS Key West, Fla. He will 
attend the department-head course in Newport, R.I. 
He and his wife, Michelle, live in Newport. 

tty '88 is a tax consultant with 
Arthur Andersen in Washington, D.C. He and his 
wife, Kata, returned from a trip to Tanzania, where 
they climbed the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro on 
Christmas Day. 

Thomas William Polaski A.M. 88, Ph.D. 91, 
associate professor of mathematics at Winthrop 
University, received the Outstanding Junior Professor 
Award, which recognizes "inspired teaching, excellence 
in research or creative activity, and dedication to the 
welfare of students." 

bin '88 formed the law firm 
Slutkin & Rubin with Andrew George Slutkin 

J.D. '91 in Baltimore, Md. The firm engages in all 
aspects of complex civil and criminal litigation. 

Laurence Blumenthal '89, seeking ordination 
from the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations, is 
pursuing a second master's degree in religious studies. 
An assistant rabbi in West Hartford, Conn., he travels 
frequently to Japan and Eastern Asia, where he teaches 
about the Jewish background of Christianity. 

Michele Marie Foy Burdick '89, who earned 
her master's degree in social work from the University 
of Georgia, is a licensed master social worker. She is 
director of the Day Program and Social Club at 
Community Friendship, Inc., a private, nonprofit, 
psychosocial rehabilitation facility for mentally ill 
adults. She and her husband, Greg, live in Atlanta. 

Danny Ferry '89, former Duke basketball star and 
NBA player for the Cleveland Cavaliers, received the 
Distinguished All-Met Award, given annually to a for- 
mer All-Met who has achieved success in professional 
or collegiate athletics or in a non-sports role. He is 
involved with the DeMatha hoys basketball program. 

', who com- 
pleted her residency in pediatrics, began a fellowship 
in child abuse and neglect preventum. She and her 

husband, Peter Douglas Lowen B.S.E. '88, and 
their son live in Providence, R.I. 

Gary Israel Shapiro '89, who practices family 
medicine in Mt. Laurel, N.J., received the Parke Davis- 
American Ac.iJcmv ol himilv Practice Teacher 
Development Award. He lives in Marlton, N.J. 

MARRIAGES: Steven Douglas Hodskins'SO 

to Liza Lowndes Gookin on May 3. Residence: 
Arlington, Va.... Richard Frank Silver '83 to 
Laurie R. Hall on June , Katherine Anne 
MacKinnon '84 to Gerald A. Hansell on May 31. 
Residence: Chicago.. .Mari Jean Sugahara '86 to 
John Edward Lathrop in November 1996. Residence: 

Boston. Lidia Comini '87 to Michael Coyne 

Turzai J.D. '87 on May 3. Residence: Bradford 
Woods, Pa.... John A. MacLeod II B.S.E. '88, '89 to 
Sarah C Castle on April 12. Residence: Wellesley, 
Mass. ...Lance Rowland Moritz'88 to Michelle 
Renee Kaiser on May 7. Residence: Newport, 
R.I... .Michele Marie Foy '89 to Greg Burdick on 
March 22. Residence: Atlanta. 

BIRTHS: First child and daughter to Hugh Bailey 
Morris M.D. '81 and Susan Morris on Feb. 9. Named 
Alexandra Price.. Third child and daughter to 

Genevieve Ruderman Besser'82 and Jochen 
Besser on April 2, 1996. Named Cornelia.. .First son to 
Jill Bayer Ciporin '84 and Daniel Theo Ciporin 
on Dec. 13, 1996. Named Peter Bayer... Second child 
and son to Catherine Thompson Rocker- 
mann '84 and Brian Rockermann on June 27. Named 
Christian Thompson. ..First child and daughter to 
Melinda Lee Moseley '85 and Jeffrey Bowie on 
April 10. Named Samantha AnneMaree... Third child 
and second daughter to Kimberly Marshall 
Glynn '86 and Sean William Patrick Glynn '86 
on April 28. Named Katherine Margaret.. .Second 
child and son to James Derrick Quattlebaum 
'86 and Lisa Jones Quattlebaum on June 23. Named 
Henry Drennan...A daughter to Chris Brice '87, 
A.M. '92 and Sarah Brice on June 4. Named Lillian 
Trebein...A daughter to James David Dryfoos 
'87 and Reagan Rexrode Dryfoos '87 on June 
27. Named Delaney Hope.. .First child and son to Lori 
Koenigsberg Holleran '87 and JohnT. Holleran 
Jr. on April 9. Named Blake Dylan...Second child and 
son to Martha "Martie" Dresser Irons '87 and 
James Edwin "Ted" Irons on April 14- Named Scott 
P; u t. ..... . A son to Walter Strang "Chip" Peake 

'87, J.D. '90 and Deirdre Peake on May 28. Named 
Elijah Bossert... Fourth child and second daughter to 
Marc Daniel Carpenter '88 and Rebecca 
Eugena Sebastian Carpenter '89 on April 19. 

November- December 1997 27 



Educational Adventur 

Gardens Past & Present: 
The Legacy of Ellen 

MARCH 27 - 29 


$145 - $270 PER PERSON 

C* ome and experience the legacy of Ell 

Shipman, the landscape architect who 
designed the heart and soul of the Duke 
Gardens. Hear from garden experts and 
tour examples of her work. 

The Mind-Body-Spirit 


The shortest path to healing the body 
may be through the mind. Duke physi- 
cians will update you on the latest research 
and techniques for making the mind an 
ally in healing. 

Dolphins & Our Changing Environment 

Duke Marine Lab Alumni College 

May or June, Beaufort, North Carolina 

Approx. $325 per person 

Come explore the beautiful coast of 
North Carolina and learn first-hand 
about the fascinating world of dolphins 
and other marine mammals. 



Approx. $495 per person 

An intensive week of writing, reading, 
and manuscript development offering 
beginning and advanced instruction in fic- 
tion, poetry, and non-fiction, led by 
acclaimed authors. 

July 31 - August 3, Salter Path, NC 


Technical writers and editors from a range 
of fields are invited to push their writing 
to a new level as we concentrate on the 
quality and clarity of language and syntax. 

A Workshop and Retreat for Women 

August 4-7, Salter Path, NC 


Learn to evoke and celebrate your cre- 
ative spirit in this supportive, structured 
workshop for women. 

Creative Writing Workshop 

August 25 - 28, Salter Path, NC 


In the ancient tradition of physician poets, 
begin to access and express the insights 
that make the healing arts a wellspring of 
human experience. Daily workshops will 
cover poetry, essay, fiction and memoir. 

College of Tuscany 

Cortona, Italy 
May 20 - 28 
$2,195 per person 

Immerse yourself in the 
culture of a typical 
Tuscan village, with semi- 
nars on Italian life and 
culture and excursions to 
significant sites. 

The World of the Vikings and the 
A Family 



Scandinavia and the Baltic offer an 
enchanting destination for families, 
capturing the rich pageantry and lore of 
Vikings, czars, anakings. 


JULY 1 - 9 

$2,295 PER PERSON 

Step back in time and immerse yourself 
in the culture of a typical small French 
town in the heart of the medieval and his- 
torical land called Burgundy. 

The Oxford Experience 

The University of Oxford, England 
September 6-19 


Immerse yourself in centuries-old tradi- 
tions of learning and community. Study 
in small groups with Oxford faculty and 
explore the English countryside. 
Rediscover wkat it is to be a student again. 

College of Ireland 

County Clare, Ireland 
September 23 - October 1 
$2,095 per person 

From awesome seaside vistas to Celtic 
history, this pleasant mix of seminars 
and excursions will expose you to the his- 
tory and culture of the Emerald Isle. 

Duke Directions 


Durham, NC 

Rediscover the true "Duke experience" — 
the classroom experience! Return to 
Duke for a day of stimulating classes designed 
or alumni and taught by top Duke faculty. 

Summer Youth Camps 

and Weekend Workshops 

March, June - August 
Durham and Salter Path, NC 

Camps in art, writing, drama, and sci- 
ence are offered lor youth in grades 5- 
1 1 . Weekend workshops are offered in cre- 
ative writing and writing the college essay. 

Canal Cruise 

January 10-21 


From Acapulco to Barbados, the Crystal 
Harmony Trans-Canal adventure will 
take you to Mexico, Costa Rica, the 
Panama Canal, and the Caribbean. 

Canary Islands Cruise 

February 22 - March 6 
Approx. $ 2,995 per person 

Cruise aboard the M.S. Black Prince 
from the white cliffs of Dover to the 
"floating garden" of Funchal, Madeira. 
Visit four of the Canary Islands. 

February 1 5 - 27 

Approx. $7,295 per person 

Tour the Antarctic continent with stops 
in the Shetland Islands and Cape Horn. 
The ecology of Antartica is explored in 
depth, guided by naturalists. 

Austrian Winter Escapade 

to the Black Sea 

$1,145 PER F 

Spend a week in the winter paradise or 
the Austrian Alps. Explore Salzburg 
and its majestic environs. 

Wines of the World 

APRIL 23 - MAY 3 


Spend seven days in Bordeaux visiting 
famous wineries accompanied by a 
noted oenologist. Explore the Basque 
region and the coastal city of Biarritz . 

A 14-day safari to South Africa, Namihia, 
Zimhahwe, and Botswana , with a two- 
night stay at Chohe National Park. Then fly 
to Cape Town for three nights. 

Cruise the Face of Europe 

JUNE 1 - 17 



For 17 days we sad the Rhine, the Main 
Danuhe Canal, and the Danube itself. 
From Budapest to Amsterdam. 

Northern Lights Cruise 

June 20 -July 3 
$4,995 per person 

Discover the legendary heauty of 
Europe's northerly latitudes to 
Denmark and Norway. Visit the Shetland 
Islands and Scotland. 

JULY 1 7 - 
$2,995 PER I 

Discover Cannes, 
Portofino, and 
St. Tropez, as well as 
some lesser known 
jewels - Calvi, 
Bonifacio, Costa 
Smeralda, and 
Portoferraio. Seven 
nights on the Star 

JULY 19-31 
$2,995 PER PERSON 

An Inside Passage cruise ahoard the 
four-star deluxe Crown Majesty and the 
Midnight Sun Express. Two days in 
Denali, with calls at Juneau, Skagway, 
Sitka, and Ketchikan. 

Waterways of Russia 

AUGUST 1 8 - 30 
$3,795 PER PERSON 

Spend two nights in Moscow, visit the 
Kremlin and Red Square hefore 
embarking on a cruise to charming villages 
and the magnificent city of St. Petersburg. 

$3,590 PER PERSON 

Our 14-day classic itinerary from the 
Danuhe to the Black Sea takes you from 
Austria to Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria 
Romania, and Turkey. Then to Istanbul for 
two nights. Vienna is a two-night option. 

Spiritual Siam: The Traditions of 

Spend four nights in Bankok, then to 
Chiang Mai Tor three nights. See the 
Golden Triangle, where the borders of 
Laos, Myanmar (Burma), and Thailand 

From the Bosphorus to the Sea of 

$4,695 PER PERSON 

A cruise of Turkey and the Greek Isles 
and stays in Istanbul and Athens. The 
centerpiece is a seven-night cruise aboard 
Radisson Seven Seas Cruises' Song of 

Cotes du Rhone Passage 

October 14-27 

$ 3,495 per person from new york or 

$3,595 per person from atlanta 

Paris, the "City of Light," the TGV 
(world's fastest passenger train), Lannes, 
Provence, and Burgundy. 

Heritage of Northern Italy 


We are pleased to offer a journey 
through Northern Italy. See Venice 
and Lake Como, as well as visits to 
Bergamo, Verona, Mantua, Vicenza, 
Bassano del Grappa, Padua, and Parma. 

Around the World by Supersonic 


$55,800 PER PERSON 

Our ultimate 24-day Around the World 
journey: two nights in Kona, Hawaii; 
three nights in Queenstown, New Zealand 
in Sydney, Australia; in the Masai Mara, 
Kenya; and in London, England. 

old world christmas markets 
December 7-14 
$2,495 per person 

Surround yourself in the winter wonder- 
land of the Bavarian Alps. Three nights 
in Bad Reichenhall and the musical city of 
Salzburg, Austria. 

Buke Great Teachers Video Series 


i from five outstanding faculty. 


Information Request 

For detaded brochures on these programs 
listed below, please return this form, 
appropriately marked, to : 
Duke Educational Adventures 
614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 27708 
or fax to: (919)684-6022 

Alumni Colleges 

Q Gardens Past and Present 

□ Healthy Mind, Healthy Body 

□ Dolphins and Our Environment 
Summer Academy 

a Duke Writers' Workshop 
Q Technical Writers' Workshop 

□ Accessing Your Creativity 

□ Creative Writing for Healthcare 

Alumni Colleges Abroad 

□ Alumni College of Tuscany 

□ The World of the Vikings and the 

□ Alumni College in Burgundy 

□ The Oxford Experience 
Q Alumni College of Ireland 
Other Programs 

Q Duke Directions 

□ Summer Youth Camps & Weekend 

Duke Travel 

□ Trans-Panama Canal Cruise 

□ Canary Islands Cruise 
Q Antarctica 

□ Austrian Winter Escapade 

□ Wines of the World 

□ Wings Over the Kalahari 
Q Cruise the Face of Europe 
Q Northern Lights Cruise 

□ Mediterranean Adventure 

□ Alaskan Wilderness: Voyage of the 

□ Waterways of Russia 

□ Danube to the Black Sea 

□ Spiritual Siam: The Traditions of 

□ From the Bosphorus to the Sea of 

□ Cotes du Rhone Passage 
Q Heritage of Northern Italy 

□ Around the World by Supersonic 

Q Yuletide in Bavaria: Old World 

Christmas Markets 
Q Duke Great Teachers 

Named Geneva Ruth. ..First child and son 
Douglas Lowen B.S.E. '88 and 
Hilowitz Lowen '89 in July 1996. Named Simon 
Andrew... Second child and first son to Christopher 
Mark McDermott B.S.E. '88 and Margaret Ann 
"Peggy" McDermott B.S.E. '88 on May 11. 
Named Matthew Colin.. .First child and son to Adair 
Draughn Freeman Parr '88 and Ted Parr on 
Nov. 11, 1996. Named Richard Tyler... Second child and 
daughter to Cynthia Regal Balchunas '89 and 
George Balchunas on Oct. 4, 1996. Named Anna 
Cosima... Second child and first son to Lori Diehm 
Holcombe '89 and John Holcombe on Feb. 23. 
Named Christian Leland...A son to David Paul 
Mitchell '89 and Jenny Mitchell on April 22. Named 
Matthew David.. .First child and daughter to Richard 
Paul Turk '89 and Becky Turk on May 2. Named 
Kathryn Mae. 


Torsten Berger B.S.E. '90 is pursuing a Ph.D. in 
computer science from the University of California at 
Riverside. After graduarion, he plans to move to 
Boston with his wife, Jamie. 

Gregory Lynn Hallford B.S.E. '90 earned his 

M.B.A. at The Darden School at the University of 

Stefanie Lynn Moss '90, who earned her M.B.A. 
at UNC-Chapel Hill, is senior manager of membership 
rewards for American Express in New York. 

John Christopher Oeltjen '90 earned his Ph.D. 
degree in molecular and human genetics at the 
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Baylor 
College of Medicine in Houston. 

Christopher Keith Polk '90, who is pursuing a 
Ph.D. in finance at the University of Chicago's busi- 
ness school, received the State Farm Companies 
Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Award, designed to 
stimulate research and knowledge in business and 
insurance and to increase the number of qualified pro- 
fessors of insurance and business. 

Joseph Philip "Jeep" Wedding III B.S.E. '90, 
an Air Force captain, is executive officer to the 
Commander, 16th Air Force, Aviano Air Base, Italy. 

ig '90 is assistant production manager 
for Mattell, Inc., based in El Segundo, Calif. 

'91 was promoted to Air 
Force captain and is pursuing a master's in nursing 
through the AFIT scholarship program. He is an assis- 
tant nurse manager at the 35th Medical Group in 
Misawa, Japan. He and his wife, Karen Kartye 
I '90, live in Misawa. 

'91, a Marine first lieu- 
tenant, was designated a Naval Aviator and presented 
with the "Wings of Gold," marking the culmination of 
months of flight training with Training Squadron 
Seven, Naval Air Station, Meridian, Miss. 

ter Janopaul '91 is pursuing his 
M.B.A. at the University of Chicago's business school. 
He was a portfolio manager and analyst at Brookside 
Capital in San Francisco. 

Benjamin F. Johnson IV '91, who graduated from 
the University of Michigan's law school in 1996, is an 
associate at the Atlanta office of Hunton 6k Williams. 
He specializes in environmental and intellectual prop- 
erty law and general commercial litigation. 

Jennifer Irene Rudinger'91,who graduated 
from the Ohio State University's law school in June, is 
executive director of the Alaska Civil Liberties Union 

in Anchorage. The AKCLU is an affiliate of the 
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), a nonprofit 
civil rights organization. 

Andrew George Slutkin J.D. '91 formed the law 
firm Slutkin & Rubin with Peter Michael Rubin 

'88 in Baltimore, Md. The firm engages in all aspects 
of complex civil and criminal litigation. 

1 '92 manages, with her 
husband, Phillip, a training project, funded by the 
U.S. Agency for International Development, for 
Ukranians, Moldovans, and Belorussians. The couple 
lives in Kyiv, Ukraine. 

Mark Christian Bieniarz '92, who earned his M.D. 
at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, is a resident 
in obstetrics and gynecology at Wilford Hall Air Force 
Medical Center/Brooke Army Medical Center. 

Michael Shane Butler '92, who is pursuing a 
Ph.D. in classics at Columbia University in New York, 
was awarded a two-year fellowship at the American 
Academy in Rome. He and his partner, artist James 
Thacker, will live at the Academy until July 1999. 

Shilpa Reddy Cherukupally '92, who earned 
her M.D. at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, is 
a resident in otolamgology at the Massachusetts Eye 
and Ear Infirmary. 

Ruben K. Chuquimia '92 joined the corporate 
department of the law firm Gallop, Johnson & 
Neuman in St. Louis, Mo. He specializes in general 
business and securities law. He was a judicial law clerk 
in the U.S. Department of Justice Honors Program. 
He lives in St. Louis. 

David Carl Fuquea A.M. '92, a Marine major, 
is on a six-month deployment to the Mediterranean 
Sea aboard the ships of the VSS Kearsarge Amphibious 
Ready Group with the 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit. 

BS '92, who earned her M.D. at 
the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New 
Jersey, is a resident at Mountainside Family Practice 
Associates in Montclair, N.J. 

Angela Howell Winter '92 is a senior technical 
writer and Web designer for Wall Data Inc., a Seattle- 
based software company. She and her husband, Brent, 
live in Atlanta. 

George Dallas Brickhouse '93, a Navy lieu- 
tenant, completed a six-month deployment to the 
Mediterranean Sea aboard the guided missile destroyei 
VSS Ramage. 

B.S.E. '93, who earned her M.D. at 
Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, is a resident in 
internal medicine at the University of Michigan 
Hospitals in Ann Arbor. 

Donna Lynne Fowler-Marchant M.Div. '93, 
Th.M. '95 is pastor for Antioch and Corinth United 
Methodist churches in Four Oaks, N.C. 

Johnston '93, who earned his 
J.D. with honors at the University of Florida's law 
school, is an associate in the law firm Zimmerman, 
Shuffield, Kiser & Sutcliffe in Orlando, where he prac- 
tices workers' compensation law. 

Joseph Edmondson Schafstall B.S.E. '93, who 
earned his M.B.A. at The Darden School at the 
University of Virginia, works with Clark Realty Capital 
in Bethesda, Md. 

Jason SchultZ '93 is a first-year student at the 
Boalt Hall Law School at the University of California, 

Seth Raymond Zalkin '93, who earned his J.D. 
at the University of Pennsylvania law school, is a 
corporate associate with the law firm Paul, Weiss, 
Rifkind, Wharton 6k Garrison in New York City. He 

specializes in mergers and acquisitions. 

Craig Stephen Arneson '94, a Navy 1 
j.g., completed an eight-day port visit to Palma de 
Mallorca, Spain, while on a six-month deployment to 
the Mediterranean Sea aboard the VSS John E Kennedy. 

Thomas Moultrie Beshere III '94, who gradu- 
ated from the University of Virginia's law school, has 
begun a clerkship with the U.S. District Court for 
South Carolina. He lives in Charleston. 

B.S.E. '94, an Air Force 
first lieutenant, is chief of natural resources and bud- 
get officer for the Environmental Flight 56th Civil 
Engineer Squadron at Luke Air Force Base in Arizona, 
where he supervises environmental analyses for repair 

Frederick Dietz '94, who earned his J.D. 
in May at Washington University in St. Louis, received 
the American Bar Association Section of Urban, State, 
and Local Government Law Prize for the highest grade 
in the State and Local Government course. He was in- 
ducted into the Order of the Coif, for academic excel- 
lence within the top 10 percent of the graduating class. 

Felicia Annette Henderson '94 graduated cum 
laude from Harvard Law School, where she was editor 
of the Harvard Women's Law Journal She works for the 
law firm Debevoise 6k Plimpton in New York. 

Grant Hill '94, former Duke basketball star and cur- 
rent NBA star for the Detroit Pistons, is vice chairman 
of the board of directors of the 1999 Special Olympics 
World Summer Games. The World Games, which will 
be held in the cities of the Research Triangle in the 
summer of 1999, will host athletes and their coaches 
from 150 countries. 

Paul Hudson '94 is clerking for a federal judge in 
San Diego. He and his wife, Kathleen, will begin working 
for law firms in Washington, DC, in the fall of 1998. 

an Amio Lapid '94, who earned his J.D. 
in May at Washington University in St. Louis, received 
the Judge Myron D. Mills Administrative Law Award 
for the best paper on an administrative law topic. 

Alexandra Parente Orban '94 is pursuing her 
Ph.D. in organizational psychology at the Rutgers Uni- 
versity Graduate School of Applied and Professional 
Psychology. She and her husband, George M. Miller 

David NantZ Royster '94, who earned his J.D. in 
May at Washington University in St. Louis, received 
the Charles Wendell Camahan Award for the highest 
grade in the Conflict of Laws course. He also received 
the F. Hodge O'Neal Corporate Law Prize for the 
highest grade in Corporations, and he was inducted 
into the Order of the Coif for academic excellence 
within the top 10 percent of the graduating class. 

Christina Hua-Chiang Wang '94, a third-year 
law student at Washington University's law school, 
worked as a summer associate at Pfizer Inc., in New 
York City. 

Robert Reid Bailey B.S.E. '95, who earned his 
M.S.M.E. from Georgia Tech and is pursuing his Ph.D. 
in engineering, received a fellowship sponsored by 
the U.S. Department of Energy for three years of grad- 
uate work. He also qualified with his brother, Russell, 
as the top double rapids-racing canoe on the U.S. 
Wildwater Team. 

'95 is pursuing an M.PH. 
degree in infectious diseases at the University of 
California, Berkeley's School of Public Health. She is 
interested in virology, specifically in the area of HIV 
and AIDS research. 

'96 works for the 
public relations department of Total Sports, an int< 



From stability to fragility: former attorney, 
now film producer McCutchen 

So much for fol- 
lowing your 
dream. "In school, I 
always thought I was 
going to be a vet," 
recalls Bill McCutchen 
•86, M.B.A./J.D. '90. 
As an adult, he may 
not be tending to any 
sick pets, but lie cer- 
tainly has ended up 
working among ani- 
mals: McCutchen is a 
movie producer. 

The president of 
his own production 
company, Prophecy 
Pictures, McCutchen 
purchases and develops 
film scripts, shepherding 
them through to studio 
distribution deals and 
theater engagements. 
His latest project, the 
romantic comedy Nick 
and Jane, was released 
earlier this fall. 

It's a far cry from his 
undergraduate syl- 
labus: He started col- 
lege at Brown, where 
he quickly fell into the 
routing of a pre-med. 
"All I remember about 
Brown was going to 
lunch and studying," 
he says. A one -semes- 
ter exchange at Duke 
during his junior year 
soon extended to a full 
transfer. "I liked it so 
much that I thought, 
Why go back?" 
McCutchen's main 

interest soon switched 
to finance, resulting in 
dual business and law 
degrees. Entertainment 
law classes with David 
Lange cultivated his 
love for movies, which 
remained mostly 
untapped as a New 
York corporate lawyer. 
So, in his spare time, 
he took seminars in 
every aspect of film- 
making, eventually 
traveling to Utah for 
Robert Redford's Sun- 
dance producers con- 
ference in 1991 , where 
he optioned the rights 
to bis first script 

"Near the end of 
'92, 1 thought, I have 
to try this full time," 
he says. "I was gravi- 
tating toward it too 
much." With trepida- 
tion, McCutchen left 
his cushy legal post. 
"My mom and dad 
thought I was crazy. 
For literally two years, 
they were like, 'You 
had a good job at the 
law firm. Why don't 
you go back?' They've 
finally come around 
to realize that I'm 
actually doing this." 

Even McCutchen 
himself was a little 
worried during his first 
production, the 1994 
thriller Handgun, made 
when he was working 
with the independent 

production company 
The Shooting Gallery. 
Four days into shooting, 
the film's lead actor, 
who was visibly unable 
to handle the role, was 
fired. "I was like, 'Great 
What a great start to 
my movie career! The 
movie's gone down the 
drain after four days!' " 
he recalls. 

The production was 
saved when former Hair 
star Treat Williams 
stepped into the part 
After at year at The 
Shooting Gallery, 
McCutchen decided to 
leave, seeking more 
professional indepen- 
dence. Then, in a typi- 
cal example of Holly- 
wood unpredictability, 
one of the company's 
next productions was 
Billy Bob Thornton's 
drama Sling Blade, 
which went on to win 
an Academy Award for 
best original screenplay. 
"In hindsight, I don't 
know if it was the right 
decision," McCutchen 
admits, "but I don't 
regret it now." 

For Nick and Jane, 
the story of a New 
York businesswoman 
who invents a fiance to 
irk her cheating boy- 
friend, McCutchen's 
duties ran the gamut, 
from script-tweaking 
to fund-raising. "I 

added characters, 
changed dialogue, 
watched almost every 
casting session, and 
basically had final say 
on who the actors 
would be." 

Once his indepen- 
dent film was finished 
and sold, he was dealt 
a final blow: A big stu- 
dio, Twentieth Century 
Fox, released Picture 
Perfect, a romantic 
comedy with a plot 
similar to Nick and Jane 
but with bigger stars, 
in August "I was pretty 
upset," McCutchen 
says. "The storyline is 
extremely similar." 

Despite the setback, 
he's still optimistic 
about his film. "I've 
watched it a thousand 
times and I still like it," 
says McCutchen, who's 
just finished post-pro- 
duction on his next 
project, Brass Ring, a 
drama starring former 
New Kid on the Block 
Donnie Wahlberg. 

Even with all the 
frustrations inherent in 
showbiz, McCutchen is 
determined to perse- 
vere. "My focus is to 
make the best movies I 
can," he says. "That's 
my goal." Spoken like 
a committed Holly- 
wood player. 

— Dave Karger '95 

grated sports publishing company in Raleigh. 

Thomas Matthew Pashley MBA. '96 is direc- 
tor of business development for the Pinehurst Resort 
and Country Club in Pinehurst, N.C. He is responsible 

lor marketing and promoting the U.S. Open Cham- 
pionship to be held on Pinehurst's Course No. 2 in 
June 1999. 

MARRIAGES: Torsten Berger B.S.E. '90 to Jamie 
Anderson on June 3. Residence: Boston... Stefanie 
Lynn Moss '90 to David Paul Fans on May 10. 
Residence: New York City... Sally Roberts Red- 
ding '91 to James Charles Hanchett on June 7 in 
Duke Chapel. Residence: Vienna, Va....Jody Beth 
Goldberg '92 to Henry Edward Seibert '92 on 
June 21.. .Angela M. Howell '92 to Brent Winter on 
Oct. 4, 1996. Residence: Atlanta. ..Thomas John 
Noonan M.D. '92 to Pamela Dawn Harrell on May 
10 in Duke Chapel. Residence: Durham.. Sheryl 
Ann Watkins J.D. '92 to Michael R. Wilbon on 
April 19. Residence: Fairfax, Va... .Kama Kramer 
'93, M.E.M. '97 to E. Robert Thieler M.S. '93, 
Ph.D. '97 on April 19. Residence: Woods Hole, Mass.... 
Melinda Sue Mische "93 to Robert Gardner 
Storrs'94 on April 26 ...Donna Christine Reefe 
'93 to Jeffrey Harold Childress on June 7 in Duke 
Chapel. Residence: Durham.. .Paul Hudson '94 to 
Kathleen Gordon on Aug. 10. Residence: San Diego... 
Jeffrey Scott Laufenberg '94 to Anne Camille 
Sherman on July 5. Residence: Chicago.. .Lee Anne 
McGee MBA 94 to Jonathan Clay Oxford 
M.B.A. '94 on July 19. Residence: London, England- 
Alexandra Parente Orban '94 to George M. 
Miller IV on Jan. 4. Residence: Hackettstown, N.J. 

BIRTHS: First child and son to Amy Beth 
Chappell J.D. '91 and Andrew George Slutkin 

J.D. '91 on Jan. 24, 1996. Named Jared Aaron...First 
child and son to Julie Srodes Selwood '91 and 
Michael Justin Selwood '91 on April 3. Named 
Christopher William. ..First child and daughter to 
Robert Craig Scherer '94 on Feb. 8. Named 
Sydney Therese. 


:. Ashe '21 of Asheville, N.C, in May. 

Johnson Powers '24 of Roxboro, N.C, 
on May 31. She was a former teacher in Lowes Grove, 
Durham, Edenton, and Roxboro, and a school guidance 
counselor before she retired. On her 92nd birthday, 
she was inducted into the Order of the Long Leaf Pine 
by Gov. Jim Hunt. She is survived by a sister, 
Johnson Fanning '24. 

R. Jenkins '27, A.M. '32, M.Div. '33 of 
Kannapolis, N.C, on May 26. 

Thomas Oliver Gentry '29, M.Ed. '42, of Raleigh, 
on June 16. He worked with the N.C. public schools as 
a teacher and principal for 40 years. After he retired, 
he continued to teach as a substitute for 20 years. He 
also served on the board of directors for Piedmont 
Community College. He is survived by a son, Staley 
M. Gentry '63; a daughter; a brother; four sisters; six 
grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. 

Irene Suther Bost '30 of Concord, N.C, on June 
1, 1996. 

Harry F. Gudger '30 of Candler, N.C, on July 1. A 
World War II Army veteran, he worked with American 
Enka Corp., and was active in the Democratic Party. 
He is survived by his wife.Trula, and a son, William 
D. Gudger '69. 

Samuel B. Underwood, Jr. '31 of Greenville, 
N.C, on Feb. 24, of cancer. A practicing attorney, he 

November- December 1997 

was president of the N.C. Bar Association and the 
Greenville Rotary Club. He was also chair of the board 
of trustees of Sheppard Memorial Library, chair of the 
Pitt County United Way, and a trustee of Louisburg 
College. He is survived by a daughter, two grandchil- 
dren, and two cousins, G. Elwin Small III 74 and 
Anita Lister Small Oldham 80, M.R.I-.. '83. 

Verne E. Bartlett'32 of Weaverville, N.C. He is 
survived by his wire, Helen. 

Maxine Watkins Speller '32 on May 5. She was 

vice president and art director of Robert Speller & 
Sons, Publishers, as well as a costume and lingerie 
designer. She was listed in Who's Who of American 
Women. She is survived by her husband, Robert, two 
sons, three grandchildren, and six great-grandchildren. 

John V. Darwin '33 of Gastonia, N.C, on June 10. 
He taught school and worked for a textile company in 
McColl, S.C., before moving to Gastonia to join Akers 
Motor Lines as an accountant. He retired from Fire- 
stone Textiles as general manager in 1976. He was 
president of the Gastonia Kiwanis Club. He is survived 
by his wife, Edith; two sons, including John Robert 
Darwin 70; a brother; four grandchildren; six step- 
children; 14 step grandchildren; and six step great- 

Carl Raymond Lundgren '33, LL.B. '38 of New 

Haven, Conn., on Dec. 25, 1996, of pneumonia. He 
had worked for the U.S. government in Washington, 
D.C. He is survived by a brother and a sister. 

' Ricks '33 of Ft. Myers, Fla., on 
March 9. At Duke, he was a member of Phi Delta 
Theta fraternity. He is survived by his wife, Ethel. 

Kenneth C. Kates A.M. '34, Ph.D. '37 of Vero 
Beach, Fla., on Jan. 26. During World War II, he served 
in the Army Medical Service Corps in New Guinea. 
A parasitologist, he retired from the Department of 
Agriculture in 1979. He is survived by his wife, 
Florida, a son, a daughter, three stepchildren, and 10 

'35 of Port Washington, N.Y., on 
May 11, of cancer. As science editor of The Associated 
Press, he won writing awards from the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science and the 
Lasker Foundation. He also received the George Polk 
Award in 1952 and was the author of two books on 
medical research. He was past president of the National 
Association of Science Writers and a co-founder and 
president of the American Tentative Society, an orga- 
nization that honors scientists for research confirming 
the tentative nature of knowledge. He is survived by 
his wife, Virginia, a son, and three grandchildren. 

Harold Barker Kemodle 36, M.D. 39 of 
Burlington, N.C, on March 15. A World War II veter- 
an and physician, he had a general surgery and ortho- 
pedics practice for 36 years. He was a co-founder of 
Kernodle Clinic in 1949 and a past president of the 
sixth district of the N.C. Medical Society. He is sur- 
vived by three sons, including Harold Barker 
Kernodle Jr. M.D. '69; four brothers, Charles 
Edward Kernodle Jr. M.D. '42, George Wal- 
lace Kernodle M.D. '44, Dwight T. Kernodle 
M.D. '47, and Donald Reid Kernodle M.D. '53; a 
sister; three grandchildren; and a daughter-in-law, 
Lucy Hendrick Kernodle B.S.N. '69. 

Clara Raven '36 of Detroit, on May 2, 1994, of can- 
cer. She was one of the first five women commissioned 
by the U.S. Army Medical Corps during World War II 
and the first female physician to attain the rank of 
colonel. She was the only female student in her fresh- 
man class at Duke Medical School and earned her 
M.D. degree from Northwestern LIniversity Medical 
School as one of four female students. She attended 
the war crimes trial in Nuremberg, Germany, and 

served in Hiroshima, Japan, as a member of the Atomic 
Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1962, she received the 
Northwestern Alumni Merit Award. She is survived 
by a sister and two brothers. 

George Enslen Patterson Jr. '37 of Moultrie, 

Ga., on May 13. At Duke, he was a member of Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon fraternity and manager of the football 
team. A World War II veteran, he was awarded a Silver 
Star. He was a banker for 40 years, including president 
of the Bank of Palm Beach, president of the former 
Liberty National Bank and Trust Co. (now Suntrust), 
chairman of Libery National's board, and president of 
Atlantic Bank in Savannah. He is survived by a 
daughter and two brothers. 

J. Upchurch '37 of West Columbia, S.C., 
on May 24. At Duke, he was a member of Phi Beta 
Kappa, Red Friars, Omicron Delta Kappa, and Kappa 
Alpha fraternity. A World War II veteran, he was presi- 
dent of the North Augusta Banking Co. and retired as 
vice chairman of Bankers Trust. He is survived by his 
wife, Nancy Seeman Upchurch '38; a son, 
Herbert Jackson Upchurch Jr. '65; a daugh- 
ter; and three grandchildren. 

Dorothy Huffman Goldberg '38 of North 
Conway, N.H., on May 1. She is survived by her hus- 
band, Robert A. Goldberg '40, J.D. '49. 

Thomas I. McCord '38 of Palm Coast, Fla., on 
May 14, of cancer. He is survived by his wife, Elizabeth. 

Marvin H. Pope '38, A.M. '39 of Austin, Texas. An 
Air Force veteran of World War II, he earned his Ph.D 
at Yale University, where he later joined the faculty as 
a professor of Semitic languages. A noted Biblical 
translator and author of several scholarly works, he 
won the National Religious Book Award for a 1977 
commentary on the Old Testament "Song of Songs." In 
1988, Yale Divinity School established a scholarship in 
his honor. 


John G. Carpenter '39 of Saratoga Springs, N.Y., 
on April 15. 

Margaret Kirk Gilliland 39 of Jacksonville, Fla., 
on May 21, 1996. 

ad '39 of Raleigh, on May 31. 
She was active in civic affairs, golf, and garden clubs. 
She is survived by her husband, Thomas, a son, and 
three grandchildren. 

of Little Rock, Ark., on Jan. 17, of a heart attack. She 
was a Navy veteran of World War II. Before earning 
her Ph.D., she was sent to Japan by the Atomic Bomb 
Casualty Commission to study the after-effects of the 
atomic bombings. She worked at Duke Medical 
Center as a research associate and clinical mycologist 
and instructor before going to the Centers for Disease 
Control in Atlanta as chief of its mycology training 
unit. In 1968, she became director of clinical microbi- 
ology at John L. McClellan Veterans Hospital in Little 
Rock. A past president of her American Business 
Women's Association (ABWA) chapter, she was elect- 
ed the 1988 Arkansas Woman of the Year by her chap- 
ter and named one of the top 10 businesswomen in 
the United States by the ABWA. She is survived by a 
brother, James C. Hardin B.S.M.E. '37; a nephew, 
James C. Hardin III 74; and four nieces, includ- 
ing Barbara Proctor Smith '63 and Addria 
Proctor Capps '61. 

E. Hooten '39 of Fredericksburg, Va., in 
October 1995. He is survived by his wife, Barbara. 

Waite W. Howard Jr. '40 of Kinston, N.C, on 
June 11. He had retired after 28 years from First 
Citizens Bank and Trust Co. He is survived by his wife, 

Edith, a son, two daughters, four sisters, seven grand- 
children, and four great-grandchildren. 

John Sharpe Jordan '40, M.Div. '43 of Charlotte, 
on April 26. He was a pastor in 10 churches in the 
Western N.C. Conference of the United Methodist 
Chruch and was appointed to the staff of the Con- 
ference Council of Ministries. He is survived by his 
wife, Mildred, a son, a daughter, and six grandchildren. 

Robert F. Neuburger '40 of Annandale, N.J. 

Katherine Herring Highsmith Holoman '43 

of Raleigh, on May 23, of cancer. She was president of 
the Raleigh Junior Woman's Club, president of the 
Woman's Club of Raleigh, president of the N.C. 
Federation of Woman's Clubs, and president of the 
N.C. Council of Women's Organizations, and chaired 
the Wake County Bicentennial Committee in 1976. 
She was voted Wake County Woman of the Year in 
1966. At Edenton Street United Methodist Church, 
she was president of the United Methodist Women 
and chaired the administrative board. She is survived 
by her husband, Kem; four sons, including D. Kern 
Holoman '69 and his wife, Elizabeth Rock 
'69; a sister; and seven grandchildren. 

: Smith '43 of North Attleboro, Mass., on 
April 25. A captain in the Marine Corps, he worked as 
a corporate executive, serving as vice president of the 
Fram Corp. in East Providence, R.I., and executive 
vice president of Hindley Manufacturing Co. in 
Cumberland, R.I. He was also the author of several 
works, including Herschel P Cuifpepper, a book of chil- 
dren's stories. He is survived by his wife, Dorothy 
Morgan Smith '43; two sons; a daughter; and four 

Robert W. Dawson '44 of Asheville, N.C, on 
April 30, 1996. He is survived by his wife, Patrisha. 

Martha Baity Elliott R.N. '44 of South Bend, Ind., 
on Jan. 15, of cancer. She is survived by her husband, 

Olmstead '44 of Lilesville, N.C, 

Withers Goodwyn Peebles, Jr. '44 of Decatur, 
Ala., on Dec. 11, 1996. 

Robert Leonard Sheldon '44 of Jamesburg, N.J., 
on April 21. A former mayor of Roselle Park, he prac- 
ticed law for 35 years before retiring. He was named 
Man of the Year in 1963 by the Roselle Park chapter of 
UNICO International. He was state chairman for the 
1963 Sister Elizabeth Kenny Fund Appeal, affiliated 
with the March of Dimes; deputy director of the 
motor vehicles department; and deputy attorney 
general for the State of New Jersey. He is survived by 
his wife, Marie; two sons; and a brother, Murray B. 
Sheldon Jr. M.D. 45. 

Herman Amasa Smith '44, J.D. '52 of 
Greensboro, on May 31. At Duke, he played football 
for Coach Wallace Wade, received honorable mention 
as an Ail-American end, and played in the Rose Bowl. 
A World War II veteran and North Carolina's first U.S. 
Magistrate Judge, he was a primary architect of the 
middle district's local rules of practice and procedure, 
which became a model for similar rules later adopted 
by federal courts around the nation. He was also the 
principal drafter of the legislation creating North 
Carolina's Inmate Grievance Commission. In 1982, he 
retired from the bench and became "of counsel" to the 
law firm Osteen, Adams, Tilley, and Walker. He was a 
photographer for the North Carolina Zoo and a recipi- 
ent of the N.C. Zoological Society's Volunteer of the 
Year Award. He also received the Guilford Native 
American Association's Award for Volunteer of the 
Year. He was president of the Greensboro Bar 
Association, the Guilford County Young Republicans 
Club, and the Duke alumni club of Greensboro. He is 


survived by his wife.Tommie Lou, whom he married at 
sunrise on June 11, 1948, atop Duke Chapel. 
Morrow Wright '44 of Cincinnati, on Nov. 28, 
1996. He is survived by his wife, Betty. 

John Richard Emlet M.D. '45 of Milton, Fla., on 
May 11. A surgeon, he retired after 30 years at the 
Medical Center Clinic in Pensacola, Fla. He is survived 
by his wife, Ruth Slocumb Emlet B.S.N. '44, R.N. 
'44; two daughters, including Patricia ' 
Emlet 74; and two sons, including I 
Emlet 77 

Albert C. Zahn M.D. '45 of Fall River Mills, Calif., 
on May 16, 1995. He is survived by his wife, Winifred, 
and three daughters. 

Robert Augur Beer '46 of Potomac, Md., on April 
11, of pneumonia. A World War II veteran, he was a 
retired mortgage broker and former president of the 
Ivor B. Clark Co. He also founded the Potomac Polo 
Club. He is survived by his wife, Kathleen, three chil- 
dren, and three grandchildren. 

Edgar Bowen Huckabee '46 of Durham, on 
June 11. A World War II veteran, he retired after 40 
years in management with Liggett & Myers Tobacco 
Co. He is survived by his wife, Betsy; a daughter; a son; 
a brother, Robert C. Huckabee '47; and three 

John Rogers Muse '46 of Charlotte, on Jan. 14, of 
complications from heart trouble. A World War II vet- 
eran, he briefly played professional baseball. He had 
retired from Du Pont after 40 years. He is survived by 
his wife, Marguerite, a son, a daughter, a brother, three 
sisters, and four grandchildren. 

i J. Berngard '47 of Highland Park, 111., 
on June 27. A World War II veteran and a certified 
public accountant, he was the owner of Genii Lamps, 
a portable light manufacturing company in Chicago. 
After retiring, he worked for Lord & Taylor. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Judith, a son, a daughter, a brother, 
and three grandchildren. 

Betty Jane Swartz Cottle B.S.N. '47, R.N. '47 of 
Wooster, Ohio, on May 17. She was a volunteer nurse 
for the Red Cross Bloodmobile, Wooster Community 
Hospital Auxiliary, and at West View Manor Nursing 
Home. She is survived by her husband, Ralph I. 
Cottle Jr. M.D. '46; a son; a daughter; and two 

Everett J. Doyle '47 of New Hyde Park,N.Y.,on 
April 15, 1995. 

John R. Harvey '47 of Henderson, Nev., on Feb. 19, 
1996, of cancer. Before he retired in 1986, he worked 
for Exxon Corp. as senior tax accountant in the New 
York City office. At Duke, he was a member of Phi 
Kappa Sigma fraternity. He is survived by his wife, 
Marion, a son, a daughter, and two grandchildren. 

Mary Nancye Stewart '47 of Hollywood, Fla., on 
March 5, 1996, of emphysema and congestive heart 
disease. She earned her law degree at the University 
of South Carolina and retired from Equifax. She is sur- 
vived by a brother. 

Thrasher '49 of Atlanta, on 

Nov. 23, 1996. 

V le Mitchell '50 of Durham, on May 
13, of complications from diabetes. A World War II 
veteran, he retired as a certified public accountant. He 
was a deacon at First Baptist Church and former presi- 
dent of the Tobaccoland Kiwanis Club. He is survived 
by his wife, Joyce Herndon Mitchell '51; two 
sons, including William Hoyle Mitchell Jr. 77; a 
daughtet; and five grandchildren. 

Henry C. Tager '51 of Greensboro, on March 21, of 
heart failure. A World War II veteran, he was founder 


The beauty of 
Duke Chapel's 
stained glass win 
dows is in sharp con- 
trast to the ugly tale 
told by their true cre- 
ator, an artist who 
only wanted his work 
recognized. The gist 
of die story comes 
from a chance conver- 
sation with a chapel 
visitor, a phone 
call, and a fol- 
low-up letter re- 
ceived by How- 
ard C. Wilkinson 
university chap- 
lain and director 
of religious activ- 
ity from 1958 to 
The chapel's 


Owen Bonawit, 
comprise nearly 
900 biblical fig- 
ures and scenes 
represented by 
more than a 
million pieces 
of stained glass. 
There are 301 
figures. The 
largest window 
is seventeen and 
a half feet by 
thirty-eight feet; 
the smallest is 
fourteen by 
twenty inches. 
The glass, both 
imported and 
domestic, varies 
in thickness from 
one-eighth to 
of an inch. 

In the overall 
plan, the clere- 
story windows of 
the nave follow 
the Old Testa- 
ment, the medal- 
lion windows 
along the aisle depict 
the New Testament, 
the narthex windows 
are devoted to women, 
and the grand transept 

dows have figures of 
both men and women 
from the Old and New 

In 1963, Wilkinson 
was surprised to learn 
from a conversation 
with a visitor to the 
chapel that the win- 
dows were actually the 

^ FA 
'-AA a 

The writing on the window: taking credit 1 
between the artist and the overseer 

work of the visitor's 
roommate, Secord 
Charles Jaekle. A 
phone call to Jaekle 
provided the proof, 
and a sad tale of artis- 
tic temperament. 

Here is Wilkinson's 
written recollection: 

"The story that he 
gave me over the 
phone, in a relaxed 
conversation, was that 
I would find his name 
in a clerestory window 
which portrays Noah. 

In the second window 
from the east end on 
the south side, one 
may view the following 
names: G. Bonawit, 
Designer; S. Charles 
Jaekle, Designer; Hugh 
Doherty, Craftsman; 
built these windows, 
N.Y., 1930-33. 

"Mr. Bonawit had 
secured the sub-con- 
tract to provide the 
windows. He turned to 
Jaekle to do the work, 
after telling him what 

the general plan for 
the windows should 
be. He then prepared 
to depart for Europe, 
to seek other contracts. 
Before he left, Jaekle 
asked that he might 
put his own name in 
small letters, under- 
neath Bonawit's name. 
Bonawit angrily denied 
the request — and left 
for Europe. 

"Mr. Bonawit did 
not return until the 
windows were all in 
place. He left at 
once for Durham to 
inspect 'his' win- 
dows. When he saw 
the names in the 
clerestory window, 
he returned to New 
York and called 
Jaekle into his 
office. Angrily, he 
told him that he 
was fired. Jaekle 
complained that 
this was an injus- 
tice, but that he was 
at least entitled to 
his drawings. Bona- 
wit told him to 
return the next 
day and he would 
have them. [The 
next day] Bonawit 
showed Jaekle a 
huge pile of shred- 
ded paper in the 
middle of the floor. 
'There are your 
drawings,' said 

Wilkinson asked 
Jaekle to record this 
in a letter, which he 
finally received. 
Though the deed 
was hurtful, he 
knew his work sur- 
passed Bonawit's 
actions: "It is the 
only church in the 
whole world that 
has every important 
incident in the Bible 
recorded in stained 
glass," he wrote. "The 
designing of the win- 
dows for posterity was 
the most rewarding 
and thrilling experi- 
ence of my life." 

— from materials 

provided b\ 

University Archives 

November-December 1997 

3ft pap* to 
tnbegt m 

Put your trust in Duke 
University by establishing a 
charitable remainder trust 
which benefits both you and 
Duke. For a minimum of 
$100,000, you can: 

* Earn 5 to 7-1/2 percent 
income on your gift 

* Receive an income for life for 
you and your spouse 

* Receive a charitable income 
tax deduction this year 

* Transfer appreciated 
securities to your trust and 
potentially avoid capital gains 

* Select a payment option that 
either pays you a fixed dollar 
amount or a fixed percentage of 
the trust assets revalued 

* Support a University program 
that interests you or create a 
scholarship or other endowment 

If you want to leam how a 
charitable remainder trust can 
benefit both you and Duke 
University, call the Office of 
Planned Giving and we will 
send you a personal financial 

Please contact: 

Michael C. Sholtz, J.D., Director 

Office of Planned Giving 

Duke University 

3100 Tower Blvd. 

Suite 205 

Durham, NC 27707 

(919) 419-5070 

(919) 684-2123 

and president ofThe Hub Ltd. He is survived by his 
wife, Peggy; a daughter; three sons; a brother, Milton 
L. Tager B.S.C.E. '50; and two grandchildren. 

John R. Lewis J.D. '52 of Yakima, Wash. He was an 

Ray Francis NIcArthur '52 of Rancho Bernardo, 
Calif, on March 12. A World War II veteran, he was a 
professor of gerontology at the University of Michigan's 
School of Public Health. He is survived by his wife, 
Eleanor, three daughters, a sister, two stepchildren, and 
eight grandchildren. 

Claude P. Ledes '54 of Memphis, on April 26, 

H. MacQueen '54 of St. Louis, on May 
3. He is survived by his wife, Jan, and a son, James 
Henry MacQueen '84. 

Charles Franklin Pennigar B.D. '56 of Shemlls 
Ford, N.C., on April 7. He served as a pastor in 15 
churches in the Western North Carolina Conference 
of the United Methodist Church. He is survived by his 
wife, Ellen, a son, and two daughters. 

Feidelson '61 of Armonk, N.Y., on Aug. 
27, after a short illness. He was president of MRP 
Management Corp. He was a member of Duke's 
Founders' Society and the James B. Duke Society. He 
is survived by his wife, Babs; two sons, including 
Robert S. Feidelson Jr. '86; three grandchildren; 
a sister; and a brother. 

David Peter Schorr Jr. M.A.T. '62 of Chapel 
Hill, on May 26. A World War II veteran, he retired 
from the U.S. Army as brigadier general after 28 years 
of service. He was awarded the Silver Star, Legion of 
Merit with Oak Leaf Cluster, Bronze Star, and Combat 
Infantryman's Badge. He also taught math at Duke for 
seven years. He is survived by his wife, Mary, a daughter, 
a son, seven grandchildren, nine great-grandchildren, 
and one great-great-grandchild. 

Thomas Cameron MacCaughelty '65 of 

Ashland City.Tenn., on May 16. He retired as lieu- 
tenant colonel of the Army Reserves Medical Corps. 
He earned his M.D. at UNC-Chapel Hill and was an 
associate professor of anesthesiology at Vanderbilt 
University Medical Center. 

Dexter Lee Jeffords '66, M.D. '70 of Hilton 

Head, S.C., on May 2, of pancreatic cancer. A U.S. 
Navy veteran, he was a urologist and chief of surgery 
at Hilton Head Medical Center and Clinics. At Duke, 
he was a member of Sigma Chi fraternity. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Deborah, his mother, two daughters, 
three sons, and a sister. 

Donald Dale Herzberg '68 of Springfield, Va., on 
Oct. 19, 1996, of a heart attack. He is survived by his 
wife, Sharon Kalmbach Herzberg '68. 

Barbara Frischer Brooks '80 of New York, N.Y., 
on Jan. 13, of cancer. She is survived by her husband, 
Barry, and two daughters. 

Michael Don FarrJ.D. '83 of San Francisco, on 
Jan. 17, of smoke inhalation. He was an attorney. He is 
survived by his father, two sons, a daughter, a brother, 
and two sisters. 

Kathleen Lynn Stoney '96 of San Francisco, on 
March 15, of cancer. At Duke, she was a member of 
Kappa Alpha Theta sorority and a volunteer at both 
Duke and UNC-Chapel Hill hospitals. She was pursuing 
a career in nursing at St. Louis University. She is sur- 
vived by her parents, a sister, and three brothers. 

Economist Bronfenbrenner 

Noted economist and professor emeritus of economics 
at Duke Martin Bronfenbrenner died June 2 at 
his Durham home. 

A William R. Kenan Jr. professor emeritus of eco- 

nomics, he was best known for his contributions to 
macroeconomics, international trade, the theory of 
income distribution, and comparative economics, and 
for his expertise on the Japanese economy. 

He graduated from Washington University in St. 
Louis and earned his Ph.D. in economics from the 
University of Chicago in 1939. After teaching at 
Roosevelt University, he spent two years at the U.S. 
Treasury in Washington. He then joined the Federal 
Reserve Bank as a financial economist, a position to 
which he returned following three years in the Navy as 
a Japanese language student and officer. 

Before he became the first Kenan Professor at Duke, 
he taught at the University of Wisconsin, Michigan 
State University, the University of Minnesota, and 
Carnegie Mellon University, where he chaired the eco- 
nomics department. He held a Fulbright appointment 
in Japan and visiting appointments at the Center for 
Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences at Stanford, 
the University of Sussex, and the Federal Reserve 
Bank of San Francisco. 

He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, vice president of the American Econo- 
mic Association, and president of both the Southern 
Economic Association and the History of Economics 
Society. In January 1997, he was named a Distinguished 
Fellow of the American Economics Association. 

He published some 250 articles and five books. 
Fluent in Japanese, he also published a volume of 
fiction, Tomioka Stories, based on his experience as a 
language officer in occupied Japan. 

In 1984, the Martin Bronfenbrenner Graduate 
Fellowship was established in his honor at Duke. For 
the next six years, he was professor of international 
economics at Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo, 
returning to Durham in 1991. 

He is survived by his wife, Teruko Okuaki, a son, a 
daughter, and a grandson. 

The director of the Woman's College Library at Duke 
for twenty-nine years, Evelyn Harrison '30 died 
June 17 in Williamston, North Carolina. She was 88. 

She attended Lewisburg College for two years, then 
transferred to the Woman's College at Duke, where she 
earned her undergraduate degree. She earned a library 
science degree at the University of Illinois and 
returned to Durham. She began as a member of the 
support staff in the order department of the Woman's 
College library and, when she retired in 1978, she was 
its director. In all, she worked in Duke's library system 
for forty-eight years. 

Church Historian Henry 

Noted American church historian and Duke Divinity 
School professor emeritus Stuart Clark Henry 

Ph.D '55 died June 28. 

Educated at Davidson College, Louisville Presby- 
terian Theological Seminary, and at Duke, he began 
his career as a parish minister in Natchez, Mississippi. 
Thirteen years later, he left to join the religion depart- 
ment at Southern Methodist University. After nine 
years, he joined the Duke faculty, where he taught for 
thirty-five years before retiring in 1985. 

Henry was the author of two biographies and 
numerous journal articles focusing on the American 
Christian church. He was a member of Phi Beta Kappa 
and Eta Sigma Phi honorary societies, and a member 
and officer of the American Society of Church History. 
He composed an opera, Lost Eden, that was produced 
at Duke Chapel in 1982. 

In 1975, he was honored by the Class of 1975 with 
an endowed library fund, and in 1986 two former stu- 
dents established in his name a scholarship fund at the 
divinity school for Presbyterian students. 

He is survived by his sister, a niece, and two 




Please limit letters to 300 words, and include full 
name, address, and class year. We reserve the right 
to edit for length and clarity. Our Internet address 



I am a graduate of the Class of 1947 Duke 
nursing school. My husband, Frank, received 
his bachelor's and master's at Duke in 1948 
and 1949. 

We always look forward to reading the class 
notes in the Duke Magazine, but to our horror, 
we discovered that we no longer exist! I refer 
to the classes prior to the Fifties, Sixties, and 
Seventies in the July- August issue. What hap- 
pened? No notes at all for us old folks of the 
Forties (and before). 

Personally, we're alive, well, and kicking. We 
even play golf several times a week, and do 
seminars on assertiveness training and stress 
management to large groups, so my mind is 
still active, too. 

Please do not leave our classes of the 
Twenties, Thirties, and Forties out again. 

Jean Bundy Scott R.N. '47 
Floyd, Virginia 

We also regret that earlier classes don't always 
appear. Some must think that only job changes, 
marriages, or births constitute class-note-worthi- 
ness. A special anniversary, an award-winning 
essay, a performance in a local theater group, re- 
cognition for community service — all are items 
alumni can share with their classmates. We hope 
your letter will prompt our older — and probably 
more active — graduates to send us their news. 




In the article "A Move Toward Moderation" 
[July-August 1997], the picture on page 16 is 
captioned Cafe Society: at Hartman's, 1936. 
Some of those pictured, Ray Hawes, Don 
O'Brien, and Peter Maas, were eight years old 
in 1936. The ages of the girls are a secret to 

this day. It seems more likely that the picture 
was snapped in 1948 or 1949. 

More important is that, in actuality, you 
could not have selected five individuals more 
qualified to symbolize moderation. Apparently, 
the paparazzi caught Don [center] blinking his 
eyes. Pete is raising what appears to be a glass 
of beer, but I doubt that beer was ever quaf- 
fed. Ray was never obstreperous. 

Indeed, all were the life of the party, but 
moderate to the core, and certainly not exam- 
ples of the "wretched excesses of the past." 

George Y. Bliss '51 

Port Jefferson, New York 

Tronic you, and otters, for catching this captioning 
error, for which we apologize. The picture is from 
the 1948 Chanticleer. All photos in the story were 
chosen for their historical value; we did not in- 
tend to imply that those depicted were representa- 
tive of the negative aspects of "social" drinking. 




I just finished reading the article "Curiosity 
and the Camel" in your July- August issue and 
wanted to note that Frank Smullin could not 
have died in 1978 because I took one of my 
most memorable classes at Duke from him in 
1982. This course, "Structures," was co-taught 
by Smullin, an artist; Steve Wainwright, a zo- 
ologist; and George Pearsall, an engineer. It was 
a truly interdisciplinary experience which forced 
the participating students and faculty to look 
at the world around them in new ways. 

Hearing of Frank Smullin's death [Novem- 

ber 1983] sparked a moment of reflection as 
to how influential that course was for me. 
Thinking back on it now, I continue to see that 
class as a turning point that led me first to a 
master's in design, then to a doctorate in psy- 
chology, and to my current career researching 
and teaching about issues in three-dimen- 
sional form. 

This course and the faculty who put it 
together are testimony to the fact that some 
of the most exciting intellectual adventures 
are found in the nooks and crannies between 
mainstream academic disciplines. We should 
celebrate those teachers and students willing 
to explore those regions. 

Raleigh, North Carolina 




I just finished re-reading the article about 
John Marans '79 and his play, Old Wicked 
Songs, in the March-April issue. I will be play- 
ing the role of Stephen in the Minneapolis 
premiere of the work in September. At the 
time of my audition, I had no idea of his Duke 
connection, nor that we had studied singing 
with the same voice teacher. 

I thought the story was comprehensive and 
well written. The interview aspects were par- 
ticularly helpful as I begin the process of dis- 
covering this character. The timing of publi- 
cation couldn't have been better. Thanks! 

Peter Vitale '86 



The "Gazette" article [July-August 1997] 
about Dick White's retirement as dean of 
Arts and Sciences brought back a couple of 
strong memories from the fall of 1963. Lloyd 
Dunn '65 and I were Dr. White's first two stu- 
dents (small class!) in his first "Plant Anato- 

my course. 

November- December 1997 35 


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The good memory is of a great teacher who 
influenced both of us to be botany majors and 
enter careers in science. I also remember that 
we were in that class when JFK was shot, an 
event that sobered our moods and activities 
for quite a few weeks. 

Teddy Reyling Devereux '66, A.M. 71 

The letter writer heads the Molecular Toxicology 
Group in the Laboratory of Molecular Carcino- 
genesis at the National Institute of Environmen- 
tal Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park. 



I am a student from Belgium visiting the 
States, and I found your article "Where Are 
the C's of Yesteryear?" [May- June 1997] very re- 
vealing. I am very interested in the differences 
between the grading psychology in the States 
and in Europe, particularly since U.S. univer- 
sities vary from substandard to outstanding. 

I discussed this subject with a number of 
American students; they tell me that a 
substantial number of professors are soft on 
grading because they need to get good stu- 
dent evaluations, which translate to popular- 
ity, which translates to salary increases. This, 
of course, doesn't apply to "star" professors 
whose classes are always full and are immune 
to such "bribing," as it is beyond their profes- 
sional dignity. 

This evaluation business is appealing and 
at the same time appalling to me. It is un-aca- 
demic, and it is possible only in America, 
where business manners (the customer is 
always right) prevail. 

Jean Zvolsky 

Davidson, North Carolina 



I enjoyed the mini-profile on Mary Ellen 
Jones '59 A.M. '59, author of John]akes: A Criti- 
cal Companion ["Capturing a Life, July- August 
1997]. In her book, she quotes Jakes on his 
financial motive for writing: "We had four chil- 
dren.... Virtually everything that I made from 
my writing went into their college education." 

It's true. The Kent Family Chronicles paid for 
my tuition in 1975-79. 

J. Michael Jakes B.S.E. '79 
Washington, D.C. 





Philip Cook, acting chair of 
Duke's Sanford Institute of 
Public Policy and current ITT 
public policy professor, has 
done ground-breaking social 
science research on sex (how 
government funding affects 
abortion rates) and drugs (the 
impact of crack on youth violence; whether 
consumption taxes prevent alcohol-related 
deaths). So in 1995, when he published The 
Winner-Take-All Society with co-author Robert 
Frank, it made sense that Cook would tackle, 
among other things, rock and roll. 

"The reward structure common in enter- 
tainment and sports, where thousands com- 
pete for a handful of big prizes at the top, has 
now permeated many sec- 
tors of the economy," he and 
Frank write. Cook contends 
that such a system presents a 
problem: Namely, that our 
nation is worse off if too 
many people compete in such 
"longshot" fields, like singing, 
and that more and more pro- 
fessions like law, bond trading, 
and dentistry now behave like 
these "superstar markets." 

If 1,000 people aspire to 
pop careers, for example, one 
will become Whitney Hou- 
ston and earn $10 million a 
year while 999 will end up 
waiting tables for $20,000 a 
year. According to the Cook 
argument, if those same 1,000 
people took more "normal" 
but less spectacular careers 
as $50,000-per-year building 
managers and teachers and 
airline mechanics and nurses, 
the economy and society 
would be much better off. 
(To put a number on it, the 
"boring" people would earn 
$50-million to the $30- 



million total of Whitney- and-the-waiters.) 

Cook does not agree with the popular 
mantra that such entertainers aren't worth 
the money, an argument usually voiced by an 
indignant public when athletes sign multimil- 
lion-dollar contracts. Nobody is worth that 
much money, we say. But they are worth the 
money in a purely economic sense. "The San 
Francisco Giants offered Barry Bonds a 
$43,750,000 contract," Cook writes, "not be- 
cause team owner Peter Magowan was stupid, 
but because Bonds' presence helped fill the 
stands and land a more lucrative TV con- 
tract." (This was back in the old days of 1992, 
when a top baseball player couldn't get much 
more than $40 million.) 

The Winner-Take -All Society is a new way 
of explaining America's 
growing income inequality 
and, as such, it's gotten a 
great deal of attention from 
the likes of ABC's World 
News Tonight, The Newshour 
with ]im Lehrer on PBS, and 
Washington Post columnist 
David Broder. Accolades came 
from all over the world: 
Business Week wrote, "Frank 
and Cook break new ground 
by linking the win-at-all- 
costs mentality to economic 
and cultural problems," while 
The Observer (of London) 
called it "One of the most 
influential books of recent 

The success surprised 
Cook. "I felt this wouldn't be 
;much different than any- 
lathing else I'd written, that is 
| to say, sunk without a trace," 
| he says with a laugh. "But we 
i had good timing. There were 
I a lot of stories on wage in- 
equality and record corporate 
I profits, and economists were 
| not coming through with 

November- 1 Vcenilvr 1 *> t 

crisp explanations. Then President Clinton 
started using the phrase 'winner take all' in all 
his speeches — we still haven't figured out 
why — and the bully pulpit lends a lot of free 

Cook, who, like Clinton, is fifty-one, waves 
to a shelf, where there are editions of his book 
in Portuguese, Korean, and Mandarin (with a 
cover illustration showing a bowl, the Eastern 
tradition of communal eating, with giant sil- 
verware in it, representing the greedy Western 
capitalist who takes more than his fair share). 
"The success is relative," he says. "People say 
they saw you on TV and if you're rude enough 
to ask 'What did I say?' they scratch their 

Cook and Frank got the notion for The 
Winner-Take -All Society from, of all things, 
sweatshirts. "We had the impression in the late 
Eighties that many students on campus would 
wear their Duke and Cornell sweatshirts 
around, and this seemed to be a benefit per- 
ceived by students. When we went to school, 
no one would wear that stuff. But now it had 
become a powerful signal that you had sur- 
vived a very special process." 

Why has the book struck a chord? Polls 
show that while the overall economy is cruising 
along, there seems to be a crisis of confidence, 
usually related to growing income inequality 
and job insecurity. Culprits? Economists and 
pundits have offered several: the rise of tech- 
nology, the decline of manufacturing, a culture 
of excuse, immigration, lousy schools, or the 
global economy. 

Cook and Frank, a Cornell economist, came 
up with a wholly different spin. "Winner-take- 
all markets have increased the disparity be- 
tween the rich and poor," the pair writes. "They 
have lured some of our most talented citizens 
into socially unproductive, sometimes even de- 
structive tasks. In an economy that already 
invests too little in the future, they have fos- 
tered wasteful patterns of investment and con- 
sumption." To put it closer to home, too many 
would-be teachers and scientists stare at the 
wall of Duke's Career Service Center and see 
only lucrative listings for Goldman Sachs. 

Some commentators say that it's unjust for 
those at the top of superstar markets to earn 
such astronomical sums. Others shoot back that 
giant salaries are simply the free market at 
work, and therefore disturbing it would breed 
inefficiency — a theory with which Cook and 
Frank disagree. "We wanted to point out that 
instead of a conflict between efficiency and 
justice, they actually go together," Cook says. 
"The dogma is the great tradeoff, but it's not. 
Too much concentration at the high end of 
the income distribution hurts the economy." 

In other words, liberals and conservatives 
both have it wrong. The problem with the econ- 
omy isn't greedy executives who take too much 
of the profits. They're worth the money. It's 

actually the also-rans who hurt American 
productivity. "By themselves, the superstar 
salaries have contributed little to rising in- 
equality," Cook and Frank write. "The really 
important new source of inequality has been 
the escalating earnings of the near rich — the 
salespeople, administrators, accountants, physi- 
cians, and millions of other minor league 
superstars who dominate the smaller niche 
markets of everyday life." Superstar fields suffer 
from overentry. "They tend to attract too 
many of the best and brightest," says Cook. 
"The bottom line is that the rewards are out 
of proportion to utility." 

The book could be called supply-side eco- 
nomics turned on its head. Supply side says 
lower taxes, let the rich become richer, and 
their spending will drive the economy for the 
rest of us. Cook says economic reality is the 
opposite: The lure of lavish prizes in so many 
professions distorts the economy. Therefore, 
they argue, we need a more progressive tax 
system (the rich pay more). "We cannot ex- 
pect an invisible hand to mitigate the eco- 
nomic and social ills that spring from winner- 
take-all markets," he writes. "Higher taxes on 
the top prizes would curb overcrowding in 
[these] markets." 

It's a boring solution, but seemingly the 
only one on the horizon, which may be why 
the issue of wealth distribution wasn't an is- 
sue in the presidential campaign after Pat Bu- 
chanan dropped out — neither Bob Dole nor 
Clinton had any bright ideas. Former 
Secretary of Labor Robert Reich has pushed 
enormous investment in training. Cook 
replies, "That wouldn't affect income distribu- 
tion at the top. Earners making over $100,000 
have doubled in the last decade, controlling 
for inflation. Training won't get at that issue." 
In fields like litigation, Cook endorses more 
specific solutions, like tort reform. 

But why do we need solu- 
tions now? Hasn't it always 
been that the best get the 
most? Yes, but there used to 
be a close correlation be- 
tween how much better you 
were and how much more 
you were paid. "I like to use 
the ballad of John Henry, the steel-driving 
man," Cook says. "He was the strongest man, 
the best with a hammer — let's say 10 percent 
better than the next best guy," and he got paid 
10 percent more. (Cook, like all economists, 
loves to quantify everything; the book, how- 
ever, is free from jargon and exceptionally 
readable, by social- science standards.) 

Today, Cook is saying, John Henry would be 
the Michael Jordan of steel drivers, endorsing 
some brand of hammer for Sears, competing 
against an engine on some ESPN2 TV spe- 
cial, and not a giant who earned $1.10 a day 

instead of a buck. The economic point is that 
a tiny edge in today's economy is worth a huge 
additional premium. Imagine you're shopping 
for a brain surgeon to remove a baseball-sized 

Cautionary Cook: finding economic dangers in 
the lure of lavish prizes 

mass from your head. Wouldn't you pay twice 
as much for a surgeon who was considered to 
be even 10 percent better than the others? 

"We're not proposing any radical changes 
in basic economics," Cook says. "But we're 
basically saying, if you're trying to understand 
the distribution of earnings, the human-capi- 
tal story only takes you so far. It omits con- 
text. If you grow twice as many crops as your 
neighbor, you make twice as much. But that 
metaphor doesn't work well in intellectual 
markets. One real celebrity isn't the same 
thing at all as two minor celebs." 

Naturally, the Frank-Cook theory has come 
under some fire. Few argue with the basic pre- 
mise of Cook's work; the much more contro- 
versial question is how much it matters. Some 
economists, like John Kenneth Galbraith, 
have argued "Not much." After all, the impact 
of winner-take-all markets is mitigated by the 
fact that people will only beat their head 
against the wall for so long. If you audition for 
Juilliard and fail, perhaps you'll practice and 
try again next year. But then you'll move on 
to a more "normal" career. Cook would reply 
that many career decisions are "sticky." If too 
many people go through medical school, it's 
hard to reverse that investment. They're stuck 
(one reason that the government is now pay- 
ing some schools to take fewer students). 


A NewYorkTimes review called the hook "a 
major contribution to the debate about the 
causes and consequences of inequality in 
America," but cited it as "a one-size-fits-all 
explanation" where "many readers will find 
some of their remedies worse than the dis- 
ease." The FinancialTimes points out that Cook 
and Frank sometimes avoid an underlying 
cause — that the proliferation of U.S. lawyers, 
for example, has to do with a national culture 
of litigiousness. Sherwin Rosen, the econo- 
mist who invented the concept of superstar 
markets, further wonders who can "plausibly 
estimate how many lawyers are too many?" If 
no one can, he queries, how could interven- 
tion be efficient? 

Another attack came from the Southern 
Economic Journal. "Salary is not the only im- 
portant factor in choosing a career, and na- 
tional income is not the only measure of 
social welfare," it argues. "Is it correct to label 
it 'socially wasteful' for someone to play bas- 
ketball on high-school and college teams, 
with the hope of reaching the NBA? Perhaps 
that person enjoys playing basketball. Frank 
and Cook characterize an activity as socially 
wasteful if it does not immediately increase 
tangible goods output in an economy." 

Asked about the "newness" of the applica- 
tion of superstar theory — Do more people 


want to become athletes because they can 
earn unbelievably huge salaries instead of just 
plain huge? — Cook replies, magnitude mat- 
ters. "Part of the attraction is the celebrity as 
defined by money, where we judge people by 
how enormous their earnings are. With lot- 
teries where one week the jackpot hits $100 
million, for example, people come in from out 
of state to play; where for only $5 million, still 
an extraordinary amount of money, they 
don't. So there is sensitivity to giant numbers. 

Though it's true a high-school boy turned 
down $1.9 million from the Yankees so he 
could pursue college. But maybe if they'd 
offered him $5 million...." 

The winner is not necessarily the best. "In 
chess or sprinting, the best are the winners, but 
if you're talking about complicated competi- 
tions, externalities come into play," Cook says. 
"Beta video, the qwerty keyboard, Microsoft 
Windows — if you look at the evolution of a 
species, you see gerry-rigged arrangements. 
History matters. An early advantage is mag- 


ook's own history began 
on a farm near Buffalo. 
He attended the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, a 
family school, then went 
to Berkeley on a Na- 
tional Science Founda- 
tion fellowship. "It was 
the last couple of years of tumult of that era, 
pretty exciting times," Cook recalls. Asked 
whether he was an observer or participant, he 
replies, "Primarily an observer, but there were 
no observers. We were a generation with little 
respect for the old way. We'd wake up in our 
apartment, look out, and the National Guard 
had arrived; we took our baby and headed for 
the hills. Or you'd be in a lecture on some 
technical issue and outside there was a ROTC 
demonstration, with tear gas flying back and 
forth, screams and shouts, and a professor 
telling you that you had to stay if you cared 
about your education. Of course, we all fled." 
In 1973, Cook arrived at Duke with his 
Ph.D., becoming one of the first faculty hires 
of the new public-policy graduate program 
devised by Joel Fleishman. He and and his 
wife, Judy Walmsley Cook Ph.D. 79, a clinical 
psychologist, have two children. He is a pop- 
ular professor in the department, the sort who 
puts the "scientist" back into social scientist. 
That is, he examines an issue, makes a hy- 
pothesis, tests it, and lets the evidence point 
the way. If the conclusion doesn't square with 
the prevailing ideology, so be it. Every social 
scientist claims to do this; in reality, some are 
driven by ideology. 

Cook's current research will probably prove 
to be controversial. One study examines how 
the availability of state funding affects abor- 
tion rates. "North Carolina had a nice little 
natural experiment, a period where an appro- 
priation was inadequate and there were a few 
months where there was effectively no public 
money for abortion," he says. "There was a 
remarkable drop in the number of procedures 
statewide, about a third, and we're still look- 
ing into exactly what happened." 

He's worked on a number of contentious 
issues. He studied lotteries and pointed out 
the now widely-known fact that they're re- 

gressive — poorer, less educated people tend to 
play more. He found that dropout rates among 
African Americans are no higher than those of 
whites, when controlled for family circum- 
stances — they don't cut more classes, miss 
more school days, or have parents who meet 
less often with teachers. And his study of 
death-penalty cases found that it's twice as 
expensive to convict and sentence a murder- 
er to death than to impose twenty years to life 
in prison. "Common sense says it's cheaper to 
supply a few jolts of electricity than to shell 
out the equivalent of tuition at Harvard tor 
incarceration for the next twenty years. But 
when all the costs are weighed, just the oppo- 
site is true." The death penalty is more expen- 
sive, he says, because of the constitutional 
protections that invariably stretch out the 
judicial process. 

The bulk of what he does, though, has to 
do with violent crime. "In the late 1980s, vio- 
lent crime shot up, quintupling in five years. 
Now we've seen a drop back down, very sud- 
denly, like measles. The usual explanation of 
the root causes of crime — poverty and so 
forth — doesn't explain the volatility. There 
was very little change in poverty during that 
period. There was some sequence of events 
that brought kids into marketing crack, lead- 
ing very dangerous lives, having money to buy 
guns. Then the contagion comes, where kil- 
ling became fashionable, or perhaps it was just 
the infusion of guns into the neighborhood. 
It's all kind of murky." 

Cook's studies of gun control have been 
cited nationwide. He says now that, while not 
much has been accomplished with assault 
weapons — "too many loopholes, and they're 
not really the problem numbers-wise" — the 
Brady Law is making a difference, though not 
in the way anticipated. Gun sellers, Cook 
says, have been halved in number. Mean- 
while, the cultural trends are pushing down 
gun demand. Cook recently released a study 
showing the percentage of gun owners drop- 
ping from 50 percent in 1970s to 40 percent 
now. "I'm interested in how people behave 
with their guns. One way to economize is, if 
you're afraid the police will confiscate it, don't 
carry it with you, don't brandish it, store it 
more carefully. It's not just whether you have 
a gun, but what you do with it." 

Why so much interest in guns, gambling, 
drugs? The decidedly low-key Cook laughs at 
a smart-aleck suggestion of repressed desire. 
He recalls a faculty dinner. "The provost was 
honoring [religion professor] Stanley Hauer- 
was and me; we got our chairs on the same 
night. The provost said, 'Isn't it great Duke is 
so diverse? Here we have a professor of virtue, 
and one of vice.' " 

Goldstein '91 is a freelance writer living in Boston. 

November-December 1997 39 






I had come up with the perfect plan 
for a one-of-a-kind summer vaca- 
tion, but when I called to invite my 
old high school friend Alex, he was 
"Let me get this straight," Alex 
said. "You just read this amazing 
book about the Lewis and Clark 

"Yes. It's called Undaunted Courage, by 
Stephen Ambrose." 

"And it turns out Lewis was the same age as 
us when he did the expedition?" 

"That's right. He was twenty-nine years old 
and going through some of the same struggles 
you and I are going through," I said. 
"Like being caught in a dead-end job?" 
"Well, actually he was an aide to President 
Jefferson. But here's the deal: Lewis was young 
and cocky; he'd always been certain he would 
make his mark on the world; and he managed 
to get the best training available in biology, 
medicine, and outdoorsmanship. But then he 
finds himself at age twenty-nine, with all that 
training and opportunity, and he has no idea 
when, how, or if he's going to be famous at all. 
Doesn't that strike a chord with you?" 

"Sure, whatever. So now you have this spir- 

itual connection with a guy who lived 200 
years ago, and you want to spend your entire 
summer vacation — our vacation — cooped up 
in a rent-a-car, retracing the expedition?" 

"That's right. We'll fly from San Francisco 
to Kansas City, then drive up the Missouri 
River, cross the Continental Divide, down the 
Columbia River to the Pacific, and then drive 
home. We'll see everything Lewis saw, at the 
same time of year, at the same age he was." 

On the other end of the phone line, I just 
knew Alex was shaking his head and wearing 
one of his big, sly grins. "You know, it actually 
sounds like an interesting trip. Who else 
should we invite?" 

Four weeks later, on August 27, we found 
ourselves driving through a desolate 
Montana badland, on an empty road 
that paralleled the Missouri River. Alex and I 
had been joined by two other high school 
friends, Eric and Kris. Eric, Alex, Kris, and I 
had always meant to remain inseparable. But 
late nights at work or in grad school had 
made it difficult to stay in touch. We had 
begun to feel comfortable in wingtip shoes 
and neckties. How fitting, we thought, that a 
book like Undaunted Courage, which cele- 

brates the friendship of Lewis and Clark, had 
brought us back together. 

Three of us — Eric, Alex, and I — had 
flown to Kansas City to retrace the first leg of 
the expedition; and already we had sampled 
some vintage Americana. In Kansas City, we 
chanced upon the Heritage Jazz Festival, held 
down in the city's historic jazz district at 18th 
and Vine. From there, we drove north along 
the Missouri. In Omaha, we explored the old 
riverfront produce markets, and we met some 
local women's rights activists who were selling 
T-shirts that read: "Oh my God! I'm a femi- 
nist living in Nebraska! Now what do I do?" 
North of Omaha, we came upon two teenagers 
whose truck had broken down, and we gave 
them rides back to their public-housing pro- 
ject on the Winnebago Indian Reservation. 
Heading northwest, we passed through Iowa, 
South Dakota, and endless miles of wheat 
fields. Finally, on the steps of the art-deco 
state capital in Bismark, North Dakota, we met 
up with Kris, who had flown out from New 
York. Our expedition force was now complete. 

The four of us were now heading due west 
from Williston, North Dakota, across into Mon- 
tana. On our left, we could catch glimpses of 
the wide, blue-gray Missouri as it cut silently 


and powerfully through vast yellow-green 
plains. A clear, summer sky spread out above 
us. Not far from here, in 1805, Lewis and 
Clark had stayed in an Indian village that 
marked the edge of known territory for Euro- 
pean Americans. There they met a fifteen- 
year-old Shoshone girl named Sacagawea, 
enlisted her as a translator, then set off into 
one of the last unmapped parts of the world. 

What Lewis and Clark did next would 
achieve one of the great visions of Thomas 
Jefferson, and it would mark a turning point 
in U.S. history. Over the period 1804-06, they 
would lead a small troop of sol- 
diers from St. Louis to the Pa- 
cific and back. By finding a 
land route to the Pacific, they 
would open the way for Ameri- 
ca to claim the land, resources, 
and trade routes of the West, 
thereby allowing the U.S. to 
grow into a major industrial 
power. Along the way, Lewis 
would also make some impres- 
sive scientific discoveries, in- 
cluding more than 120 new 
animal species, from the prairie 
dog to the bighorn sheep. 

Looking out the car window, 
I imagined Lewis and Clark 
sailing their boat up this very 
part of the Missouri in 1805. 
What would they find? There 
were rumors of a bear larger 
than any yet encountered by 
Western man. There were the 
recently discovered bones of 
the woolly mammoth, which 
some scientists guessed might 
still roam this land. Everything 
here was new, and for Lewis and 
Clark, this terrain would soon 
present the ultimate test of 
their strength and abilities. 

Montana was not quite so 
treacherous for us, but we 
found it new and exciting just 
the same. On our way west, we visited a repli- 
ca of the dome-shaped Mandan Indian huts 
Lewis encountered when he passed through 
here. We toured a fur-trading fort from the 
1820s (an early beneficiary of Lewis' explora- 
tion). We trespassed to explore a dilapidated, 
sod-roofed homestead that seemed to have 
been abandoned in the 1930s. Using Undaunted 
Courage as our guide, we drove on dirt back- 
roads to find key points along the expedition 
route and search for traces of Lewis. 

From reading Ambrose's portrayal of Lewis, 
I imagined a man who possessed many of my 
own strengths and weaknesses. Lewis was 
optimistic and moody, gallant and petty, 
visionary and self-absorbed. He was able to 
shape his mind and body into sharp instru- 

ments of singular purpose, or let himself sink 
into periods of paralysis and self-hatred. Yet 
Lewis was able to overcome his character to 
accomplish a truly epic journey. Perhaps, like 
Lewis, I was destined to accomplish some 
great undertaking. 

can't believe you ran out of gas." 

Eric glared at me, the offending driver, 

as he sized up our situation: out of gas, 
sun setting fast, stuck on a barren highway in 
northern Montana. In desperation, Kris sug- 
gested I try the ignition one more time: Our 






engine might still contain a trace of gas vapor 
that, having cooled down, might provide enough 
drops of gasoline to restart the car. Sure 
enough, the engine revived and we were off. 

The road before us made grand, snakelike 
turns, sloping from a high plain down to the 
Missouri. Our car glided down the highway, 
all the way to a small town by the river, 
limped into a gas station parking lot, then 
died again — eleven miles after running out 
of gas. 

We had landed in the town of Fort Benton, 
Montana, which is precisely the kind of place 
that will pull you into its orbit if you ever find 
yourself out of luck, out of gas, with absolute- 
ly no physical right to proceed any farther. 
From the start, were taken in by the charm 

and eccentricity of this place. We decided to 
spend the night. 

After dinner, we walked along a street that 
had been called, since the 1860s, the 
"Bloodiest Block in the West." There, you can 
see remnants of old saloons with names like 
"The Extradition" and "Lilly's Squaw Dance." 
We picked a bar and went in. There was one 
tense moment when Alex, a slight-figured man 
with an avant-garde haircut, marched pur- 
posefully through a group of very large, tough- 
looking men, seated himself at the corner 
piano, and began playing Beethoven's Moon- 
light Sonata. But several beers la- 
ter, we were deep in friendly con- 
versation with nearly everyone at 
the bar. 

"So what do you guys do?" 
asked a rough-cut, middle-aged 
woman in a flannel shirt and 
cowboy boots. 

"Corporate lawyer," said Kris. 
"City government official," 
said I. 

"Computer engineer," said Eric. 
"Ugh," said the woman. "That's 
three strikes, fellas. How about 

Alex grinned and said, "An 

"Oh yeah? What kind of build- 
ings you design?" 

"Well, right now I'm designing 
a mansion for this billionaire in 
Malaysia. He wants his house to 
be an exact replica of a six- 
teenth-century Italian villa, only 
it has to have a mosque and a 
subterranean carport for his eight 
Ferraris." Alex rolled his eyes 
back. "Oh, and then of course 
there's the 100-foot waterslide..." 

Next morning, we strolled over, 
to the town square. There, in the 
middle of Fort Benton's civic 
plaza, stood a heroic-sized bronze 
statue of a sheep dog. At his front 
paws was the inscription "SHEP THE 
DOG— Forever Faithful." 

And here is the story of Shep the dog: 
Back in 1936, some town officials found the 
body of a nameless, destitute shepherd who 
had passed away in the fields. They placed his 
body in a casket and shipped it away by train. 
Soon afterwards, people began to notice a 
strange occurrence: Whenever a train pulled 
into the Fort Benton station, a sheepdog sud- 
denly appeared who would watch all the pas- 
sengers get off. One of the train conductors 
figured out that this dog had belonged to the 
shepherd, had watched his master get loaded 
onto the train, and now was faithfully waiting 
for his master's return. As the word spread 
about this dog, the people of Fort Benton 

November- December 1997 41 

adopted him and named him Shep. Every day, 
every time the train whistle blew, Shep would 
come look for his master. 

For five and a half years, Shep met every 
train that came to Fort Benton. In January 
1942, with his legs and reflexes crippled by old 
age, Shep was unable to dodge an incoming 
train. He slipped on the icy tracks, was hit by 
the engine, and was killed instantly. Two days 
later, hundreds of town folk came out to bury 
this dog they had all come to love. 

With Fort Benton forty miles 
behind us, we came to the Great 
Falls of the Missouri. When 
Lewis and Clark arrived here in June 1805, it 
took them five weeks to haul their boats past 
these treacherous waterfalls. Today, the once- 
wild falls are tamed by an ugly hydroelectric 
dam. Here, I asked Kris what impressed him 
most about Ambrose's book. 

"Oh, I was awed by reading about how 
young Lewis and Clark were when they accom- 
plished the journey. There's something mythic 
about their journey — it celebrates the sense 
of adventure that I think is in all of us." 

this gorge the "Gates of the Rocky Moun- 
tains." We cajoled our way onto a boat tour 
that had been chartered by the Rotary Club 
of Helena, Montana. As our boat trudged 
upriver, we saw bald eagles, mountain goats, 
and other marvels of nature But what was 
beautiful for us, for Lewis must have been a 
grim awakening, as he realized the full extent 
of the Rocky Mountains. 

Lewis knew there was a lot depending on 
his ability to reach the Pacific. If he succeeded, 
his journey would help the U.S. claim the 
entire west of North America — before the 
European powers could surround the young, 
fragile Union. Lewis also knew his mentor, 
Thomas Jefferson, had risked much of his po- 
litical fate on the Louisiana Purchase. But 
how could he cut a trail through these gigan- 
tic, rocky towers? 

Here again, I felt a strange kinship with 
Lewis. Like Lewis, I had been sent out to dis- 
cover the world by my own gray-haired men- 
tor — my U.S. history professor from Duke, 
Professor LB. Holley. More than anyone else 
outside my family, Professor Holley had given 
me a sense of my own possibilities. After grad- 

"Yeah," I replied, looking out at the dam. "It 
makes me wonder what chance people have 
today to fulfill that sense of adventure." 

"Oh, I think there's still the possibility for 
adventure. When I get back from this vaca- 
tion, I'm starting a new job that will focus 
more on technology and the Internet. And 
reading Undaunted Courage helped push me 
into making the career change. In a way, I 
think the Internet is, for us, what die western 
frontier was for Lewis' generation. There's a 
lot of unexplored territory out there, and I 
want to help explore it." 

We drove on to a place where the Missouri 
River enters a massive gorge, with 1,200-foot 
sheer cliffs on either side. Lewis had called 

uating from Duke, the first part of my journey 
had been easy: a series of short-term jobs and 
grad school. But now I had hit a wall that 
seemed as impassable and baffling as the Rocky 
Mountains. I was too old for more intern- 
ships. It was time to roll up my sleeves and 
make my contribution. But how? In the back 
of my conscience, I could feel Professor Hol- 
ley 's stern, pious gaze (perhaps as Lewis had 
felt Jefferson's) urging me on. 

Next morning, we woke up early to say 
goodbye to Kris, who had to leave our trip 
early to fly back to Manhattan. Eric, Alex, and 
I packed up our rental car and continued on. 

Over the next day, August 29, we traveled 
to some of the most dramatic points along the 

expedition route. Heading south from Butte, 
Montana, we drove past the area where Saca- 
gawea reunited with her home tribe, the Sho- 
shone, from whom she had been kidnapped at 
age ten. Then, some 100 yards from the Idaho 
border, we found the headwaters of the Mis- 
souri River; and we stood with one foot on 
either side of the rivulet, just as one of Lewis' 
soldiers had done on August 12, 1805. From 
there, we trekked across the Continental Di- 
vide at Lemhi Pass. Then we traced the Sal- 
mon River north to Missoula, where we spent 
the night. 

From Missoula, we headed west across the 
rugged Bitterroot Mountains. We drove along 
a high dirt road overlooking Highway 12, 
which probably is the route that Lewis and 
Clark, close to starvation, used as they searched 
desperately for a way out of this frozen high 
country. Here it was that I realized why Am- 
brose might have chosen the title of his book 
Undaunted Courage, and why Ambrose's tel- 
ling of this epic had affected me so much. 

My generation is collectively turning thirty, 
the age when we're supposed to make our mark 
on the world. But look around in society to- 



day, and sometimes it's hard to keep one's 
optimism. Many of my friends are still living 
at home, seemingly aimless. We've learned to 
become electronic voyeurs through television 
and the Internet. After all, being a spectator 
is much safer than participating in real life. 
We indulge in cynical orgies of self-hatred. We 
cheer on Howard Stern, Beavis and Butthead, 
and all the other mass-media anti-heroes who 
revel in exposing the most grotesque aspects 
of American culture. 

But Meriwether Lewis was different. His 
story reminds us why America is called "the 
land of opportunity." It isn't just because our 
land and democracy provide opportunities for 
those who would take them. It also is because 



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we Americans are a people who create oppor- 
tunity, through a peculiar blend of genius, 
relentless optimism, discipline, and utter stu- 
pidity that is unique to our culture. Lewis was 
going to get to the Pacific and back, and if the 
mountains turned out to be twice as high as 
he thought, the rivers twice as dangerous, the 
grizzly bears twice as big, it simply did not 
change what he was going to do. 

he red glow of wildfire loomed on the 
I foothills to our right, about 400 yards 
E from the road. It was nearly sundown and 

we were speeding west toward Lewiston, Idaho, 
having come down from the Bitterroots. 

"Christ," muttered Eric. "That fire must 
cover 5,000 acres!" 

"10,000 — easy," I replied. "Hang on, I'm 
going to get past it before it jumps over the 

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was inching toward the edge of the road, leav- 
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fire zone and left the fire fighters behind us, 
wishing them well. 

The next day, we entered Washington state 
and drove along the Columbia River, heading 
west. "The Pacific's getting closer, guys," I an- 
nounced. "I can't believe how much territory 
we've covered and we're still not there yet." 

"It was good for me to see this part of the 
country," Alex said. "As an architect, I've been 
thinking a lot about the way people should 
live, what kinds of homes we should be build- 
ing. I think I've been locked into one way of 
thinking because I live in a crowded place like 
the Bay Area. It's good to see how vast this 
country is, and to realize there are other ways 
of building communities that don't try to pack 
the most people possible into a high-density 

"I agree," I said. "When we started this trip, 
I knew I'd enjoy spending time with you guys 
and seeing the countryside, but I was sur- 
prised by how much fun the people and the 
little towns would be. How about you, Eric?" 

"It was definitely a good thing for me to 
make a connection with all those people we 
met. Most of the time, I only see and talk to 
people who share my social and economic 
background; basically, we're all elitist, upper- 
middle-class technocrats who live in Silicon 
Valley. This may sound corny, but I think it 
helps to make me a better American when I'm 
forced to talk with other Americans who fall 
out of my own socioeconomic niche." 

After many hours of driving, we came to 
the vicinity of Fort Clatsop, near the mouth 
of the Columbia, where Lewis and Clark 
finally reached the Pacific. We drove anxious- 
ly to the spot, wondering what our first 
glimpse of the Pacific would feel like. After 
nearly 3,000 miles of driving, we finally saw 
the beach, and we ran over to wade in the 
sea. To the west, the waters stretched out to 
infinity. It was a glorious site! 

Three weeks later, I was back at the 
office. The time I had spent with my 
friends, all our shared experiences, 
seemed to have evaporated. The only thing 
that seemed eternal was my work; all the rest 
was fleeting. The day was going badly and I 
felt the back of my neck tense up as the 
phone rang for umpteenth time. 

But then I smiled. It was Kris on the other 
end of the line, with a proposal: "So Alex, what 
do you think about backpacking through China 
next summer?" ■ 

Greenwood '89 is project manager in the City of 
Oakland's Economic Development Office. Over 
the past year, he has had an ongoing correspon- 
dence with Undaunted Courage author Stephen 





eet five modern 
day pioneers: 
Frances Olson, 
Nancy Rankin, 
Susan Jones, Edith 
Gleaves, and 
Nancy Allen. 
Each has forged 
ahead in a field — the clergy — that talks 
about equal employment op- 
portunities for women, yet all 
too often fails to produce re- 
sults. The handful of achievers 
aside, many other talented cler- 
gywomen face careers filled 
with frustration, stop-starts, and 
token progress. 

Though inequities occur in 
other professions, female minis- 
ters have yet to match the 
recent gains made by women in 
law and medicine. Despite the 
advances in most denomina- 
tions, clergywomen face many 
more obstacles in their march 
toward equality than women in 
other fields. Simply put, the 
clergy represents one of the last 
battlegrounds in the professions 
for women's rights. 

As a University of North 
Carolina undergraduate, Frances 
Olson dreamed of becoming a 
Presbyterian minister. In the 
early 1950s, mainstream Protes- 
tant denominations refused to 
ordain women. So when she 
graduated from Duke's divinity 
school with an M.Div. in 1978, 
her life had come full circle. 
Olson had become a partici- 
pant in a feminist movement 
that has rocked organized reli- 
gion for the past thirty years. 
Her career typifies the changes 
that have taken place in the 
ministry since the late 1960s. 
As an ordained Presbyterian 
minister, she served for several 



years in southern Louisiana and was assured- 
ly the first female minister church members 
had ever seen. "I remember clearly," says 
Olson, who is retired and lives in Fearrington 

Tending her flock: 

pastor Edith Gleaves 

leads a weekday Bible 

lesson for children 

Village, North Carolina, "being introduced by 
a male church member as divorced, a mother 
of seven, a former missionary in Korea, and 
you [the congregation] should listen to her. 
The roof won't fall in." 

The roof didn't fall in on her or the 20,000 
or so ordained Protestant and Jewish clergy- 
women who are graduates of accredited sem- 
inaries. Depending on the school, female stu- 
dents comprise anywhere from 
30 to 60 percent of enrollment. 
But don't be lulled by the statis- 
tics. The Center for Social and 
Religious Research at the Hart- 
ford Seminary will report early 
next year that even with the "in- 
crease in the numbers of cler- 
gywomen over the past eighty 
years, women have not moved 
in the clergy profession as rapidly 
as they have moved into other 

While twenty-five years ago 
the primary concern was being 
accepted into divinity school 
and becoming ordained, today's 
clergywomen, like women in 
other professions, seek assign- 
ments commensurate with their 
experience, promotions to jobs 
once only held by men, equal 
pay, and the removal of social 
and lifestyle barriers that once 
comprised an all-male ministe- 
rial club. Older career changers, 
many married with children, 
bring new demands and percep- 
tions to theology. Used to an 
open job market, these women 
are less patient with status-quo 
employment conditions in the 

Perhaps it's misleading to 
equate professional progress in 
ministry with law and medicine, 
as Julie Parker, an ordained min- 
ister, points out in Careers for 
i Women as Clergy. "In some ways, 
I being a clergyperson is a career 

November-December 1997 45 

unlike any other. You become a 'professional' 
Christian or Jew, employed to uphold your faith 
and share it with others.... For better or worse, 
people often think of you as God's represen- 
tative. Wherever people in the community run 
into you, be it a grocery store, a post office, or 
on the street, they look at you and see 'the 
rabbi' or 'the minister.' It's more than a job; it's 
an identity*." 

Parker points out that parishioners are un- 
sure how they should respond to a clergywom- 
an. To them, she represents a deviation from 
the norm. They'll use a female doctor or lawyer 
without hesitation, yet refuse to accept a wom- 
an as their spiritual leader. Unlike other pro- 
fessions, the clergy is blanketed in mystique, 
tradition, and dogma. The naysayers who op- 
pose ordination ot women cloak their positions 
with commentary ranging from anti-teminist 
polemics to biblical references. Denying wom- 
en a pulpit, however, has not diminished their 
participation historically in America's religious 
life. Witness such pathfinders as Ellen White, 
founder of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church, 
Mary Baker Eddy of the Christian Science 
Church, and evangelist Aimee Semple McPher- 

Sometime during her career, nearly every 
clergywoman has experienced rejection, when 
parishioners leave the congregation following 
her appointment or when a congregant refus- 
es to permit her to baptize a child. Instead of 
becoming remorseful, achievers like Nancy 
Burgin Rankin M.Div '84 are working within 
the system to eliminate "business-as-usual" 
conditions that stymie many talented female 
ministers. Rankin was senior pastor of the 
750-member Central United Methodist 
Church in Concord, North Carolina, until her 
appointment last year as superintendent of a 
three-county North Carolina district, where 
five of the sixty-seven pastors serving 101 
churches are women. She finds that parish- 
ioners don't prepare in advance for the arrival 
of a female pastor. "A woman like myself is 
assigned, and they discover that the change is 
not as threatening as they once feared. Men 
today are less fearful of women professionals. 
They go to college and graduate school with 
them. They work side-by-side with them in 
offices and, in this spirit, they also find women 
pastors less threatening." 

Growing up as the daughter of a Methodist 
minister, the late Grady Rankin B.D. '48, she 
did not aspire to be a minister. "I had no role 
models. I never met a woman minister. I also 
wanted to get married and have children, but 
I saw no women who had both a family and 
were clergywomen." Graduating from High 
Point University, Rankin got married, had two 
children, and taught school. She entered Duke 
EHvinity School in 1981, commuting sixty miles 
to class from High Point. 

Throughout her thirteen-year ministerial 















career, Rankin has not made gender an issue 
or her role as a minister a defiant act. "When 
I became the senior minister in Concord, I was 
one of only twenty-five Methodist women in 
the country to hold this type of position. I was 
the first woman to be named a senior pastor 
in the conference." 

Getting assigned to a church and being or- 
dained is no longer a key issue for Protestant 
clergywomen. But the glass ceiling prevents 
otherwise talented women from forging ahead. 
The challenge comes in the form of future jobs, 
especially as a senior pastor of a larger church 
or to a distinguished position in academe. In- 
terestingly, there are more women serving as 
bishops and district superintendents than in 
the pulpits at the more prestigious Methodist 
churches. A comparable situation exists na- 
tionwide in other mainline Protestant denom- 
inations where congregations are often more 
conservative than their regional and national 
leadership. Over the next several years, the 
post -World War II-trained male clergy, many 
in senior church and academic positions, will 
have retired, thereby creating a large number 
of potential openings for experienced clergy- 
women. The question is, will dogma and tra- 
dition prevail, or will job equity be realized? 

Reared in a parsonage as a pastor's daugh- 
ter, Rankin has been steeped in church tradi- 
tion. Growing up, she lived in six different 
homes: Her father moved every three to tour 

years. Since her ordainment in 1984, she had 
been appointed to three different churches 
before being named district superintendent. 
"When you become a pastor, you need to 
understand and to accept this lifestyle con- 
cept. We try to make the best possible match. 
I've lived with these problems. It means my hus- 
band often has to commute considerable dis- 
tances to his job. It's something we both 
accepted when I became a pastor." 

When it comes to reassignment, the 
Methodist Church, the largest denomination 
to rotate new as well as long-time ministers 
regularly, is mellowing. The changes are most- 
ly in response to family and lifestyle issues. In 
some conferences, tenure lasts less than five 
years, and in others it has stretched to as long 
as eleven years. Like other superintendents, 
Rankin considers the spouse's job and related 
family matters before making a reassignment. 
Her decisions are tempered by her own expe- 
riences. Dating back to divinity school, she 
knows what it's like to juggle the responsibili- 
ties of a career, marriage, and young children. 

Until her relocation to Durham this past 
summer, Susan Jones M.Div. '83, the wife of L. 
Gregory Jones M.Div. '85, Ph.D. '88, the di- 
vinity school's new dean, was a pastor in the 
Baltimore area. Her most recent assignment 
was senior pastor of a United Methodist 
church with more than 1,000 members in su- 
burban Baltimore. "What you find is that 
members of a congregation face the fear of 
the unknown with every new pastor. Fear in- 
creases with the appointment of a clergy- 
w'oman, but it usually goes away based on the 
clergywomaris performance," she says. "They 
even learn what it's like to worship with a 
pregnant minister. On two occasions, I was 
pregnant during Advent, once in my seventh 
and the other in my ninth month. This cre- 
ates interesting dynamics that most members 
had little trouble in accepting." 

Though Jones was one of a handful of 
American clergywomen to head a 1,000-plus 
member UMC congregation, she does not sup- 
port the view that bigger is necessarily better. 
While she says the barriers restricting clergy- 
women should fall, she maintains that there 
are many clergywomen who, like their male 
counterparts, prefer to minister to smaller con- 

Since her move to Durham, Susan Jones 
has temporarily changed career directions from 
pastor to religious editor and w-riter. She is 
managing editor of Modern Theology and co- 
author with her husband of Curriculum for 
Adult Bible Studies and Mending lives, The 
Power of Forgivaiess in Christian Faith and Life. 

Edith Gleaves M.Div. '85, pastor of Dur- 
ham's integrated Resurrection UMC, has taken 
on the additional role as the first black female 
minister and now one of four in the Eastern 
Carolina Conference. "I didn't set out to be a 


oking forward: despite some early negative reactioris, pastor Nancy Allen persevered and prospered 

pioneer or a mentor to other black women," 
she says. "But the roles have been thrust on 
me, and I've accepted them as part of my 
ministry. I came to Resurrection due to the 
church's open policy regarding race. My pres- 
ence as a black woman minister has served as 
an added attraction." 

Cleaves became the minister of this mid- 
size Durham church in 1996. The church was 
founded in the mid-1980s. Resurrection's creed, 
depicted on the cornerstone of the church, in- 
cludes a biblical passage that applies to Cleaves 
and her career: "Therefore, if any person is in 
Christ, that one is a new creation; the old has 
passed away; behold, the new has come!" 
About 15 percent of the church's members 
are people of color — a distinctive condition 
in the South, where Protestant churches con- 
tinue to be segregated, she says. "Women ra- 
ther than men are less willing to accept a 
woman minister, regardless of color. Women 
feel threatened, especially those women who 
have not been in the workforce or have not 
had successful careers." 

As a Wake Forest undergraduate, Gleaves 
hesitated in applying to divinity school. "At 
first, I thought I'd be a chaplain or do pastoral 
counseling. Then, I discovered that I liked being 
in the pulpit. Perhaps my reluctance was due 
in part to the fact that I had never seen an 
African-American clergywoman." In reac- 
tion, she serves as a mentor for divinity school 








students, giving them the advantage of her 
experience. Women bring special attributes to 
the ministry, including a more universal way 
in which they address theological issues and 
their personal approach to people problems, 
says Gleaves. "And divinity schools are en- 
couraging us to bring our differences, includ- 
ing our pastoral skills, into the ministry." 

Other women have less reason to cheer. 
Ordination is denied by evangelical Protes- 
tant sects and prohibited by Orthodox Jews. 
Based on a mixture of tradition, religious mores, 
and biblical interpretation, chances that wom- 
en will be ordained as Southern Baptist min- 
isters appear bleak. Occasionally, a church will 
appoint a clergywoman, but in doing so, it faces 

expulsion from the local association. Other 
Southern Baptist women, out of frustration, pur- 
sue niche pastoral specialties such as hospital 
or prison chaplains, camp administrators, or 
directors of church education or music. And, as 
a career alternative, some Southern Baptists 
train for the ministry in other denominations. 

"To understand how women are faring in 
the clergy job market, we first need to consid- 
er how the clergy get jobs," says Jackson Car- 
roll B.D. '56, director of the divinity school's 
J.M. Onnand Center for Research, Planning, 
and Development, and co-author of Women 
of tlie Cloth. "While it may seem incongruous 
to think of the clergy, who typically under- 
stand themselves as responding to a divine 
call, negotiating in a market for jobs, it is nev- 
ertheless necessary to do so. Each denomina- 
tion has established its own internal labor 
market in which clergy obtain employment in 
congregations or other church-related em- 

Three different employment (or deployment, 
as church people like to call it) approaches 
exist. There's the open method of employ- 
ment used by churches that emphasize local 
congregational authority, such as the Ameri- 
can Baptist Church, Disciples of Christ, and 
the United Church of Christ. The approach 
favored by Episcopals, Lutherans, and Presby- 
terians gives the congregation considerable 
choice in hiring a minister, but also restricts 

November- December 1997 47 

the pool of persons to be considered. The 
United Methodists comprise the third group. 
It uses a closed method with a centralized 
denominational body, distinct from the con- 
gregation, which has nearly complete control 
of both the admission of candidates and their 
deployment in churches. The bishop and the 
district superintendent set the employment 
tone by negotiating in the pastor's behalf. 

The system assures newly-graduated divin- 
ity students their first job; it also means 
that newly-ordained Methodist ministers 
are often assigned to small rural churches, 
where they literally tour the circuit on 
Sundays, handling two to four churches. 
It's a difficult assignment at best, but par- 
ticularly hard for single women, says 
Jackson Carroll. While a traditional part 
of the ministerial drill, rural ap- 
pointments — coupled with a failure to 
move up the ladder as rapidly as their 
male counterparts — force women to 
change careers. Or they leave the active 
ministry for pastoral jobs in hospitals and 

There are practical limits to the "poli- 
ticking" necessary to assure a clergywom- 
an's call as senior pastor of a larger 
church. Carroll, in describing the manda- 
tory consultation process between the 
congregation and bishop, says that the 
bishop may ignore the congregation's 
wishes, but the "marriage" between a min- 
ister and reluctant congregation is unlike- 
ly to be a happy one. Caught in this by- 
play are experienced clergywomen who 
are in line for recognition and promotion. 

But Protestant clergywomen aren't the 
only ones concerned about their future. 
Reporting on employment opportunities 
in the Jewish religion, the American Jewish 
Yearbook declared that "most Reform con- 
gregations continue to express a prefer- 
ence for a male primary rabbi. Now that 
earlier female reform rabbis have attained 
some seniority within the movement, it 
remains to be seen if they also attain rab- 
binical posts with the prestige and salaries 
commensurate with their status." 

Clergywomen have additional reasons 
to gripe. The pay scale lags behind their 
male divinity school classmates, according 
to the upcoming Hartford Seminary report: 
"Women are seriously underpaid, compared 
with men. Clergywomen average $5,000 less 
in salary and benefits than men, even con- 
trolling for years since ordination and work 
experience." Parity is an issue that is hotly dis- 
cussed among clergywomen; the Presbyterian 
Church USA has found a "direct correlation 
between pastors' satisfaction with their total 
financial packages and the change in the view 
of their ministry and their life." 

The entry of women into the ministry cre- 

ated a new dimension in church life, namely 
clergy couples. More than 60 percent of mar- 
ried clergywomen are part of a clergy couple, 
reports the Raleigh News & Observer. They 
met at church or in divinity school. And 
what's better, if you're looking for an under- 
standing spouse, than another preacher? Some 
clergy couples work together in the same 
church and share a single salary; others serve 
in separate churches. An ironic twist: The 


Minister, missionary, 
mother: Frances 
Olson, shortly after 
her ordination in 
late '70s, 
a first for her 



clergy couple represents a contemporary ap- 
proach to a time when the male pastor had 
his wife as the unpaid staff member to handle 
Sunday school, conduct the choir, and play 
the organ. In the past, the at-home mom was 
the minister's unpaid helper; now they're at- 
tending seminaries and competing for jobs. 

Unlike Susan and Gregory Jones, whose 
ministerial careers have taken separate paths, 
Nancy Lee Allen and Arthur Allen, both 
M.Div. 74, have worked together in the same 

congregation. As Duke divinity school's first 
clergy couple, they returned to Iowa after 
graduation. Other than two years when she 
was a district superintendent, they've been 
co-pastors of several churches, co-directors of 
a summer camp, and co-directors of church re- 
lations and religious life at Simspon College, 
where they met in the late Sixties. 

"The clergy couple is an easy concept to 
understand," says Nancy Allen. "Many cou- 
ples share similar roots: small-town life 
where both sets of parents ran a small 
business or being raised in rural areas 
where their parents worked together on 
the family farm. It's an easy transition 
from this type of mutually supportive 
work into the ministry." 

In 1974, the concept of a clergy couple 
was an anomaly — three couples in Iowa 
compared with sixty couples today. "We 
tried to be open in our lives. People were 
used to seeing a woman in a supportive 
role, not in the role of preaching. I tried to 
let them see me as a preacher, but I held 
back on officiating at weddings, baptisms, 
funerals, and other family events. I didn't 
want to get into their face until they were 
ready to accept me. Working with Arthur, 
as in any partnership, we broke down 
assignments. Each of us would preach for 
two consecutive Sundays and we shared 
pastoral duties. I handled the administra- 
tive work." 

When they were appointed to Alders- 
gate UMC in Des Moines, their co-min- 
istry of this 850-member congregation took 
a different turn. It was the first time that 
they have not shared jobs. Nancy Allen is 
senior pastor, while Arthur works half- 
time as" pastor and the balance at re- 
Creation Ministries, a publishing, song- 
writing, and consulting ministry that the 
Aliens established years ago. "Nancy has 
stronger skills as a pastor and is a better 
administrator, while mine are in teaching 
and the arts," he says. 

Nancy Allen is an achiever in the 
march — but her achievements make her 
sympathetic with those clergywomen 
whose careers have been slowed, side- 
tracked, or scuttled. "When we came to 
Aldersgate four years ago," she says, "peo- 
ple openly objected to my appointment. 
This was the first time I experienced that 
level of outspokeness and rejection. A few 
members of the congregation left the church. 
Looking back, it's better to have them leave 
than to stay around and undermine my min- 
istry." ■ 

Otterbourg, a Durham-based writer, is the author 
of two career books, It's Never Too Late and 
Retire and Thrive. 



Letter perfect: not a typical gathering of 1,600 first-year 

A 'D' 

On a muggy night in late August, 
nearly all of the freshman class hud- 
dled together on East Campus' main 
quad to form the letters D-U-K-E as part of 
their orientation activities. Organized by the 
East Campus area coordinators (graduate stu- 
dents who supervise residence -hall life), resi- 
dent advisers, and the special events and con- 
ference services office, the mass gathering was 
meant to be a unifying event for the new stu- 
dents, as well as an opportunity to provide a 
large class picture for the group. But as stu- 
dents mingled with their closely packed peers, 
they did not realize the amount of work that 
went into preparing the photo. 

The day began early, as a resident adviser 
with some engineering background deter- 
mined the best way to fit the first-years into 
the letters. After estimating the amount of 
yardage needed for each student in each let- 
ter, the rest of the resident advisers and area 
coordinators proceeded to lay out the design, 
marking off the letters with surveying flags. 
From the roof of the East Union Building, 
university photographers provided opinions 
as to how the letters looked from a photo- 
graphic vantage point, allowing those on the 
ground to perfect the layout. 

"The individual resident advisers and area 
coordinators worked extremely hard all day 
and all night," says Jeanne Kirschner, the event 
advising center coordinator in the special 
events office. 

The photographers perched atop the union 
building were also dealing with huge organi- 
zational challenges. "It sounded too difficult 
and too expensive," says Chris Hildreth, di- 
rector of university photography. "We didn't 
have the necessary equipment here, and we 
did not even know if we could rent it." 

But after shipping in enough equipment 
from Chicago and New York to light Cameron 
Stadium and the Dean Dome simultaneously, 
building a seven-foot platform to enhance the 
angle, and lifting all the needed materials to 
the roof via cherry pickers and scissor lifts, the 
photographers were almost ready to begin 
shooting. Then the winds began. 

"Our strobes began catching wind and 
rocking. One of the photographers was run- 
ning back and forth steadying these thirteen- 
foot stands with strobes on them. If one of 
them fell, the entire lighting system would 
have been ruined," Hildreth says. 

No strobes fell, however, and the photogra- 
phers were able to shoot two rolls of film as 
the students were encouraged to stay patient. 

"They started to get a little irritated halfway 
through," says Kirschner, "but when we did some 
cheers at the end, it really alleviated the stress. 

Overall, I thought the kids were fantastic." 

The result, a photo of 1,600 freshmen spell- 
ing out their school's name against a night- 
time background, will be sold to students, 
although a price has not yet been set. 

"I think this was a great thing for the class 
to do. There is never an opportunity to get 
the entire class together tor a picture, except 
at orientation," says Kirschner. "I hope the class 
appreciates that." 



Awards for excellence in teaching and 
service to the community were pre- 
sented by President Nannerl O. Keo- 
hane in September at the annual Founders' 
Day Convocation. Former Acting Solicitor 
General Walter Dellinger, the Douglas Maggs 
law professor at Duke, was the convocation's 
keynote speaker. Founders' Day commemo- 
rates the 1924 signing by industrialist and phi- 
lanthropist James B. Duke of the Indenture of 
Trust that created the university. 

Charles Johnson, the first African-Ameri- 
can physician to serve on the Duke medical 
school faculty, and Mike Krzyzewski, men's 
basketball coach, were honored with the Uni- 
versity Medal for Distinguished Meritorious 
Service. The medal, which bears the 134-year 
old seal and motto of the university, was first 
presented in 1986. Recipients are chosen by 
the president, based on the recommendations 
of a special committee. 

Johnson was recently appointed special ad- 
viser to the chancellor for health affairs. A 
graduate of Howard University's College of 
Medicine, he distinguished himself as a resi- 
dent at Durham's Lincoln Hospital before 
participating in an internship and fellowship 
at Duke during the mid-Sixties. In 19 70, John- 
son became the medical center's first African- 
American faculty member. He went on to 
lead efforts to recruit top minority faculty and 
student candidates. 

"He has taken on issues that others found 
intractable or unpleasant," Keohane said. "He 
has inspired minority faculty members and stu- 
dents with the power of his example, with his 
energetic recruiting, and with his wise coun- 

November-December 1997 49 

Krzyzewski, a 1969 graduate of the U.S. Mili- 
tary Academy, had a stint as assistant coach 
at Indiana University, then returned to West 
Point as head coach before joining Duke in 
1980. During his tenure at Duke, he has won 
two NCAA basketball championships, received 
numerous coach-of-the-year honors, and has 
led teams in the World University Games, the 
Goodwill Games, and the Olympics. 

One of college basketball's most successful 
coaches, Krzyzewski owns an impressive 473- 
208 career record, while attaining a 400-149 
mark during his Duke tenure. "For all the 
tides he has assembled — coach, motivator, and 
leader — perhaps his favorite is educator," Keo- 
hane said. "His greatest achievements have 
come from the dedication he shows to his stu- 
dents. From him they have learned to have 
confidence in their abilities and, even more 
important, to order their priorities for living 
full lives." 

Frederic J. Nijhout, professor of zoology, be- 
came the sixteenth recipient of the University 
Scholar/Teacher Award. Established in 1981 
by the United Methodist Church's board of 
higher education and ministry, the award rec- 


M ifty years ago, a young scholar named 

' John Hope Franklin was asked to 
write a survey text of black history in 
the United States for Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 
At the time, Franklin and his publisher had 
no notion of how important the book would 
become. Over the years, From Slavery to 
Freedom has been translated into five lan- 
guages, become a classic primary textbook 
for both teachers and students, and been 
revised seven times. 

In September, Franklin, now a James B. 
Duke professor emeritus of history at Duke, 
was honored for the fiftieth anniversary of 
his literary landmark. Ever modest, Frank- 
lin had insisted that the symposium focus 
on the book rather than him. But for the 
hundreds of scholars, policy makers, public 
school teachers, and members of the media 
gathered at Duke to praise him, Franklin's 
admirable personal qualities were as note- 
worthy as his unparalleled academic accom- 
plishment. The two-day symposium was spon- 
sored by Duke's Association for the Study 
of Afro -American Life and History and by 
North Carolina Central University (NCCU). 

From panel discussions to individual 
anecdotes, each speaker provided powerful 
testimony to Franklin's influence on under- 
standing black history. At Friday night's 
keynote address at NCCU (where Franklin 
was teaching when Knopf came calling in 


I Nino, that weather event 
that's rocking the West 
Coast and affecting global 
conditions, is nothing new to 
Richard T. Barber. The Harvey 
W. Smith professor of oceanog- 
raphy at the Nicholas School of 
the Environment's Marine 
Laboratory has been studying 
El Nino since 1977. "Tales of the 
Unexpected," an article on his 
work tracking the "perverse 
child," as he subjectively trans- 
lates the Spanish, appeared in 
the September-October 1985 
Duke Magasjne. 

El Nino is a massive, east- 
ward warm current that ap- 
pears along the Pacific equator 
every three to ten years. The 
one in 1982 wreaked havoc 
around the world, with torren- 
tial rains that caused mudslides 
and high tides that caused 
coastal flooding. The result was 
low crop and fishing yields that 


affected food supplies and 
prices in the years following. 

But, says Barber, "El Nino is 
not a disaster — it's how the 
Earth works." Nearest the 
equator, when the water tem- 
peratures rise, there's increased 
precipitation, which in turn 
causes flooding in South America 

and droughts in Australia and 
New Guinea. In Indonesia, 
according to Newsweek, the dry 
spell led to crop failures and 
allowed forest fires, normally 
extinguished by the monsoons, 
to burn out of control. The 
resulting smoke choked places 
as far away as Brunei, 
Thailand, and the Philippines. 

In the United States, the area 
from East Texas to the Chesa- 
peake Bay in Virginia will 
receive a lot of moisture in the 
spring. "It gets a lot wetter and 
that changes the agricultural 
picture," says Barber. "Farmers 
have to plant later because they 
can't get into the field. The 
biggest advantage we have now 
is in having all the agricultural 
players knowing this is going to 
be one of those wet years." 

1945), Vincent G. Harding, professor of religion 
and social change at the Iliff School of 
Theology and a North Carolina Humanities 
Distinguished Scholar, noted that Franklin's 
book was present at pivotal moments in 
American history. During the civil rights 
movement, for example, "a well-worn copy of 
From Slavery to Freedom was there" during 
Freedom Riders' planning sessions and on the 







famous march from Selma to Birmingham. 
"Just the discovery that you needed such a big 
book to fit our history into was something," 
said Harding. "Having a sense of home was 
important for people going out from home to 
challenge the world." 

On Saturday, panels explored From Slavery 
to Freedom's impact on how African-Ameri- 
can history is written and taught, and the 
book's influence on historical interpretations 
of the black diaspora, black experiences from 
early African times through enslavement, the 
American Civil War, Reconstruction, and con- 
temporary society. While the presentations were 

scholarly, speakers also shared personal recol- 
lections of how Franklin (and his book) 
changed their lives. Debra Newman Ham, 
professor of history at Morgan State Univer- 
sity, confessed to being militant and disre- 
spectful toward her Harvard professors in the 
late Sixties, "mouthing off in class" and lead- 
ing protests and riots. Finally, a professor told 
Ham that she knew nothing about black his- 
tory and not to talk in class again until she 
had read a book on African history from the 
course syllabus. By chance, she checked out 
From Slavery to Freedom, "a book I'd never 
heard of by a man I didn't know." Although 
the book's objective tone was initially at odds 
with Ham's radical student activism, she says 
she soon realized that "the cold, hard facts of 
[black] history that John Hope Franklin de- 
scribed countered the problem of racism more 
powerfully than anything else could." 

Among the Duke faculty taking part in the 
historic weekend were Karla EC. Holloway, 
Kenan Professor of English and director of the 
African and African-American Studies pro- 
gram; history professor David Gaspar; and 
Paula Giddings, research professor of Women's 
Studies and African and African-American 
Studies. President Nannerl O. Keohane; Wil- 
liam Chafe, Alice Mary Baldwin professor of 
history and dean of the faculty of arts and sci- 
ence; and Alex Roland, history professor and 
department chair, also offered introductory 

Franklin, who attended the symposium with 
members of his family, graduated from Fisk 
University in 1935 and earned his master's and 


ognizes outstanding faculty dedication. It car- 
ries a $2,000 stipend. 

Other Founders' Day honors included 
Trinity College Distinguished Teacher Awards 
to Hitomi Endo, assistant professor of the prac- 
tice in Asian languages and literature, and 
Jennifer Higa-King, assistant research professor 
in psychology; the Robert B. Cox Teaching 
Award to Dale Stangl, assistant professor at the 
Institute of Statistics and Decision Sciences; 
the Richard K. Lublin Distinguished Award 
for Teaching Excellence to Malachi Hacohen, 
assistant professor of history, and Deborah Pope, 
professor of English; and the Howard Johnson 
Teaching Award to Tony Brown, professor of 
the practice in public policy studies. 

Melissa Malouf, associate professor of the 
practice of English, was recognized as the re- 
cipient of the Alumni Distinguished Under- 
graduate Teaching Award. The honor, which 
includes a $5,000 stipend and $1,000 to a 
Duke library to purchase books recommend- 
ed by the recipient, is sponsored by the Duke 
Alumni Association. 

The 1997 Distinguished Alumni Award was 
presented to William Bevan A.M. '43, Ph.D. 

'84, LL.D 72, former Duke provost and Wil- 
liam Preston Few psychology professor emeri- 
tus. A graduate of Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege, Bevan held academic leadership roles at 
Kansas State and Johns Hopkins, where he 
was named provost. He took the position of 
executive officer and publisher of the journal 
Science before returning to Duke in 1974- 

At Duke, Bevan initiated the Duke Round 
Table on Science and Public Affairs, an annu- 
al series of special lectures on science policy. 
He also established Duke's Talent Identifica- 
tion Program, a national program for intellec- 
tually-gifted youngsters. 

Benjamin Ward, associate dean for residen- 
tial life and associate professor of philosophy, 
received the Humanitarian Service Award. 
Sponsored by Duke Campus Ministry, the ac- 
colade is given annually to a member of the 
Duke community whose life represents "a 
long-term commitment to direct service to 
others and simplicity of lifestyle." Ward has 
volunteered almost nightly for three years at 
the Community Shelter for Hope, which pro- 
vides housing for Durham's homeless. 


The mere mention of college tuition 
these days elicits cringes nationwide, 
but according to a recent survey, the 
national media's preoccupation with tuition 
costs may be relatively unwarranted. Re- 
search shows that the American public over- 
estimates college costs, underestimates the 
amount of financial aid available for needy 
students, and doesn't realize the number of 
students already receiving outside assistance. 
The study, coordinated by the nonpartisan 
Congressional Budget office, recently estima- 
ted that when student aid is considered, more 
than half of students enrolled pay less than 
$3,000 in tuition yearly, and just one student out 
of seven faces charges of more than $5,000. 
At Duke, four out of ten undergraduates re- 
ceive financial aid from scholarships and grants 
from federal and state financial aid programs. 
"Higher education has the worst of both 
worlds," Duke President Nannerl O. Keohane 
said in a speech delivered for a forum on 

a doctorate in history from 
Harvard University. He is 
the author of dozens of 
books, articles, and chap- 
ters; has served on numer- 
ous committees and boards 
of professional and educa- 
tional organizations; and 
has received honorary de- 
grees from more than 100 
colleges and universities. 
Now the chair of President 
Clinton's panel on race, 
Franklin is also the recipi- 
ent of the Presidential Me- 
dal of Freedom. His most 
recent book, M31 life and 
An Era: The Autobiography 
of Buck Colbert Franklin 
(about Franklin's father), 
was published this fall, and 
he is in the process of co- 
authoring a book on run- 
away slaves with Loren Schweninger, history 
professor at the University of North Carolina- 
Greensboro. As if that weren't enough to 
keep him busy, he is also working on the 
eighth edition of From Slavery to Freedom: A 
History of African Americans with University of 
Maryland American history professor Alfred 
Moss, who has been Franklin's co-author on 
revised editions of the book since the mid- 

The September symposium was dedicated 
to Franklin's wife, Aurelia Whittington Frank- 
lin, who provided financial support during the 

Honoring the authot 
and Lois Dawson, a 

: historian Franklin, left, with Special Collections librarian Karen Jefferson 
major gifts officer for Perkins Library 

writing of From Slavery to Freedom. (Franklin 
traveled to the Library of Congress to conduct 
research after exhausting the resources at the 
Duke and NCCU libraries.) 

Since its publication in 1947, it has become 
the primary textbook in the field of African- 
American history. The book opens with a dis- 
cussion of several powerful African states from 
as early as the seventh century, and how they 
influenced and were influenced by the Isla- 
mic and Arabic cultures. Early chapters move 
from the African way of life to the slave trade 
and the New World, including poignant de- 

scriptions of the middle - 
passage voyage made by 
slave ships to the Carib- 
bean and America. La- 
ter chapters include his- 
torical information on 
the role of blacks in co- 
lonial America, the In- 
dustrial Revolution, the 
Civil War, Reconstruc- 
tion, the Jim Crow era, 
and the decades leading 
up to the Forties. Later 
editions expanded the 
discussion to include the 
civil rights movement 
and subsequent political 
B and social changes. 
5 As part of the fiftieth 
I anniversary, university 
librarian David Ferriero 
arranged to have 2,300 
first-year students at 
Duke and NCCU receive copies of From 
Slavery to Freedom and participate in a dis- 
cussion with Franklin and television talk- 
show host Charlie Rose '64, J.D. '68. 

In 1995, the library launched the John 
Hope Franklin Research Center for African 
and African-American Documentation 
to identify and preserve materials generat- 
ed by (rather than simply about) people of 
African descent. Franklin's personal and 
professional writings are the cornerstone of 
the collection. 

November- December 1997 51 

higher education, sponsored by Representa- 
tive David Price, Democrat of North Carolina 
and a Duke political science professor. "The 
public overestimates college costs and under- 
estimates financial aid. When this fact is cou- 
pled with a tendency of the media to focus on 
prices at the most selective and expensive pri- 
vate universities, without any attention to the 
array of financial aid programs available 
through those institutions, it is no wonder the 
public is concerned about this issue." 

The forum, which coincided with Congress' 
review of federal student aid programs pro- 
vided by the Higher Education Act, was held 
at the North Carolina Museum of History. 
Other speakers included Molly Broad, presi- 
dent of the University of North Carolina sys- 
tem; Larry Monteith M.S.E. '62, Ph.D. '65, 
chancellor of North Carolina State University; 
Julius Chambers, chancellor of North Carolina 
Central University; and Phail Wynn, president 
of Durham Technical Community College. 


Amid the centenary celebration of 
William Faulkner's birth, literary 
scholars and viewers alike are rejoic- 
ing over the availability of on-line samplings 
from two televised works scripted by the 
Nobel Prize -winning author. Microfilm copies 
of "The Brooch" and "Shall Not Perish," the 
only two known telecast scripts adapted by 
Faulkner from his own short stories, were dis- 
covered last November at Duke's Special Col- 
lection's Library. 

Administrators at the John W Hartman Cen- 
ter for Sales, Advertising, and Marketing His- 
tory are displaying excerpts from the two tele- 
plays, previously thought lost or destroyed, on 
the World Wide Web (http://scriptorium.lib. Project coor- 
dinators, wrangling with copyright holders, hope 
to expand Internet accessibility to include the 
full text of both scripts. The two pieces were 
adapted for the Lux Video Theater television 
series, originally airing in 1953 and 1954. 


A university senior who sought unsuc- 
cessfully to become the iirst woman 
to play for the Duke football team 
has filed a federal lawsuit against the univer- 
sity and football coach Fred Goldsmith. 

Heather Sue Mercer, of Yorktown Heights, 
New York, filed the suit claiming that she had 
not been given a fair chance to compete for a 



ccording to Erik 
Ludwig '98, historians 
*8& have not paid enough 
attention to the leadership 
efforts of black women in 
Duke's civil rights history. His 
research on the subject won 
him last year's Anne Firor Scott 
Research Award, presented by 
the Women's Studies program, 
to recognize scholarship in 
women's history. In his paper, 
"Freedom in the Duke Work- 
place and Classrooms: Black 
Women as Leaders in Struggle 
for Labor Rights and Their Im- 
pact on Student Activities in 
the Civil Rights Era," Ludwig 
describes how these women 
played "the most critical role" 
in Duke's civil rights movement 
by creating an awareness of 
black employees' grievances. 
Ludwig found that between 
1965 and 1968, black female 
employees were busy organizing 
the Duke community against 
discrimination. They joined 
forces with the black workers' 
union Local 77— at that point 
not recognized by Duke — to 
demand that the university pay 
its black employees the federal 
minimum wage, circulating 
petitions and sending them to 
President Douglas Knight's 
office. Some female employees 
who had become associated 
with Local 77 were fired, and 
responded by publicly express- 
ing grievances. This led to a 
demonstration by employees 
and some students during 
Homecoming Weekend. 
Following the demonstration, 

agreed to establish a grievance 
procedure for black employees, 
Ludwig says. 

In 1968, after the death of 
Martin Luther King, a campus- 
wide vigil was held; students, 
faculty, and employees — both 
black and white — participated, 
gaining national attention and 
putting pressure on the admin- 
istration, once again, to change 
discriminatory policies. 

Ludwig's research emphasizes 
that participation in and sup- 
port for the vigil were products 
of a movement that had been 
gaining momentum since Local 
77 was established and grie- 
vance procedures were created. 
These early measures were sup- 
ported overwhelmingly by 
black female employees, despite 
the fact that the union and the 
committees would later be run 
by men and policy changes 
would be made by whites. 

Ludwig says his research 
should force others to question 
typical notions of power and 
leadership. "It was not just pre- 
dominately white males who 
made changes; there were black 
women filling out grievances and 
walking out of the hospital." 

His interest in gender and 
equality issues can be traced to 
his high school years. The sum- 
mer he spent working as the 
only male packer and stacker 
at a distribution warehouse, he 
says, opened his eyes to how 
much workplace segregation 
existed. He has continued to 
build on his experiences with 
gender and equality issues dur- 
ing his years at Duke as the co- 
coordinator of SERC, the 
Student-Employee Relations 
Coalition. SERC aims to pro- 
mote better relations between 
students and employees and 
addresses employee concerns, 
such as the need for a severe- 
weather policy following 
Hurricane Fran to ensure 
that employees are not penal- 
ized for missing work during 
extenuating circumstances. 

Using this background with 
SERC, the guidance of 

Women's Studies and African 
and African-American history 
research professor Paula 
Giddings, and University 
Archives, Ludwig was able to 
research the local actions of 
black female employees and 
the administration in the 
Sixties. His next step, he says, 
is to research how the adminis- 
tration at Duke has negotiated 
differently with two specific 
unions, Local 77, the black 
employee union, and Local 
465, the white male union. He 
is interested in comparing how 
the race, class, and gender 
composition of the two unions 
has differed by using the 
resources of Duke's archives, 
the Durham library, and 
through interviews with former 
union members and adminis- 
trators. Not surprisingly, 
Ludwig intends to pursue a 
Ph.D. in twentieth-century 
American history focusing on 
race and gender. 

—Sarah Miller '99 

Historian of a campus movement: 
Ludwig, awarded for his research 
by Women's Studies 


place-kicking position on the team. The ac- 
tion suit alleges that Duke violated the feder- 
al Title IX statute, which prohibits discrimi- 
nation on the basis of gender in colleges and 
universities that receive federal funding. 

Mercer, who practiced with Duke's other 
kickers for two years, kicked a field goal in the 
1995 Blue-White scrimmage but never 
suited up for a game in the fall. She 
was a third-team All-State selection in 
high school. 

Since the matter is in litigation, 
Goldsmith cannot comment. But John 
Burness, senior vice president for pub- 
lic affairs, says he views the suit as 
"frivolous." He says, "Fred Goldsmith is 
a two-time national coach of the year. 
He bases his assessment of who does or 
doesn't play on his team on a player's 
performance and ability. I am confident 
that will be borne out as this matter is 
resolved in the courts." 

cies it believes creates obstacles to successful 
integration on campus. 

Three task forces formed by Keohane will 
join in the process of examining student, fac- 
ulty, and university employee concerns. One, 
chaired by provost John Strohbehn, will ad- 
dress racial issues, including the university cli- 


early 400 students, faculty 

members, and administrators 

assembled in front of Duke 
Chapel in September for an open mi- 
crophone forum to explore the topic of 
race. Prompted by several racial inci- 
dents last year, and continued concern 
over the campus' racial climate, the 
Inter- Community Council, comprised 
of thirteen student leaders, organized 
the event. The collection of speeches, 
dubbed "Race Day," came on the heels 
of two letters signed by 250 university 
professors petitioning for improved Race Day. questioning the campus climate 
race relations on campus. 

As keynote speaker, President Nannerl O. 
Keohane set the tone for the event by empha- 
sizing that the university's climate can only 
change in unison with individual action. "We 
need to do this on every level: in large gath- 
erings like this, to affirm our collective pur- 
pose; in smaller groups and organizations, like 
those who have united in the ICC to sponsor 
this event; and in our individual interac- 
tions." Keohane had refused to endorse an 
ICC petition calling for classes to be canceled 
on Race Day, citing conflict with the primary 
academic aim of the university. 

Speakers vowed to focus on structural 
changes within the university, mentioning, in 
particular, issues related to residential life and 
the curriculum. "We have to look at the ways 
the university institutions and traditions have 
created the system we live with now," said Ro- 
berto Gonzalez, member of Desegregate Duke, 
a group promoting changes of university poli- 

mate for African-American scholars. The sec- 
ond will be chaired by Clint Davidson, asso- 
ciate vice president for human resources, to 
focus on workplace issues. The third task force 
will be a steering committee to work on fol- 
low-up and communication issues. 

"Race Day provided a magnificent, albeit 
challenging, opening to do further work in 
the area of campus climate and community re- 
lations," says Janet Dickerson, vice president 
for student affairs. "We want to take advan- 
tage of this opportunity." 



Jumping from the funny pages to the cen- 
ter stage, the new family musical Kudzu, 
adapted from the comic strip of the same 

name by Doug Marlette, is coming to Duke for 
its regional premiere. This is the first production 
in the Theater Previews at Duke series, similar 
to the pre-Broadway productions mounted on 
campus in the late Eighties and early Nineties. 
Kudzu, a "wild coming-of-age romance," will 
open with previews on February 10 and 11 and 
run through February 22 in the Rey- 
nolds Industries Theater in the Bryan 
Center on West Campus. The Pulitzer 
Prize -winning syndicated cartoonist 
co-wrote the musical's script, music, 
and lyrics. 

The cast features the members of 
the Red Clay Ramblers, a North Caro- 
lina string band known for its eccen- 
tric blend of Dixieland, Irish, blue- 
grass, and Cajun music. Tickets for the 
performances are available through 
Page Box Office, (919) 684-4444. 


'-.' Tom Butters, vice president and 
athletics director, will retire in June 
1998. He has guided the Blue Devils' 
athletic programs for two decades. 
During his tenure, he presided over 
the selection of all but one of Duke's 
current head coaches, and the crea- 
tion of the university's twelve wom- 
en's intercollegiate teams. In Septem- 
ber, President Keohane appointed a 
committee to conduct a nationwide 
search for a successor. 

*: C.T. Woods-Powell has been named 
1 acting director of the Mary Lou 
| Williams Center for Black Culture. 
5 She has also been appointed assistant 
to the provost, and will assume duties 
involving the recruitment of African- 
American faculty. Woods-Powell has twenty 
years of experience in counseling, community 
relations, and program administration. Before 
coming to Duke, she was an administrative 
fellow at the Harvard Graduate School of 
Education. She earned a bachelor's degree in 
English from Spelman College and a master's 
in student personnel from North Carolina 
Central University. 

'<■ The Fuqua School of Business received 
the 1997 Outstanding Educational Institution 
Award from the National Black M.B.A. As- 
sociation. The business school was tabbed by 
the 4,000-member organization for its "great 
contributions toward encouraging African 
Americans to enter the field of business." 

November- December 1997 


The Collected Poems 

By Reyiwlds Price '55. New York: Scribriers, 
1997. 471 pp. $37.50 doth. 

In 1982, Reynolds Price published an essay 
he titled "Love Across the Lines," which 
speaks of "a love, almost Wagnerian in in- 
tensity," of the novelist for poetry and vice- 
versa. As it happens, 1982 was the year when 
Price — already a renowned novelist — brought 
out his first book of poems, Vital Provisions, the 
forerunner of three volumes: The Laws of Ice 
(1986), The Use of Fire (1990), and (taking up 
the last hundred pages of The Collected Poems) 
The Unaccountable Worth of the World (1997). 
Now, with this whole rich trove gathered be- 
tween one set of covers, the effect is to place 
Price himself within the rare company of dis- 
tinguished poet- novelists, an avatar of Thomas 
Hardy and Robert Penn Warren. 

As with Warren and Hardy, the love triangle 
between writer, poetry, and fiction poses a 
question of status: If — as seems likely — the 
novel is the steadfast wife of this writer's 
youth, poetry is his mid-life's passionate mis- 
tress. As usual, the mistress has advantages 
the wife can only en\7. Whether spontaneous 
lyric or Browningesque monologue, the poem 
is likely always to be turned out at her most 
fetching for a brief, intense encounter. But 
luckily, there's no law against literary polyg- 
amy; there is only the question of how well 
one may serve the twin muses. 

Heretical though it may seem — because 
Price has earned his world-class reputation 
mostly for his fiction — The Collected Poems may 
represent his finest achievement. Though it 
lacks the cathedral scale and design of his 
major novels, the poetry may (to paraphrase 
Robert Frost) make up in height for what it 
lacks in length. 

A highly erudite, esthetically gifted man — 
like John Updike, a fine graphic artist; like 
Joyce Carol Oates, a passionate devotee of 
music — Price ranges across a vast array of 
cultural interests in these 500 pages, which 
include narrative inventions based on Greek 
and biblical sources, graceful tributes to favo- 
rite singers (Leontyne Price, James Taylor) and 
movie stars (Vivien Leigh, James Dean), and 
elegiac memories of other poets (Auden, Spen- 
der, Frost, Lowell). Interwoven with these 
"public" poems are many devoted to intensely 
felt private intimacies, typically involving a 

parent, lover, or deceased friend, though he 
leavens the tone at times with affectionate 
poems about encounters with home -bound 
creatures — a heron, deer, or snake. 

To appreciate his verse, the best place to 
begin is with the book's preface, an elegantly 
written account of his long engagement with 
the genre as both reader and writer. Here he 
names his poetic forebears, which include the 
great lyricists in English (Dickinson, Frost, 
Eliot, Housman, et. al.) but also voices in other 
languages (Rimbaud, Baudelaire, Rilke). Here 
also he defines his prosody, which tends to 
favor either pentameter or what he calls "the 
relentlessly powered four-stress line of Beo- 
wulf and other Anglo-Saxon survivals" — 
meters that he finds best suited to the story- 
telling thrust that carries over from his fiction 
to his poetry. And though he is silent on this 
point, many readers will add, emphatically, 
that another major affinity between Price's 
fiction and poetry is the profound evocation 
of character that makes many of the poems 
hauntingly unforgettable. Two most poignant 
examples call forth his parents: "A Heaven for 
Elizabeth Rodwell, My Mother" and "A Tomb 
for Will Price." 

One other essential resource for under- 
standing Price's poetry is his 1994 memoir A 
Whole New Life, which recounts his nearly 
fatal battle with the spinal cancer that left 
him paraplegic thirteen years ago. Because of 
this crisis, the religious faith that undergirds 
all of his writing assumes enlarged signifi- 
cance in his later work, which includes most 
of his poetry. Other enduring features of the 

Price oeuvre are his deep filial allegiance and 
a powerful erotic sensibility, leading one critic 
to call Price's celebration of the human body 
the most convincing since Whitman. 

A perfect gem in the erotic mode (along with 
"Ambrosia," "Dionysus," and "Aphrodite") is 
"Juncture," in which "the use of fire" appears 
— the title for Price's third book of poems. 
Playing off Milton's description of how angels 
make love ("Easier than Air with Air, if spirits 
embrace/Total they mix,") it recalls an erotic 
interlude of virtually metaphysical intensity: 

...that cellular 

Transmigration when willing you 

And willing I made of ourselves 

One sizable brief kind holocaust 

To be, in one dim rented room, 

A speechless broad tall compound creature: 

Ferule, fragrant, unforeseen 

And soon extinct — its only future, 

The white museum of these white lines... 

Among Price's many religious poems, 
which include vivid characterizations of the 
Holy Family, "Instruction," about the redemp- 
tion of Judas, looms like an Everest of the 
Christian imagination. It and other longer 
poems like "Juncture" and "Jonathan's Lament 
for David" are Price's finest achievement; 
they afford him the space to develop charac- 
ter, theme, and narrative suspense while re- 
taining the verbal elegance, economy, and 
imagery inherent in verse. But there are also 
countless brief lyrics here that may at random 
sink prehensile roots into a reader's memory. 
"Praise," the prefatory poem that addresses 
the Holy Spirit in The Laws of Ice, is one such 
marvel of compression, rendering the fiery 
ordeal he was then undergoing with haiku- 
like brevity in its middle stanza: 

Holy flame 
Efy any name — 
Creator, Terminator, 
Receive this praise, 
The due of days 
Of hobbled terror, healing: 

"Thanks," like "sane" and "dream," is a fre- 
quent motif in Price's poems, commonly ap- 


pearing in love poems but also, as above, in 
tough-minded poetry of loss. "Farewell with 
Photographs" makes a similarly upbeat epigram 
out of the ravages of time: 

Time is mainly pictures, 

After a while is only pictures. 

Five years, for instance — all but 
two thousands days — 

Will resolve to a few dozen 
pictures in time: 

O which, if ten give long-range pleasure to their 

Thanks are due. 

Thanks then for time — 

Deep-cut pictures, 

Mainly delight. 

It is a hopeless task to do justice to Price's 
resplendent oeuvre within the span of a brief 
review, but lack of space is not the final prob- 
lem. In the end, his artistic power simply over- 
whelms the reviewer's craft. We can only say 
that with its near-perfect mastery of style and 
its deeply meditated thoughtfulness, The 
Collected Poems is a marvelous tribute to his 
boundless talents. If he had written nothing 
else, this book would assure Reynolds Price a 
distinguished place within the annals of con- 
temporary American literature. 

— Victor Strandberg 

Strandberg is a professor of English at Duke. A 
version of this review appeared in the Raleigh 
News &. Observer. 


Continued from page 13 

that's my value system. But I wouldn't end it 
with 'no'; I'd try to continue the discussion in 
order to understand him better and help him 
explore the alternatives." 

"I'd help him [do it]," answers another. 
"That's my value system." 

"But if we're using a patient's value system 
to guide their end-of-life decisions, we're helping 
their decision-making process by complying 
with their request," says a third. "Our value 
system shouldn't enter into it." 

A young woman shakes her head in dis- 
agreement. "We don't do everything a patient 
asks for just because they ask for it. If we're 
uncomfortable with what they want to do, we 
can refer them to another doctor." 

Tulsky has been listening attentively, nod- 
ding as the group wrestles with the possibili- 
ties. "No physician can be asked to do some- 
thing against his or her moral and religious 
beliefs," he concurs. "You can always refer the 
patient to someone else. But what's more im- 
portant is that you open up a dialogue with 
this patient. Ask him, 'What are you afraid 
of? What do you want to accomplish in the 
time you have left?' Don't make the assump- 
tion that he's asking for death. He may think 
that's what he's asking for, but he may not. So 
you might say, 'Let's explore your wishes or 

your concerns about suffering and then I can 
help you.' You are not saying you're going to 
help him die; you're simply offering to help." 

Tulsky asks the residents what kinds of 
fears the dying patient might express, writing 
their answers on the board. These include 
pain, being alone or dependent, loss of con- 
trol, becoming a financial burden, death itself, 
depression, and experiencing spiritual crises. 
Looking over the list, he notes that "with the 
exception of pain, none of these are physical. 
We can promise good pain control; that we 
know. But what about these other fears? They 
are very daunting. You can certainly encour- 
age the family to rally around the patient. But 
you can also reassure the patient that you 
won't abandon him, that you will be there for 

Given his life's work, Tulsky later admits 
that he has entertained notions of his own 
death. "The idealized American death is at 
the age of ninety after you've played four sets 
of tennis, had a wonderful dinner, made love 
to your spouse, and then you go to sleep and 
don't wake up. And that's not my idealized 
death. Mine is to die with time, maybe an ill- 
ness that's not too painful, so that I could pre- 
pare myself. I'd probably want to die at home 
with the people I love around me, having 
resolved most of the things in my life." ■ 


by William E. King, Duke University Archivist 

niversity Ar- 
chivist William 
E. King has 
compiled 71 arti- 
cles about the 
rich and varied 
history and 
origins of Duke 
University for this enlightening book. 
King sketches the periods of Duke's 
development, from the Union 
Institute and Trinity College in 
Randolph County in the nineteenth 
century, through Trinity's move to 
Durham at the turn of the century, 
to the creation of Duke University 
in 1924 and its rise from regional to 
international prestige. 

If Gargoyles Could Talk includes 
previously untold information about 
the Duke family, forgotten presidents, 

the origins of the Blue Devil, campus 
myths, as well as aspects of the 
architecture, historical personalities, 
and some surprising anecdotes. It's 
a must for alumni and anyone 
interested in regional history and 
Duke's impact on higher education, 
both in the state and the nation. 

208 pages, with a forward by Robert 
Durden. $22.50, jacketed hardcover. 


Duke University 

Box 90851, Durham, NC 27708 


November- December 1997 55 



Ask the Expert 


release of a so-called 
"Reader's Edition" of James 
Joyce's Ulysses, the promise 
of a new edition by Joyce 
scholar John Kidd, and the 
lapse of the U.S. copyright 
on December 31, how likely 
is it that we'll see an 
authoritative Ulysses? 

The Kidd edition will be seen as 
"definitive" when it comes out 
next year. On the other hand, 
given the state of Joyce's supervi- 
sion of the original edition, there 
will never be any such thing as a 
perfectly error-free Ulysses. It is a 
work, after all, of more than a 
quarter of a million words. The 
book was produced by French 
typesetters at a considerable dis- 
tance from where Joyce was living 
in Paris. And on the typeset 
proofs, Joyce massively added and 
rewrote in his own handwriting, 
to the point where he enlarged 
the text by about one-third. 
Beyond that, Joyce's eyesight 
progressively deteriorated, so his 
ability to supervise proofs was 
seriously compromised. The first 
edition, then, was a nightmare of 

I'm of the school that says that 
all changes in a work of art are 
momentous changes. In a lyric 
poem, a word change or two 
would tend to heavily influence 
our understanding of the text. 
Generally speaking, the idea of 
aesthetic perfection, when it is 
used as a standard for a text of 
epic length, is a false standard. 
There are exceptions: A leg- 
endary blooper was made by 
F.O. Matthiessen in his book 
American Renaissance. When he 
wrote about Moby Dick — a book 
almost as big as Ulysses — he put a 

lot of weight on the oxymoronic 
phrase "soiled fish of the sea." 
Actually, the manuscript shows 
that Melville was a lot less clever: 
It reads "coiled fish of the sea." 
The real issue is whether the 
errors cleared up by Kidd will alter 
the main lines of our understand- 
ing of Ulysses. And I will ven- 
ture a guess that they will not. 

Heard Around Campus 

"We feel responsible to provide 
equally for men and women. This 
puts us much further along in 
gender equity." 

comprise 34 percent of Hs athletes 

"I am proud that we are one of a 
few universities that have taken a 
concrete stand on unfair labor 


Company, at the urging of a student 

"The Center for Lesbian, Gay, 
Bisexual, and Transgender Life is 
outraged at this blatant censoring 
of free speech at an institution 
ostensibly designed to further it. 
We demand an immediate 
accounting of actions taken by 
university officials in this matter. 
Until otherwise informed, we will 
view this whitewashing as a hate 

crime perpetrated against all stu- 
dents, staff, and faculty members 
who identify as or support lesbian, 
gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, 
and questioning persons at Duke." 

"The removal of these statements 
was an error in judgment that 
cannot be condoned. The exer- 
cise of free speech may make us 
uncomfortable at times, but the 
principles of free speech and open 
inquiry are at the very foundation 
of Duke University." 

vice preside 

We asked 15 undergraduates: 
Should proficiency in 

Duke's curriculum? 

Yes: 8 

No: 7 
In his annual "State of Arts and 
Sciences" address to the Arts and 
Sciences Council, Dean William 
H. Chafe discussed the possibility 
of moving "toward a simpler, more 
coherent, and more rigorous cur- 
riculum." Chafe wants a faculty 
committee to consider either hav- 
ing a foreign language require- 
ment or a foreign language profi- 
ciency requirement. 

While most students agree that 
knowing a foreign language is 
beneficial to an individual, opin- 
ions are split as to whether a lan- 
guage should be required. Over 
half the students polled said 
knowledge of another language is 
a necessity in an increasingly 
global society. "I think that 
Americans are disabled in a world 
economy because we only speak 
English and we expect other peo- 
ple to speak our language. Stu- 
dents from other countries learn 
many languages in school and are 
therefore more prepared to work 
in a multicultural society," says 
first-year student Mia Fram. 

However, those who disagree 
with a language requirement say 
students should not be forced to 
take classes that are not interest- 
ing to them. According to junior 
Audrey Kim, "If being proficient 
in a foreign language does not 
play a big role on personal 
lifestyle — if there is no necessity 
for it — then people should be 
allowed to use a limited number 
-of classes to really explore what 
excites them and what they think 
they will use in life." Senior 
Natalie Lamarque says the Duke 
curriculum has "enough require- 
ments for a liberal arts school. It 
is moving away from liberal, and 
more toward strict guidelines." 

Junior Drew Welter cites 
another reason for not requiring 
a foreign language. "There is no 
other language you can learn that 
is as universal as English." 

But senior Kanika Blue dis- 
agrees. "When we get out and 
leave here, we're not in a closed 
country. It is very open; there are 
lots of opportunities abroad, and 
the U.S. is becoming more di- 
verse," she says. "A part of a basic 1 
liberal arts curriculum is being | 
able to appreciate different cul- | 
tures. An indicator of that is being I 
able to speak, or at least being s 
exposed to a foreign language." 1 


edical Center, 

ling growth of Duke's 

the memories these scenes evoke 

has been captured in the new 

1998 Duke University Calendar. This 

beautiful full-color 15" x 12" wall calendar 

has arrived, giving highly organized people a 

chance to begin scheduling activities months 

in advance (and the rest of us a bunch of pretty 

pictures to look at while we wait 

for '98). Retailing for $12, 

the calendar features through-the- 

seasons shots of the University and 

Medical Center campus taken by Duke's 

own office of University Photography. It is available at all Duke 

bookstores, or by mailing or faxing the coupon below to Duke Stores 

Duke Cale n'd a r 




I would like to order Calendars) at $12 each = _ 

NC residents add 6% sales tax = _ 

Expiration Date 

Shipping/Handling Charges (Continental USA) 


Name (please print) 

Make check payable to Duke University Mail Order or charge: 
O Visa a Mastercard :"! AMEX ~i Discover 



Mail form to Duke University Stores/Mail Order, Box 90850, Durham, NC 27708-0852 c 
call (800) 842-3853, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday - Friday EDT, or Fax (919) 681-8352. 


Duke University Athletic Scholarship Fund 

Now, you can be a part of the team. By contributing as little 
as $100, you can display your Iron Duke window decal with 
pride and know you have helped Blue Devil student-athletes 
maintain Duke's proud athletic tradition. Take the next step 
by requesting information, NOW! 


I YES, I am interested in finding out more about the Iron Dukes. 

Please send a membership information brochure to the address listed below. 

Please return this form t 

Iron Dukes 

311 Finch Yeager Bldg., Be 
Duke University 
Durham, NC 27708-0542 
(919) 684-5033 


614 CHAPEL DRIVE. BOX 90570 




U.S. Postage 


Durham, N.C. 


Address Service Requested 




You've always been there in spirit. 
Maybe it's time you brought yourself along, too. 

1-800-44-MI D WAY 

printed on recycled 


Robert J. Bitwise A.M. '88 


Sam Hull 


Bridget Booher '82, A.M. '92 


Dennis Meredith 


Funderburk Jr. '60 


Brian Henderson '98 

Jaime Levy '01 


Mills/Carrigan Design 


Litho Industries, Inc. 

Michele Clause Farquhar 79, 
president; John A. Schwarz III 
'56, president-elect; M. Laney 
Funderburk Jr. '60, secretary- 




Cover: These little mice — denizens of 
Duke's Transgenic Mouse Facility — offer 
great medical promise. Plwlograph by 
Chris Hildreth 

James R. Cook Jr. '50, B.D. 
'54, Divinity School; George J. 
Evans B.S.E.E. '56, School of 
hu^uu vi/m.i,'; Barrett B. McCall 
M.F.'91, Nicholas School of the 
Environment; Walter W. 
Simpson III M.B.A. 74, Fuqua 
Sciinnl t>f Business; Judith Ann 
Maness M.H.A. '83, Department 
t>! IL'Jiii A./inniiMi'Lirion; Bruce 
W. BaberJ.D. 79, School of 
Law; David K. Wellman M.D. 
72, H.S. 72-78, School of 
Medicine; Linda Spencer 
Fowler B.S.N. 79, School of 
Nursing; Marie Koval Nardone 
M.S. 79, A.H.C. 79, Graduate 
Program in Physical Therapy; 
J. Alexander McMahon '42, 
Half-Century Club. 

Clay Felker '51, chairman; 
Frederick F Andrews '60; 
Debra Blum '87; Sarah 
Hardesty Bray 72; Nancy L. 
Cardwell '69; Jerrold K. Footlick; 
Edward M. Gomez 79; Kerry E. 
Hannon '82; Stephen Labaton 
A.M. '86, J.D. '86; Elizabeth H. 
Locke '64, Ph.D. 72; Thomas R 
Losee Jr. '63; Kimberly J. 
McLarin '86; Michael J. 
Schoenfeld '84; Susan Tift 73; 
Jane Vessels 77; Robert J. 
Bliwise A.M. '88, secretary. 

$15 per year ($30 foreign) 
Oukc Md^cmc, Alumni House, 
614 Chapel Drive, Box 90570, 
Durham, N.C. 27708-0570. 

Alumni Records, Box 90613, 
Durham, N.C. 27708-0613 

© 1998 Duke University 
Published bimonthly by the 
Office of Alumni Affairs. 


As disabled students enroll in greater numbers at colleges and universities, they are 
discovering a wide range of services and accommodations — along with misperceptions 
about their capabilities 

BUILDING A BETTER MOUSE by Dennis Meredith 8 

Some 30,000 mice housed in Duke's Transgenic Mouse Facility live in such scrupulously 
sterile splendor because their altered genes harbor fundamental secrets that could help 
save millions of human lives 

WHAT MAKES A HERO? by Robert]. Bliwise 14 

Homeric, historic, or pop-oriented, heroes are born, made, and then remade to satisfy 
our yearning for exemplars 


An ethical gathering: celebrating thirty-five years of a professor's contributions to the 
examined life 


Ellen Biddle Shipman, the landscape architect who designed the Sarah R Duke Gardens, 
is celebrated with both an exhibit and a spring symposium 


"I guess I am just drawn to courage," says Paula Giddings, who has redefined cultural 
studies and explored the forces that drive people to act on their convictions 


A team that competes on its own terms 



Environmental endowments, athletic additions, Brazilian brainstorming, Russian rambles 


A melange of notables 



Recommendations for readers, revelations for freshmen 








As disabled students enroll in greater numbers at 

colleges and universities, they are discovering services 

and accommodations that didn't exist even five years ago. 

But they are also encountering misperceptions 

about their capabilities. 

Friends and fellowship: At a going away party for a fellow member of the 
Cambridge Christian Fellowship, Grimsley looks through a friend's photographs 

Inside the cluttered two-bedroom apartment 
on Central Campus, pizza boxes, soda cans, 
and unfolded laundry are stacked up in 
the kind of haphazard order endemic to col- 
lege students. The Blue Devil clock on the wall 
reads 8:45 a.m., and sophomore Will Grimsley 
is running late. He was up till dawn working on 
a presentation for his afternoon biology class, 
and right now he's trying to gather everything 
he needs for his marathon Thursday, which 
begins in a few minutes with a history class on 
"War and Peace" and ends at dusk, when his 
"Ecology and Society" course concludes. 

Pulling on a knit ski cap and grabbing his 
backpack, Grimsley hollers a farewell to his 
roommate and wheels himself out of his dark 
home into the bright light of a cold Novem- 
ber morning. Diagnosed at birth with cerebral 
palsy, Grimsley has spent most of his adult life 
in a wheelchair, and he has become quite 
adept at navigating himself from place to 

place. In the parking lot, driver Marios Uzzell 
waits next to a wheelchair-accessible van that 
transports Grimsley to class. With the flip of a 
switch, Uzzell lowers a platform that allows his 
passenger to roll into place. Another button 
activates the platform to raise its occupant 
into the van. Uzzell makes sure that Grimsley 's 
chair is securely strapped down before guiding 
the van onto Anderson Street and heading 
toward West Campus. Uzzell shepherded Grims- 
ley around last year, too, and the pair have 
established an easygoing rapport. Talk turns 
to Christmas family photos and Duke's per- 
formance in the Maui Invitational basketball 
tournament. At the back of the psychology 
building, Uzzell unloads Grimsley and they 
share a high-five handshake before parting. 

"Later, dude!" says Grimsley. 

"Learn something today, okay?" replies Uz- 

Grimsley is a well-known figure on Duke's 

campus. While his wheelchair serves as a dis- 
tinguishing visual identifier, it's his spirited per- 
sonality that has won him admirers across cam- 
pus. He was a March of Dimes poster child 
when he was four, but Grimsley 's physical lim- 
itations are merely one small part of who he 
is. His friends know him as a Civil War buff, a 
devout Christian, a polite Southern boy, and a 
die-hard basketball fan. And if he is the first 
peer of theirs who travels by wheelchair, the 
odds are good that he won't be their last. 

At the start of the fall semester, Grimsley was 
one of ninety-one undergraduates identified 
as disabled, a population that also includes 
those with learning and emotional disorders. 
According to a 1996 survey by the American 
Council on Education, the proportion of col- 
lege students with disabilities has tripled since 
1978, from 3 to 9 percent. As these students 
enroll in greater numbers at colleges and uni- 
versities, they are discovering services and 



accommodations that didn't exist even five 
years ago: door-to-door transportation, spe- 
cially designed computer equipment, and in- 
dividually tailored academic modifications. 
But they are also encountering persistent ob- 
stacles: misperceptions on the part of faculty 
and fellow students about their capabilities, 
inaccessible buildings, and administrative de- 
cision-making that can be well-intentioned 
but misguided. 

Providing these special-needs students with 
assistance is more than just a moral impera- 
tive. With the passage of the Americans with 
Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, it's also the 
law. Like its peer institutions across the coun- 
try, Duke is scrambling to comply with ADA 
mandates. That means conducting audits of 
what's already been put in place and mapping 
out what remains to be done. It means long- 
range planning and financial commitments 
from across the university community. And it 

means learning from successful initiatives and 
from the consequences of inaction. 

"My first instinct is to say we've been playing 
catch-up somewhat," says Diane Alexander, 
Duke's coordinator for students with disabili- 
ties. "Other schools like Emory, Dartmouth, 
Harvard, and Stanford have very strong dis- 
abilities offices. We have always provided for 
our disabled students, but it's happened by 
pulling together resources from over here or 
over there. It has not been a centralized effort; 
it has come together through the goodwill of a 
lot of different people." 

Given the complexity of the ADA, the 
enormous costs of upgrading campus facilities 
and hiring professional staff, and the widely 
varying needs of individual students, dozens 
of institutions have been slapped with lawsuits 
or complaints for failing to follow the letter 
(and in some cases, the spirit) of the law. Vio- 
lations range from asking improper questions 

about disabilities on admissions forms (Johns 
Hopkins, Georgia State University) to dismis- 
sing student requests for legally mandated ac- 
commodations (Boston University). 

Given Duke' Gothic architecture and often 
uneven natural terrain, bringing the university 
into ADA compliance is more complicated 
than retrofitting a few buildings. Still Duke has 
been working diligently to make the campus 
an inviting place for the disabled population, 
which includes students, staff, and visitors. 
Wheelchair ramps and lifts can be found across 
campus; elevator buttons, water fountains, and 
phones have been lowered; heavy, narrow 
doorways have been replaced with automatic 
openers and wider entry ways; bathrooms 
have been renovated for handicapped access; 
special strobe lights and amplified fire alarms 
have been installed in living spaces for hearing- 
impaired residents; many building and class- 
room markers are in Braille; elevators have 


been, or will be, installed in older buildings; in 
some facilities, fixed seats have been replaced 
with removable chairs; and within the next 
four years, the university's entire transit fleet 
will be wheelchair-accessible. A campus map 
indicating which buildings are partially or 
completely handicapped accessible is in final 

And then there are the special modifications 

university is ahead of the game when it comes 
to ADA compliance. About a year and a half 
ago, a student filed a complaint charging that 
Duke had not done enough to make the cam- 
pus accessible. Administrators are now nego- 
tiating an agreement with the Department of 
Justice, which has issued a recommendation re- 
port on how the university should address its 
ADA shortcomings. Like all institutions, Duke 

not where we need to be. We need drinking 
fountains and telephones at a height where 
wheelchair-bound people can access them. 
We know that East and West Duke buildings, 
where we have many public arts events, are 
not accessible. But if you look at this [Justice 
Department] report, it covers every single 
building, including the Children's Campus 
and the Washington Duke Inn." 

for those diagnosed with learning disabilities. 
Depending on the documented nature of the 
disability, accommodations might include one 
or more of the following: extended time to com- 
plete quizzes, exams, and assignments; separate 
administration of tests and exams in a quiet 
place; permission to use a calculator during tests 
and exams; permission to use a tape recorder 
for class lectures; and the availability of aux- 
iliary aids such as recorded textbooks or stu- 
dent note -takers. 

There is also an ADA compliance task 
force. It has representatives from various of- 
fices around campus — admissions, facilities, 
transportation, the medical center, human re- 
sources, the graduate and professional schools, 
student affairs, and the provost. 

These initiatives do not come cheap: Im- 
provements to Central Campus sidewalks, in- 
cluding ramps and curb cuts, cost more than 
$23,000. Renovating the admissions office to 
include new doors, entryway ramps, and a 
handicapped-accessible bathroom cost about 
$100,000. Until about five years ago, handi- 
capped patrons attending events in Page 
Auditorium had to be let off at the unsightly 
West Campus loading dock. Now, they can 
gain access from the Bryan Center parking lot 
and through a side door to Page. Cost: 

Despite the revamping of physical spaces and 
academic assistance, no one will claim that the 








is required to conduct self-evaluation audits 
and transition plans for complying with ADA 
(and before that, Section 504 of the Rehabil- 
itation Act of 1973). The recent complaint, 
says Vice President for Institutional Equity 
Myrna Adams, focuses on whether or not the 
university has made reasonable and adequate 

"We have met our obligations," she says. 
"Many curb cuts have been made, parking fa- 
cilities have been established, telecommunica- 
tions facilities have been installed. But we're 

Given the scope of the problem, s 
grievances are almost inevitable. The Duke 
complaint, and many of those filed around the 
country, are undertaken with the intent of be- 
ing instructive or corrective rather than puni- 
tive. "Legal complaints are one of the major 
tactics people use to get institutions to change. 
On the one hand, this does give us the ratio- 
nale for spending money at a time when it's in 
short supply. When an external agency is or- 
dering you to comply in specific ways, it speeds 
up the process. These are things that we would 
certainly be doing in due course anyway; this 
just compels us to move more quickly." 


ack at the psychology building, Will 
Grimsley encounters an impediment. 
Someone has left a garbage can in the 
middle of the sidewalk ramp. Without slowing 
down, Grimsley aims directly toward the of- 
fending item and using the feet plates of his 
wheelchair, shoves it off to one side. He pulls 
open the heavy wood door and makes his way 
to the ground-floor elevator, which then 
takes him up to his first-floor classroom. 
Finding the occasional obstruction in his path 
is not uncommon — "When that happens, I 
just want to get it out of the way as quickly as 
I can," he says — but other complications are 
more annoying. Later in the day, an elevator in 
the Levine Science Research Center (LSRC) 
fails to respond to his call. Worried that his 


driver has been waiting too long, Grimsley 
doubles back at breakneck speed to find one 
that's working. 

"I think that there are a lot of things that 
could be improved here," he says. "I would 
like to see every single dorm on East and West 
have some sort of ramp so I could get into 
them. And they need to patch up the [flag- 
stone] walkway on the main quad. But for the 

a more coherent approach was needed. Cur- 
rently, all services are channeled through the 
Academic Skills Center, which includes dis- 
abilities services for undergraduates. Later 
this year, the university will establish an offi- 
cial Office of Disability Services, which will 
collaborate with the disability staff of the Ac- 
ademic Skills Center. Geared to students, fac- 
ulty, and staff, the office will also address 

ordered to re-examine some of its policies.) 

Junior Maria Roberts is a fairly typical 
learning-disabled (LD) student. After excelling 
in high school — top grades, numerous ex- 
tracurricular activities — she immediately ran 
into trouble her freshman year. She signed up 
for chemistry, calculus, and geology, but no 
matter how much she studied, she found her- 
self performing poorly on tests. "I went to my 

Onward and upward: 
Forced to enter most 
buildings through side 
or back entrances, 
Grimsley circuitously 
wends his way to class, 
far left 

Mobile companions: 
Grimsley and driver 
Marios Uzzell, center, 
have forged a friend- 
ship that began in the 
fall of 1996 

In the game: Grimsley 
warms up before 
basketball class begins, 

most part, it's pretty good. I really have to 
applaud the transportation folks, too. I can 
call and give them my schedule and they'll 
take me where I need to go." 

Although he is reluctant to call himself an 
activist for the disabled population, Grimsley 
has been known to go directly to the appro- 
priate administrator when he finds something 
that could be improved. His freshman year, 
he took the director of facilities on a tour of 
East Campus, pointing out the many deter- 
rents to easy maneuverability. 

Like Grimsley, junior Lenore Ramm says 
she is mostly pleased with Duke's willingness 
to help meet her needs, but that she often 
finds it easier to go directly to the person in 
charge of a particular problem. "When I trans- 
ferred here last fall, I had to search out the 
right people to talk to," says Ramm, who uses 
a wheelchair because of a condition called 
osteogenesis imperfecta, which has rendered 
her bones extremely fragile. "When I have a 
problem with doors, I'll deal directly with the 
lock shop. Or if I need to have a class location 
moved, I'll deal directly with the registrar's 
office. I've had to push a lot, but I guess that's 

University administrators agree that the 
former decentralized structure of providing 
services to special-needs students could be 
frustrating. As the number of students with 
disabilities began to grow, it became clear that 

issues of public accessibility. A national search 
is being conducted for a senior-level director, 
who should be in place by the start of the 
1998-99 academic year. 

For those familiar with issues relating to 
the disabled, such steps are seen as sim- 
ply fulfilling an obligation. Certainly no 
one would suggest that the Will Grimsleys of 
the world shouldn't have the same chance to 
pursue a degree in higher education as their 
able-bodied classmates. But in some quarters, 
students with learning disabilities are viewed 
with suspicion. People with such "hidden dis- 
abilities" are often reluctant to disclose their 
disorder, or are met with skepticism by those 
who think that "learning disability" is merely 
a euphemism for laziness. 

Such an attitude landed Boston University 
in hot water when then-provost (now presi- 
dent) Jon Westerling implied that such stu- 
dents fabricated their conditions. Without any 
medical expertise or understanding of the range 
of learning disabilities, Westerling referred dis- 
paragingly to a student, "Somnolent Saman- 
tha," who needed special considerations because 
she was prone to falling asleep in class. (It was 
later revealed that no such student existed, 
nor was there any student at BU whose symp- 
toms remotely resembled Westerling's narcolep- 
tic example. In federal court, BU was found 
guilty of violating federal disability laws and 

professors all the time, sat in the front row, 
asked lots of questions — I was obnoxious, I 
was trying so hard," she says. "But it didn't 
seem to make a difference." For the first time 
in her life, she made C's, and she even con- 
templated transferring to another school. When 
she discovered that her first-year roommate, 
who had been diagnosed with a learning dis- 
order, had improved her academic performance 
following the diagnosis and treatment, Rob- 
erts decided to investigate. 

But it wasn't until the second semester of 
her sophomore year that she was tested. Rob- 
erts says she was reluctant to seek help be- 
cause of the high costs of testing ($600-700, 
which her insurance eventually covered), and 
because a teaching assistant she confessed her 
worries to dismissed the premise as absurd. 
When the results came back, Roberts was 
diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyper- 
activity Disorder (ADHD), characterized as a 
severe difficulty in focusing and maintaining 

"I think I've probably had this for a long 
time, but in high school you're not required to 
spend a lot of time on any one thing. You 
jump around from one thing to the next. But 
when I got to college and had to spend two to 
three hours on one subject, I just couldn't do 
it. I became extremely frustrated and anxious 
because I'd always done well, and suddenly I 
wasn't. I felt stupid." 

January-February 1998 

Working with the Academic Skills Center, 
Roberts was able to get extra time for tests, 
and to have a private room for taking exams. 
Her counselors have taught her study skills 
and time management techniques, tools that 
have helped her become a more focused stu- 
dent. (The center provides this service to all 
students, not just those with LDs.) She says 
her professors have been uniformly respon- 
sive to her needs, even offering arrangements 
she declines, such as additional time for writ- 
ing papers. Her grades have improved, but 
more importantly, she's learned how to com- 
prehend and retain material in a more struc- 
tured, reliable fashion. And she's regained her 
sense of confidence and purpose. 

Despite her clear excitement about identi- 
fying the source of her difficulties, Roberts 
asked that a pseudonym be used for this story. 
"All my friends know, my family knows, and 
my professors know. But I just don't need 
other students finding out about it and think- 
ing that I'm getting some kind of break. Duke 
is competitive enough. The way I see it, having 
these accommodations puts me on the same 
playing field as everyone else. There are a lot 
of people who don't believe in learning disor- 
ders. I've had people tell me, 'You can't have 
a learning disability, you go to Duke.' But once 
they get to know me, and learn more about 
LDs, it's like, 'You are so ADHD!' " 

Disabilities coordinator Diane Alexander 
points out that the requests received by the 
Academic Skills Center are all "carefully doc- 
umented and carefully reviewed by the clini- 
cal director. It's not just someone walking in 
off the street and saying, I need all the time in 
the world to take this exam. And requests for 
accommodations are not outrageous; it may 
be extra time to complete an exam, or for a 
low-vision student, extra time to conduct re- 
search. A learning disability doesn't have any- 

OF 1990, IT'S ALSO 

thing to do with lacking intelligence; it has 
everything to do with the way students pro- 
cess information." 

The university has formal procedures for 
identifying and assisting all students with 
learning disorders even before they arrive on 
campus. For the first time last fall, all students 
accepted to the university received a special 
form with their admissions materials soliciting 
information from those who qualify for ADA 
accommodations. Once the form and appro- 
priate documentation are returned, they are 
forwarded to Kathryn Gustafson, clinical 
director of the Academic Skills Center, for 
review. Gustafson or Alexander meets with 
the student, and letters are sent to the stu- 
dent's academic dean requesting specific ac- 
commodations. The dean then notifies the 
faculty of the student's needs, and the student 
receives a letter reiterating the agreed-upon 
accommodations that he or she is eligible to 

receive. Students are also encouraged to main- 
tain open lines of communication with faculty 
members regarding their particular needs. 

"These students just want to be like every- 
body else," says Gustafson, an assistant profes- 
sor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. "We 
treat the information with utmost confidenti- 
ality and request that the professors do the 
same. Some of these students were diagnosed 
when they were young children and some 
weren't diagnosed until they started college. 
Regardless of when that diagnosis was made, 
these are very successful, very intelligent stu- 
dents. If they weren't, they wouldn't be at 
Duke." (It is against the law to solicit infor- 
mation about disabilities in admissions proce- 

The Academic Skills Center's consultant 
and former clinical director, Mary Francis 
Peete, helped pioneer services for disabled 
students at the university, beginning in 1984. 
She concurs with Gustafson that LD students 
differ only slightly from the larger Duke stu- 
dent population. "They've gone on to medical 
school, law school, graduate school. Mostly, 
students function with very minimal accom- 
modations. It may just be that they are given 
time-and-a-half to complete a test, or they 
need help learning how to make the [aca- 
demic] transition from high school to college. 
And not every student who qualifies as LD 
asks for accommodations." 

Of the ninety-one students identified with 
disabilities this fall, sixty- seven were diagnosed 
with learning disabilities or attention-deficit 
disorders — including sixteen first-year stu- 
dents. Six declined to ask for accommoda- 
tions. Twenty-four students had documented 
physical or emotional disabilities, and three 
chose not to ask for accommodations. 

For students like Angela Earhart '97, who is 
deaf, educating others about living with a medi- 


Foint person: 
Teammates look to 
Grimsley to run 
the offense, far left 

Day's end: 
Returning to his 
Grimsley looks 
forward to catching 
up on his sleep, 

cal condition is not inconsistent with blend- 
ing in. "It was always a main objective to show 
the faculty and students that I was just like 
the other students and to treat me as normal- 
ly as possible. I make an effort to make people 
feel as comfortable as possible and realize that 
I do not view my deafness as a disability. I 
found that it was helpful to be as open as pos- 
sible and be available for questions. People 
are always so intimidated to ask and discuss 
any handicap. I really wanted to teach them 
that it's okay to be curious, and within time 
they forgot I was even deaf." 

Earhart, who had interpreters throughout 
her Duke career, even taught a house course, 
"An Introduction to American Sign Language 
and Deaf Culture." She is now a research 
technician in the department of molecular 
physiology and biophysics at Baylor College of 
Medicine, and is in the process of applying to 
medical schools. She says she hopes eventual- 
ly to pursue a career in primary- care medicine 
with a special emphasis on caring for the deaf 

Since Earhart graduated, there have been 
steady improvements both to the campus' 
physical landscape and its administrative sup- 
port network. Unlike Earhart's freshman year, 
when there wasn't even a main clearinghouse 
to oversee disabled-student requests, physical- 
ly- or learning-disabled members of the Class 
of 2002 will be able to flip open the Duke 
directory to find a central office devoted to 
their needs. Plans are on the drawing board 
for putting elevators in East and West Duke, 
so that physically disabled students interested 
in taking art history courses won't have to re- 
quest that class locations be moved to accom- 
modate them. And a $25,000 proposal has 
been submitted to the provost from university 
librarian David Ferriero and associate librarian 
Margaret Brill for improving library services 

for the disabled. The plan calls for improve- 
ments in assistive technology, such as adding 
a closed circuit television electronic magnifi- 
er and a Kurzweil reading machine; specially 
designated work spaces; additional staff assis- 
tance to help meet and identify the needs of 
disabled users; and explicit policies describing 
what the library can provide. 

ight has begun to fall and Will Grims- 
ley is back at his Central Campus 
apartment. Like his classmates, he 
looks back to a day full of small victories and 
familiar routines. In basketball class, his 
"skins" team beat the "shirts." The biology pre- 
sentation he'd labored on all night was well 
received. Now, he checks his post office box 
(there's only junk mail) and speeds down the 
sidewalk. It's easier coming home; it's down- 
hill. He unlocks the door to his apartment, 
lets himself in, and checks his phone mes- 


On those occasions when 
English Professor Rey- 
nolds Price '55 discovers 
that the aging elevator in the 
Allen Building is malfunctioning 
again, he has to ask for help 
getting his wheelchair up the 
stairs to his third-floor office. 
'It's really not that hard," says 
Price. "One or two strong people 
can do it." 

But about a year ago, the two 
campus police called upon to 
perform the task thought about 
the prospect for a moment 
before one declared, "This is 
not in my job description," and 
walked away. His colleague 
prompdy followed suit 

In a wheelchair since spinal- 
cord cancer in 1985 left him 
unable to walk, Price says that 
such incidents, while rare at 
Duke, serve to remind him of 
how far the campus — and the 
nation in general — still needs 
to go to assist the handicapped. 
"There have really been no 
hostile moments here," he says, 
"but there are many, many 
places I simply do not go. I 
have silently canceled out so 
many parts of the campus that 
are inaccessible that I'm barely 
even conscious of it anymore." 

In addition to the uneven 
and often treacherous flagstone 
walkways-a minefield for peo- 
ple in wheelchairs — Price says 
there are two recurrent situa- 
tions that nag. Because the 
heavy wooden doors of the Allen 
Building are not automated, he 
has to sit and wait for someone 
to come along and open the 

sages. A high school teacher is checking in to 
see if they're still on for dinner. Later, Grims- 
ley will try to catch up on his sleep. 

It's just another day in the life of Will 
Grimsley. The deterrents that he considers mi- 
nor annoyances seem daunting to those of us 
who take our mobility for granted. What's 
important, say people who work closely with 
disabled students, is that we not only identify 
and solve the problems that impede their 
physical and professional progress, but that 
we also work to recognize and appreciate the 
lifelong challenges they face. 

"We need to be aware that there's a per- 
centage of our student body whose needs are 
different from other people and be sensitive 
to those needs," says Diane Alexander. "It isn't 
that we have an overwhelming number of 
students, but even if we have just one, we need 
to meet that need with the right spirit — will- 
ingly, happily, glad to do it." 

Price: "There are many, many places I simply < 

door for him every time he en- 
ters the building. And when he 
wants to visit colleagues in the 
Union Building's second-floor 
Faculty Commons, he has to 
ride up in the garbage elevator. 

On his many travels across 
the country for book tours and 
readings, Price has found that 
there is widespread ignorance 
about the handicapped popula- 
tion. "I don't think most build- 
ings in America were built for 
people to live beyond the age of 
forty," he says. "They are not 
designed for people who are in- 
firm or in wheelchairs." Even 
modifications made on behalf of 
the disabled are often inappro- 
priate, such as wheelchair spaces 
in movie theaters that are situat- 
ed on an uncomfortable incline. 

When Price published A 
Whole New Life, the autobio- 
graphical account of his bout 
with cancer, he began receiving 
about twenty letters a month 

from handicapped readers who 
wanted to share their own 
experiences. "At first I was flab- 
bergasted and happy that I'd 
helped people. But when I 
started getting requests to 
speak to groups, it reached a 
point where I had to decide 
whether I was going to be pri- 
marily a friend to the disabled 
population or a man who writes 
books. And I decided on the 
latter. I wasn't willing to be- 
come the John the Baptist of 

Price is quick to note that he 
has not been as active in pushing 
for better accommodations on 
campus as he should. "You have 
to stage your battles, and I've 
decided to let other, younger 
people fight those battles. I'm 
not proud of that. But if you're 
disabled and you get outraged 
at all the frustrations there are 
to deal with out there, you'd get 
so mad you'd have a stroke." 

January-February 1998 






Some 30,000 mice housed in Duke's Transgenic Mouse Facility live in such 

scrupulously sterile splendor because their altered genes harbor fundamental 

secrets that could help save millions of human lives. 

Masked, capped, gowned, and gloved, 
Lin Allsbury plucks and places with 
practiced dexterity the wriggling 
pink baby mice from one clear plastic bin to 
another. Grasping each mouse gendy with ster- 
ilized forceps, she zips them unerringly from 
old home to new, religiously following the in- 
tricate, weekly, cage-changing ritual. The tech- 
nician allows no bare human hand ever to 
touch these tiny priceless creatures. Mouse -by- 
squirming-mouse, she lowers each onto a bed 
of pulverized corncobs heat-blasted to sterili- 
ty in an autoclave. As each baby lands, the 
mother mouse busily nestles her brood into the 
cotton nesting material provided for new moth- 
ers. Transfer complete, Allsbury clamps down 
the germ-filtering lid on the micro -isolator cage. 
The mother mouse takes a quick sip of water 
treated with germ-killing hydrochloric acid, 
nibbles a bit of mouse chow, and nestles down 
into the fastidiously prepared cage. 

But Allsbury still faces a formidable task, as 
she pulls another pair of forceps from a disin- 
fectant solution. Enveloped by the delicate 
rustlings of throngs of mice, she continues to 
work her way through stainless-steel racks 
holding hundreds of cages, each holding sev- 
eral mice, and all demanding the same metic- 

ulous manipulations to ensure the same anti- 
septic transfer. 

These mice — among some 30,000 housed 
in Duke's Transgenic Mouse Facility — live in 
such scrupulously sterile splendor because 
their altered genes harbor fundamental se- 
crets that could help save millions of human 
lives. The tinkered-up DNA within the mice 
could yield a better understanding of cancer, 
genetic disorders, drug addiction, heart dis- 
ease, or immune malfunctions — an incredible 
promise for such modest-looking creatures. 

Such medical potential explains why Duke's 
Comprehensive Cancer Center, funded by the 
National Cancer Institute, heavily supports 
Duke's mouse facilities, and why Duke Medi- 
cal Center spends considerably of its own 
funds each year to subsidize them. What's 
more, the investment will surely rise. The sci- 
entific explosion of experiments with such ex- 
otic mice is producing a population explosion 
of animals, requiring a multi-million- dollar 
investment by the university for new facilities 
to house the 60,000 mice needed within a 
decade. If the trend continues, twenty-first- 
century Duke could be home to more mice 
than humans. 

The tiny rodents have proven themselves 

to be invaluable living test tubes, within which 
researchers have rewritten or erased specific 
bits of life's genetic blueprint as they try to 
understand such mysteries as how cancer cells 
proliferate out of control, or how subtle bio- 
chemical breakdowns cause abnormal behav- 
iors. Dozens of Duke Medical Center labs use 
the genetically altered mice, studying hun- 
dreds of genes. 

Gene -altered mice are by far the animal of 
choice among the small zoo of creatures sci- 
entists use to study the genetic basis of dis- 
ease, says Gordon Hammes, vice chancellor 
for medical center academic affairs. "There's 
just no other way to do these studies. While 
bacteria or plants do have biochemical simi- 
larities to humans, when you want to find out 
the physiological effects of genetic mutations 
or the genetic basis of disease, you have to use 
animal models. Of course, the mouse is not 
the most human-like animal, but they're ideal 
in other respects. You can breed them easily, 
can get them in large quantities, and they're 
relatively inexpensive." 

The engineered mice come in two basic 
models — transgenic and knockout. Transgenic 
mice, developed about fifteen years ago, are 
produced by inserting a foreign gene into the 



mouse DNA to assay its effect. Knockout mice, 
on the other hand (or on the other paw), are 
made by disrupting a specific gene to figure out 
how important it is in the animals' function. 
Says transgenic facility director Joseph Nevins, 
"In the past, we might have done these assays 
in cell cultures, but now we can do them in 
the context of the whole animal and its de- 
velopment. These experiments are of enormous 
value because now we can do a specific alter- 
ation of a gene and ask what its consequence 
is in a whole mammalian organism." Knock- 
out mice are by far the most frequendy created 
animals, says Nevins, a Howard Hughes Medi- 
cal Institute Investigator and chair of the ge- 
netics department. Knockouts constitute about 
80 percent of the facility's denizens, and make 
the formal name "Transgenic Mouse Facility" 
a bit of a misnomer, he says. 

The recipe for a mouse, whether transgenic 
or knockout, begins with a gene isolated and 
copied in bacteria cultured by the scientists 
studying the gene. Next, these copied genes 
must be insinuated into living mouse cells, a 
high and delicate art practiced by facility co- 
ordinator Cheryl Bock. The process she uses is 
much like building a haystack, finding a nee- 
dle in it, and then, wearing oven mitts, thread- 
ing the needle and creating a fine needlepoint 

Bock is considered a master of mouse-mak- 

ing. After all, besides her biochemistry degree 
and extensive lab experience, she counts as 
her hobbies needlepoint, jewelry-making, and 
creating intricate Ukranian Easter eggs. "Since 
I spent hours doing all those things for fun, 
the faculty figured I'd certainly be able to do 
this. Actually, I find it very peaceful to come 
in and do this work because I have four kids 
at home and it's certainly not as quiet there." 

Bock begins her genetic manipulations by 
using delicate tickles of electricity to force the 
engineered DNA into cells taken from mouse 
embryos. She then grows these cells in glass 
Petri dishes, creating a"haystack" of cells, only 
a tiny fraction having the gene inserted into 
the right place in the cell's vast stretches of 
mouse DNA. Using biochemical isolation tech- 
niques, she carefully isolates this "needle" of a 
cell — the one in which the altered gene has 
targeted the right slot in the mouse DNA and 
squeezed itself in, kicking the original gene 

Now comes the "oven-mitt" part. Using a 
$20,000 binocular microscope, complete with 
a pair of thousand-dollar joysticks, she must 
now insert the gene-altered cell into a fertil- 
ized mouse egg called a"blastocyst" — a shim- 
mering, delicate bubble the width of a human 
hair. Bock finds herself in a constant race 
against time and the environment: "The blas- 
tocysts are very delicate. They can only stay 

out in the room temperature about fifteen 
minutes. And they're easily harmed by any- 
thing toxic in the environment, like heavy 
metals or organic solvents." 

So, peering into the microscope and manip- 
ulating the joysticks with a skill that would awe 
any video-gaming teenager, she applies ever- 
so-gentle suction to an infinitesimal pipette, 
drawing the minuscule blastocyst up to hold 
it in place. Then, with tiny nudges of the joy- 
sticks, she eases a super-sharp, hollow, glass 
needle into the blastocyst's pliant surface, 
piercing its membrane, plunging into its liquid 
interior. Finally, she touches a control to inject 
the microscopic gene-altered cell into the blas- 
tocyst. "Although sometimes the experiments 
still amaze me — what I'm doing is genetically 
and mechanically tweaking nature — usually 
I just automatically make the necessary adjust- 
ments," she says. "It's like riding a bicycle. The 
hardest part is getting depth perception, since 
the cells are little spheres." Bock has become 
so adept at such manipulation that she can 
now inject up to forty blastocysts an hour. 

Next comes the "easy" part. Bock then uses 
mouse -magnitude surgery to inject the altered 
blastocyst into the tiny oviduct of a super- 
mother mouse — a strain bred to be a good 
surrogate mother. The mother mouse is then 
transferred to the transgenic facility; there 
she gives birth to the gene-altered offspring. 


The offspring are still not what the researchers 
need: Since genes come in pairs, and Bock's 
gene injection has altered only one of the 
pairs, the resulting mice are "chimeras," a blend 
of altered and normal genes. The researchers 
can tell the mice are chimeras because they 
are striped; the scientists have included a dis- 
tinctive fur-color gene with their inserted gene, 
so that the chimeras come out with a telltale 
banded fur. To produce purebred, genetically 
altered mice, the scientists must then go 
through multiple breeding steps involving the 
chimeras to obtain, eventually, an offspring with 
a matched set of the altered genes. 

This multitude of details can spawn a mul- 
titude of devils, warns Nevins. "The possibilities 
for mistakes are practically endless, from con- 
tamination to record-keeping errors. If you're 
trying to do three or four of these at once, it 
can become chaos." Fortunately, he says,"Cheryl 
is exceedingly good at it and very dedicated. 
What she knows how to do would take the 
researchers a year to learn, and even more to 
do it efficiently." 

The extraordinary process required to cre- 
ate such mice explains why good mousekeep- 
ing is so critical once the precious animals 
reach the animal-care facility. In addition to 
elaborate handling procedures, the facility's 
design itself helps keep its residents healthy. 
The newest housing facility, in the Levine 



Science Research Center, features a ventila- 
tion system that completely changes the air 
fifteen times an hour, making for large heat- 
ing and cooling bills, but also helping to 
ensure healthy mice. 

Emphasizing the management demands of 
Duke's transgenic facility, Richard Rahija, 
who directs Duke's Division of Lab Animal 
Resources, notes that each technician must 
carefully check the condition of each of the 
1,800 mice in his or her care, twice each day. 
"It requires a trained eye to tell a healthy 
mouse from one that's sick, hunched up with 
its fur unkempt, looking miserable," says Ra- 
hija. And a single diseased mouse could cause 
an outbreak that would sweep through the 
colony, ruining years of research, he says. 

Juanita Albrecht, coordinator of the Levine 
Center facility, says technicians must also be 
prepared to provide special feedings, antibiotics, 
or salves to mice whose genetic alterations 
make them vulnerable to medical problems. 
Sometimes observing the animals requires 
exact powers of observation. "In one room, we 
have mice who are animal models for arthritis, 
so they tend to develop inflamed limbs. We 
have to notice when that inflammation gets 
too bad and requires treatment." 

As if keeping one's own mouse in order 
weren't hard enough, the transgenic facility 
also receives shipments of hundreds of mice 

January -February 1998 1 1 

each year from other universities around the 
world. These must be quarantined and tested 
to avoid infecting the colony. 

"Sentinel" mice are one key to keeping the 
mice healthy, says Rahija. "We take a squeaky- 
clean mouse from our germ-free facility and 
place them in dirty bedding taken from cages 
to determine whether the bedding is trans- 
mitting anything. Or, we put clean sentinel 
mice with suspect mice and watch whether 
the sentinel mouse comes down with any- 
thing." Using such sentinel mice, and con- 
ducting constant medical testing, means that 
"we can take great pride in knowing we can 
send mice anywhere in the world and not 
have to worry about transmitting viruses such 
as mouse hepatitis." 

Just such mouse facility expertise in itself 
opens new research pathways, according to 
Nevins, because "it means that doing mouse 
genetics now lies within many researchers' 
comfort zone. They're more willing to enter 
the field because they don't have to be con- 
cerned with the technical demands of having 
a mouse created." 

As medical science progresses, such genet- 
ic creations will become far more complex, 
Nevins says. More complex experiments will 
arise because researchers have discovered that 
genetics can be a family affair. Genes are of- 
ten members of families of related genes, like 
the different woodwinds in an orchestra. 





"Through evolution, you end up with five or 
six relatives that are all very similar," he says. 
Individual members of a gene family may play 
different roles in different cells, like various 
woodwind combinations playing in individual 
musical groups in different concert halls. Using 
knockout mice to study such families can be 
frustrating, says Nevins, who himself studies a 
family of genes called E2F that turn on DNA 
replication, producing cancers when their con- 
trol mechanisms malfunction. "You knock out 
one member of a family and you get no effect 
on the animal, because the other family mem- 
bers can compensate for the loss." Thus, re- 
searchers will seek to develop multiple knock- 
outs in order to reveal the functions of the 
family, he says. 

Another state-of-the-art genetic manipu- 
lation involves creating genetic "time bombs" 
inside mice — segments of DNA that lie dor- 
mant until an animal reaches adulthood, when 
they can be triggered to wake up and knock 
out a target gene. Such time bombs are neces- 
sary to overcome a major drawback to genet- 
ic tinkering, in which knocking out a gene 
critical for early development kills the em- 
bryo. Such early death prevents researchers 
from studying some genes that cause cancer 
or other genetic diseases when they malfunc- 
tion later in life. 

The ingenious time -bomb solution to 
knocking out such genes — first mastered at 


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Duke by mouse facility co-director Yuan 
Zhuang — involves inserting a genetic "time - 
delay switch" into the gene to be knocked out 
later. Such switches are pieces of bacterial 
DNA that researchers inserted next to the 
target gene. They flank the gene, lying quies- 
cent, allowing it to go about its normal 
business in the growing mouse. But when the 
bacterial switches are triggered in the adult by 
a specific enzyme preprogrammed by the 
scientists, they wake up and eject the gene, 
like two bouncers ejecting a drunk from a 

Mousemaking will also flourish, says Ne- 
vins, because gene-altered mice will, for the 
first time, give scientists a powerful tool to 
study the most subtle ways that genes modify 
each other. "Why is it that one person might 
get lung cancer when they're forty, having 
never smoked a cigarette in their life, while 
another smokes ten packs a day and never 
gets lung cancer? Clearly, the development of 
a genetic disease can be influenced by other 
genes that somehow subtly modulate the 
causative gene's effects." 

The future will see the creation of mice 
with multiple genetic alterations. "We'll use a 
mouse with a mutation that, say, makes it sus- 
ceptible to cancer, and we'll begin to identify 
genes that modify that susceptibility," Nevins 
says. "With a given gene alteration, the mouse 
might get a tumor after six months instead of 

after two months. Such experiments could 
have an enormous impact on understanding 
cancer and other diseases." 

All these promising research pathways will 
drive the need for facilities to manage masses 
of mice — increasing capacity over the next 
decade from about 8,000 cages today, each 
holding several mice, to some 20,000 cages. 
So, Hammes, Nevins, Rahija, and their facul- 
ty colleagues are planning to expand the 
capacity of the medical center's vivarium, and 
possibly to construct a multi-million-dollar 
mouse genetics building to house both ani- 
mals and labs for genetic manipulation. These 
major increases aim not only to keep up with 
the demand, but also to maintain Duke's 
leadership in a critical medical research field, 
says Nevins. "Few institutions can do the kind 
of technically demanding work we do here. 
While plenty of institutions can construct 
transgenic mice, which involves just adding a 
gene, few institutions can do knockouts. 
They're much more technically demanding in 
terms of organization." 

But Duke researchers and administrators 
say the effort and expense will prove worth it. 
Genetic secrets lie within the labyrinth of the 
animals' genes. And advanced medical treat- 
ments for major diseases may well emerge 
from plumbing those secrets. ■ 


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Homeric, historic, or pop-oriented, heroes are born, made, 
and then remade to satisfy our yearning for exemplars. 

Like some phenomenon out of quantum 
physics, today's heroes exist everywhere 
and nowhere. To a newspaper editor in 
North Dakota, the victims of a rampaging flood 
are heroes for rebuilding their lives. To HBO, 
the boxing promoter Don King gets the "hero" 
label in a movie about his life. To a defense 
lawyer, Unabomber suspect Theodore Kaczyn- 
ski has emerged as "a pop hero, a rebel who 
was protesting the encroaching oppression of 
technology." To Time magazine, medical inno- 
vators merit a special issue — an issue that 
heralds "Heroes of Medicine." 

As political expediency encourages the de- 
valuing, distorting, and dumbing-down of dis- 
course, the word "hero" takes on so many 
meanings as to take on no meaning at all. And 
as we enshrine egalitarian values that make 
us suspicious of merit, we seem awfully eager 
to cut down our larger-than-life (and better- 
than-us) heroes. It's also Time, of course, that 
gives cover treatment to the "Debunking Ken- 
nedy" theme, and so gives renewed attention 
to a hero-president's presumed extramarital 
affairs and dealings with mobsters. 

At least for Western culture, the essential he- 
roic epic is the Homeric epic. But what draws 
the reader to a figure like Achilles, says Duke 
classical studies professor Gregson Davis, isn't 
his "superhuman" qualities as a warrior. "What 

makes him interesting and archetypal is his 

The arch of The Iliad, according to Davis 
(who teaches "Culture Heroes Across Cul- 
tures"), takes Achilles from vengeance-seeking 
warrior to a chastened human being who shows 
empathy for a rival leader. "Achilles cannot be 
allowed to have Hector's body simply rot. That 
goes against all civilized values. So in coming 
to terms with his humanity, he is accepting his 
role in society and realizing that he has to 
compromise on his personal feelings." 

When Odysseus makes his return in The 
Odyssey, "Penelope subjects him to a certain 
kind of testing of his humanity," says Davis, 
"and he has to stop being the cool, calculating 
Odysseus. What you need to become a father 
again and to become a head of household 
again is very different from what might be 
required in beating the Cyclops." 

So the hero suffers, struggles, contests au- 
thority — and learns. Heroic tales, then, are in 
their essence tales of maturation. "The hero 
has something in common with the divine, 
but the other part of him is equally important. 
Achilles is faced with the problem that he is 
going to die. Part of what the hero does is to 
go through a phase of almost euphoric display 
of power. But what comes to the fore is his 
mortal side." 

As they define the qualities of a hero, such 
tales also define a culture's self-image. The Biad 
and The Odyssey celebrate the warrior values 
of glory- seeking and advantage through 
strength; they also celebrate such qualities of 
mind as cunning and wisdom. After all, Troy 
falls ultimately not through the exercise of 
military prowess, but by means of a wooden 
horse — a trick. 

"Odysseus is a great example of the Greek 
ideas about cleverness and survival and the 
ability to be rational about everything," Davis 
says, "in the ways in which he is able not ex- 
actly to manipulate the world, but to reason 
himself out of situations and keep his emo- 
tions in check. But even reason, even clever- 
ness, have a side which has to be kept in 
check. Odysseus is very clever, and there are 
times when he is too clever. This ties in very 
well with the Greek notion of excess — that 
you have to observe the natural limits, so that 
even success should be limited, that things 
should not go too well for you all the time." 

The modern concept of the hero in liter- 
ature, and of the author as hero, flows 
from Lord Byron. Byron's most roman- 
tic creation was Byron himself — the English 
aristocrat who earned fame in his time for his 
poetry, who was notorious for his debauchery, 


January-February 1998 15 

who after his death was worshipped for de- 
voting himself to the cause of Greek freedom 
from Turkish rule. As one of his biographers, 
Stephen Coote, describes his career, "School- 
girls sighed over him, poets imitated him, 
painters illustrated him, musicians were in- 
spired by him, while liberal politicians found 
him a powerful spokesman for their cause." 

"He always protested that the public had a 
penchant for identifying him personally with 
the heroes in his poetry," says English profes- 
sor Robert Gleckner, who teaches the Ro- 
mantics at Duke. "But I think that secretly he 
relished that kind of identification, because in 
many ways it was true. The central figure in 
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage is a dissolute young 
man who flees England; Byron is in effect 
replaying his dalliances in England. Much of 
Byron was, if not straight autobiographical, 
certainly quasi-autobiographical. He is very 
much in his own characters." 

Byron was also very much his own heroic 
image -maker. At one point, he donned an 
exotic Albanian costume as he sat for his por- 
trait — the author of the extravagant Childe 
Harold becoming Childe Harold. "He was a 
showman," Gleckner says. "He knew how to 
call attention to himself on the world stage. It 
is not coincidental that among literary soci- 
eties around the world, the Byron Society is 
enormously international. There are Byron 

societies in the most peculiar places; even Al- 
bania has a Byron society. In England, there 
are local Byron societies of little old ladies 
who sit down and gossip about Byron as if he 
were still alive." Researching the files of By- 
ron's publishing house, one of Gleckner's doc- 
toral students discovered a large cache of let- 
ters written on the subject of Byron. "That's 
really quite spectacular fame. It's almost as if 
Byron redefined what real fame is." 

But it was more than costumes and cos- 
metic gestures that propelled Byron into a fig- 
ure of heroic proportions. Although he was a 
peer in the House of Lords, and although he ad- 
mired Napoleon, Byron was a genuine cham- 
pion of the oppressed. "All of his heroes are 
similar; they are cut out of that mold, battling 
against superhuman odds. That's the way he 
saw himself, and that's why he went to 
Greece." In Greece, he was prepared to wage 
war against the Turks with his own troupe of 
soldiers. Before he could issue his first rallying 
cry, he died — not as a casualty of battle, but 
as a victim of fever. Greece is filled with mon- 
uments to Byron; for the heroic reputation, . 
what's significant is the valiant struggle, even § 
if the struggle, at least in the hero's lifetime, | 
produces failure. 

As dashing a figure as he was, as inspiring a | 
political thinker as he was, Byron wouldn't have 'i 
achieved exalted status were it not for Brit- 1 







ain's literary culture. "The publishing business 
was really thriving and the literacy rate had 
increased enormously in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century," says Gleckner. "There were 
all kinds of relatively cheap editions available. 
Lending libraries were widespread. This was 
really the beginning of the age of the best- 
seller, and Byron was one of the best sellers. 
He took the reading public by storm, and not 
merely in England; he was read almost as 
widely on the continent." 

And in no small way, Byron's heroic stand- 
ing was a reflection of a Romantic age — an age 
still hypnotized by the flames that brought 
down the French monarchy and that seem- 
ingly heralded rule by popular will. The post- 


French Revolution years "certainly fostered 
the idea of the individual, and not just indi- 
vidual as unique, but also the individual as 
potentially a world figure and an exemplar," 
Gleckner says. "It was an age that in many 
ways fostered new thinking, new kinds of 
poetry, and new conceptions about the utility 
of poetry — the possibility that it would have 
a literary effect upon the reading audience 
and steer them in some direction." 

Byron's example suggests that heroism hinges 
on a connection with people that is broad and 
deep; heroism is conferred on the basis of the 
hero's own story and not from creative achieve- 
ment alone. "The public stage was not one on 
which anybody stood like Byron. He was, in 
the sense, unique," observes Gleckner. "Words- 
worth never went out giving speeches. Shel- 
ley early in his life thought himself a sort of 
radical reformer, but he backed off of that and 
simply incorporated his political and social 
principles into his poetry. Most of the other 
poets labored rather quietly and not publicly." 

If most Romantic-era poets labored apart 
from public acclaim, that was hardly the 
case with a musical hero of that time and 
for all time since — Beethoven. Much in the 
model of Byron, Beethoven by his late twen- 
ties was already the subject of painters and 

"There are two aspects to Beethoven and 
the hero," says Alexander Silbiger, professor of 
music, who offers an advanced seminar on 
Beethoven. "One is what you find in his mu- 
sic, and the other is in his person." While his 
heroic music — notably the Third Symphony , the 
Eroica — was just a small part of his output, 
for many people it is the essential Beethoven. 
"His works were not the first to have military 
sounds with trumpets and drums and fanfare, 
but they were the first where this was used in 
the service of a kind of heroic narrative," Sil- 
biger says. "There was a feeling evoked in the 
music of a struggle against adversity and of 

It had been Beethoven's plan to dedicate 
the Eroica to Napoleon. To Beethoven, Na- 
poleon was a legitimate hero, the liberator of 
Europe. Then Napoleon had himself pro- 
claimed emperor. Disenchanted, Beethoven 
erased the "Bonaparte" reference, and re-ded- 
icated the composition as a work "to celebrate 
the memory of a great man." 

"During the Second World War, it's perhaps 
not too surprising that the Germans exploit- 
ed Beethoven for their propaganda," says Sil- 
biger. "But so did the Allies. The BBC used 
the theme of the Fifth Symphony in their broad- 
casts. It has been interpreted, I think with 
some justification, as portraying man's strug- 
gle against fate. There is no greater song of 

triumph: Suddenly, out of despair, the light 
breaks through. Of course, his Ninth Sym- 
phony, with Schiller's 'Ode to Joy' in the last 
movement, became an emblem of brotherhood. 
It is the music that was performed after the 
Berlin Wall came down. So the music really 
transcends the individual struggle, and it 
becomes a message for mankind in general." 

Beethoven's heroic personal struggle in- 
volved perseverance in the face of his progres- 
sive deafness. It was a perseverance, Silbiger 
points out, that grew from the composer's 
sense of his own creative capacities. In his 
famous testament, he talks about owing it to 
the world to deliver his gifts, even though 
death, in many ways, would have been wel- 
come. "This would have been strange talk 
around this time, because most composers 
considered themselves really as craftsmen. A 
lot of them were in the employ of the nobili- 
ty. They were regarded more or less as lackeys, 
as servants. With Beethoven, the whole power 
situation was reversed. He set the agenda; it 
was a privilege to be his patron, not the other 
way around. People everywhere were trying to 
get music from him. It was a marketable good." 

Beethoven was surrounded by people who 
worshipped him, who saved every scrap of 
paper on which he scrawled something. His 
standing reflected the eighteenth- century idea 
that music could have a morally uplifting im- 

symbol of 
the scientific 
genius — 
and of the 

January- February 1998 

pact. Within that context, Beethoven 
saw himself as an educator or a preacher, 
perhaps even as a prophet. The music, as 
Silbiger puts it, "fills one with feelings of 
goodness and beauty. It was inspiring, and 
I think it continues to be inspiring. One 
feels that his message — and maybe this 
is an old-fashioned idea — is a message 
for everyone." 

Composers like Brahms drove them- 
selves to equal, if not to exceed, 
Beethoven; they wondered if music 
could progress beyond the Ninth. 
Today's young pianists -in-the -making 
still practice under the divine gaze of a 
bust of Beethoven. Silbiger notes that 
Beethoven-as-hero defies a now fashion- 
able view of history — a view that looks 
to great social movements rather than 
to great figures of history. He says that 
with the appropriation of Beethoven, 
and especially Wagner, by Nazi Ger- 
many, the idea of the musical hero may 
seem objectionably elitist and anti-egal- 
itarian. But in his view, Beethoven pro- 
vides a dividing point of music history: 
It's a history that leads up to Beethoven, 
and then a history that follows from 

The course of religious history 
hinges on saintly heroic figures. It Byron 
may be that the saint is the purest 
hero. The hero-saint is more than a cultural 
icon, says religion professor Vincent Cornell, 
who teaches "Sainthood in Comparative 
Perspective." "A saint, from a historical per- 
spective, is not a two-dimensional figure who 
is standing for one thing. A saint is a three- 
dimensional figure; it is always assumed that 
there is a life of exemplarity and virtue that 
stands behind the icon and gives the icon its 

One signal of exemplarity and virtue is suf- 
fering. "Martyrdom was the fundamental ini- 
tial paradigm for sainthood in Christianity," 
says Cornell. "After the period of martyrdom 
ended, people had to give of themselves in 
other ways. It's still not unusual within the 
Catholic church for saints to be considered 
martyrs in a metaphorical sense. Mother 
Teresa could be called a martyr for the sake of 
the poor." 

Saints are not just virtuous persons; they 
are "people of power," Cornell says. "They exer- 
cise or mediate power in some way. They are 
mediators between the people and somebody 
else. That somebody else could be the political 
ruler of the time; that somebody else could be 
God. But they are almost channelers or con- 
duits who can intercede and obtain something 
for people from a higher source. That is one of 
the most common types of miracles." 

And that is why, says Cornell, modern soci- 

A martyr for freedom, he took the reading public by storm 

ety is less likely than earlier societies to pro- 
duce hero-saints. "If you're a peasant in medi- 
eval Europe and you need something from the 
lord of the manor, you couldn't get it by going 
directly to the lord of the manor. You'd have 
to go through an intermediary who would 
present your case to the lord, and then the 
lord would answer the intermediary, and the 
answer would come back down to you. That's 
the same role that saints play in pre-modem 
societies. And to the extent that modem 
bureaucratic society has more direct channels 
of communication, there seems to be less of a 
need for a saintly figure as mediator." 

Just as a heroic Achilles can tell us a lot 
about the self-image of the Greeks, a heroic 
saint signals the self-image of a particular faith. 
Just as Odysseus is an exemplar of courage, a 
heroic saint is a model for the integration of 
religious doctrine and practice in one's daily 
life. "A saint is always a saint for other people; 
one is never a saint for oneself. So to a certain 
extent, sainthood is always performance. 
There is always an audience." 

In the Catholic church, Mother Teresa is 
probably on"a fast track to official sainthood," 
Cornell says. "She exemplified in her life the 
charitable aspects of what is called in Chris- 
tianity the imitation of Christ. Every Chris- 
tian saint is thought to imitate Christ in one 
way or another, in one's behavior and one's 

life and one's values. And Mother 
Teresa's particular imitation of Christ 
was in the imitation of charity and kind- 
ness and benevolence to other human 
beings. Of course, Mother Teresa also 
adhered to the official doctrines of the 
Catholic church. She continued to up- 
hold, for example, Catholic church doc- 
trines against abortion and against fam- 
ily planning. From the point of view of 
the church, that is an even greater proof 
of her sainthood — that she could main- 
tain her Catholic duties in the face of 
secular opposition." 

At a time of a decline in the numbers of 
those entering Catholic monastic 
orders, Mother Teresa's order is expand- 
ing worldwide. So the image of a saintly 
figure can contribute directly to church 
aims. But the religious utility of saint- 
hood can lead to some problematic 
choices. Cornell points to the example 
of Saint Stephen, the king who brought 
Christianity to Hungary. "He was a man 
| who cemented his control over the 
| throne by having some of his relatives 
| put to death and having his brother 
8 blinded by pouring molten lead into his 
| eyes. And yet because he turned a for- 
Imerly pagan country into a Christian 
| kingdom, that in itself was enough to 
make him the patron saint. That deci- 
sion is as much political as anything 
else; it's obviously in the interest of the 
church to make Saint Stephen a great saint. 
And so you see his statue prominently in the 
squares of Budapest." 


hile saints may fulfill institutional 
needs for religious faiths, other 
kinds of heroes may be right for 
the moment in the broadest sense. For the New 
Orleans school board, now is not the moment 
to honor "former slave owners or others who 
did not respect equal opportunity for all." So 
in November, it stripped the name of George 
Washington off an elementary school. 

Having popped up in animated cartoon 
shows and a Star Trek episode, Albert Einstein 
may be on more secure footing. Einstein's sci- 
entific status derives largely from his "miracle 
year" of 1905, when he challenged Newton's 
notion of absolute space and time, outlined 
the shape of a quantum universe, devised a 
proof for the existence of atoms, moved on to 
conceptualize Special Relativity, and linked 
energy and matter in the most famous rela- 
tionship in history: E=mc z . He was a twenty- 
six-year-old patent examiner at the time. But 
Duke physicist Richard Palmer says Einstein's 
heroic standing in the popular culture can be 
traced to a later year, 1919. That was when an 
expedition to South America, sent to observe 
a solar eclipse, confirmed Special Relativity 


by measuring gravity's effect on bending 
light rays. "Einstein was an overnight 

What created the sensation was that, 
in the wake of the First World War, a the- 
ory formulated by the German-born 
Einstein had been confirmed by an En- 
glishman. Newspapers like The Times of 
London hailed the possibilities for coop- 
eration among scientifically-minded na- 
tions. Einstein called such accounts 
amusing feats of imagination. Not pre- 
pared to back off its exuberance, The 
Times drew a wry association between 
the modest bearing of the scientist and 
his work on relativity: "We note in 
accordance with the general tenor of his 
theory, Dr. Einstein does not supply an 
absolute description of himself." As Pal- 
mer puts it, a world grown weary of war 
and desperate for the rule of rationality 
"needed such a person." 

Einstein's image was helped by the 
fact that he was seen as having very 
human qualities — and amusing human 
faults. Aloof and inaccessible figures 
can't really be heroes; we want to be able 
to identify with our heroes. Palmer notes 
that Einstein became a scientist stereo- 
type: the scientist as a bit unkempt and 
ill-dressed, an absent-minded thinker 
who was focused on ideas much more 
than on social conventions. "He was a 
striking figure, partly so because of the juxta- 
position of his scientific genius and these 
weird personal attributes. There are people 
who are scientific geniuses, but our heroes are 
made from the geniuses who are colorful 
characters in everyday life." Basic to Einstein's 
own heroic struggle against adversity was the 
image of the bored student consigned to a 
dull career who, in effect, can later thumb his 
nose at his old teachers — a gesture sure to 
excite the popular imagination. As a school- 
boy, he was thought to have a learning dis- 
ability; he was even slow in learning how to 

And Einstein engaged conspicuously with 
the world. He gave speeches and wrote essays 
about politics, pacifism, and philosophy. An 
early exponent of Zionism, he was invited to 
be president of Israel. 

With a huge Einstein poster above his desk, 
Palmer looks up to Einstein, quite literally. (He 
also keeps a life-size, cut-out cardboard Ein- 
stein.) For several years, he has taught an Ein- 
stein course in Duke's graduate Liberal Studies 
program. One of his assignments has students 
recover current images of Einstein. And they 
find him everywhere, particularly in advertis- 
ing, the main currency of popular culture. 

That heroic image isn't embraced by all 
scientists, according to Palmer. Most science 
proceeds by incremental advances, not by revo- 

Beethoven: adversity and triumph in life and in music 

lutionary breakthroughs. Scientists tend to be- 
lieve that "there's an objective world out there, 
so they are just uncovering things and not as- 
serting their individuality in that process. A 
lot of scientists take the attitude that hero 
worship is not appropriate." When the revolu- 
tionaries do come along, elevating them to 
heroic status can be dangerous; it can shut off 
the skepticism that helps fuel science. New- 
ton's secure standing may have confined physics 
to a Newtonian universe for generations. 

Einstein's legacy points to a process to which 
modern culture often subjects its heroes — a 
period of debunking. With a 1994 book, The 
Private Lives of Albert Einstein, two English jour- 
nalists mined recently released correspondence 
and incorporated interviews with contempo- 
raries to depict the scientist as a misogynist 
and a philanderer. Einstein's first marriage did 
end in divorce, and the child from that mar- 
riage was put up for adoption. But Palmer says 
Einstein remains firmly on his pedestal de- 
spite unseemly revelations about his personal 
life. Part of the reason reflects cultural expec- 
tations of the scientist: "A lot of scientists are 
very obsessive people." Heroes, too, of course, 
are obsessive people. And they're too busy sav- 
ing the universe — or, like Einstein, redefining 
the universe — to have decent family standards 
or decent haircut standards. 

But in a broad sense, the notion that peo- 

ple lead compartmentalized lives res- 
onates in modern culture. That's among 
the chilling themes in studies of the 
perpetrators of the Holocaust — some 
murder in the morning, some 
Beethoven in the evening. And so the 
thought that the scientist might ignore 
family responsibilities in pursuit of an 
intellectual idea, while hardly some- 
thing to be celebrated, isn't shocking. 

H^fc robably no recent hero has with- 
H^F stood so much debunking as 
John F. Kennedy. Seymour 
Hersh's The Dark Side ofCamebt, as The 
New York Times' Frank Rich observes, 
makes Kennedy out to be an even "more 
reckless and less law-abiding president" 
than Richard Nixon, "the man who 
turned dirty tricks into a form of politi- 
cal science." But that doesn't especially 
matter, he argues. "In our Hollywood 
culture, star quality is everything. A 
handsome, charming, witty man who 
has a fling with a Marilyn Monroe is as 
close to a god as we have." Or as cultur- 
al critic Stephen Stark put it in a 
z National Public Radio commentary, we 
Iwant our political leaders to be "enter- 
% tainers first and statesmen second." 
g According to American historian 
(and senior associate dean of Arts and 
Sciences) Gerald Wilson, we will always 
want heroes as exemplars for our own lives. 
What Hollywood culture has brought is what 
he calls the fragmentation of the hero — the 
hero of sports or entertainment or medicine. 
So we don't merely cut down our heroes; we 
also trivialize them by finding them in so 
many places. 

The larger-than-life national hero, Wilson 
says, fed into an American self-image reflected 
in one of the great American myths: the myth 
of the American rags-to-riches success; the 
frontier myth and its suggestion of rebirth or 
regeneration in building a future by escaping 
the past; the agrarian myth, which enshrines 
the traditional virtues of honesty, hard work, 
and innocence; the foreign- devil myth, through 
which Americans define themselves as a peo- 
ple by defining who they are not; or the "City 
on the Hill" myth, which has shaped foreign 
policy by seeing America as a beacon to the 

Beyond identifying themselves with these 
myths, the historical American hero combined 
opportunity and vision. (Wilson teaches 
"American Dreams and American Realities" 
and "Leadership in American History.") He- 
roic leaders typically arise out of cataclysmic 
events — the Civil War, the world wars, even 
the Cold War. And it may be hard to imagine 
a leader of heroic proportions at a time when 
Continued on page 48 

January- February 




I sometimes think that if the admis- 
sions office could find a way to offer 
campus tours at six a.m., applications 
to Duke would skyrocket beyond 
our already inconceivable numbers. 
The early morning, as the campus 
lies asleep, is a time when the beau- 
ty and simplicity of our four short 
years in this place comes into perspective. It is 
familiar only to the groundskeepers, a few 
professors and administrators, and the swim 
team, bundled in thick parkas to brace them 
from the piercing chill while scurrying off to 
the Aquatic Center to get in a few miles be- 
fore breakfast. 

On the night of the last day of classes in 
May, the men's and women's varsity swimming 
and diving teams got together for a final cele- 
bration of the 1996-1997 season. Amid the spec- 
tacle of team awards and final senior speeches, 
we made the selection of this year's team cap- 
tains. I can't say that it surprised me when I 
was chosen from among my peers. My class, 
which initially had consisted of twelve people, 
had in three years dwindled to only five guys. 
Over the past three years, I had given my life 
to that team. 

For the most part, I'm an introverted per- 
son, preferring to set my example by quietly 
working hard in practice rather than standing 
up and leading the charge. My memory of 
past captains was that they carried a physical 
presence that made me want to excel; they 
had set a standard that I wasn't sure I could 
live up to. My apprehension was eased when 
I recognized the simple fact that I know this 
team, I know the season, and I know the sport 
as well as anyone else could possibly know 
them. I have seen it all — the high points, when 
we are rested and swimming fast at the At- 
lantic Coast Conference championships, and 
the low points, on Thanksgiving mornings, 
when we have 10,000 yards to get through 
before the turkey and dressing. 

While our teams over the past three years 
have had an overall losing record — never 
finishing better than sixth at the ACC cham- 
pionships — they have been enormously suc- 
cessful. They have succeeded because past 
captains had cultivated a team that was so 

tight and so proud that we were driven to ex- 
ceed our potential. 

The season starts "unofficially" on the night 
before the first day of classes in September. At 
an introductory meeting, Coach Bob Thompson 
does his best to intimidate the group of 150 or 
so freshmen who think that summer league 
swimming is all that they need to compete in 
the ACC. Fifty percent of that crowd won't 
make it to our first practice the next afternoon. 

Swimming is a sport built around pain. 
Most closely identified with distance running, 
swim practice aims to over-train your body for 
the race: Train until you fail. In order to ac- 
complish this, we travel back and forth in the 
pool roughly 320 times in four hours of prac- 
tice each day of the week during the heart of 
our season. 

Although I cursed it as a freshman, I have 
come to love the fact that our team is one of 
only two at Duke that does not have scholar- 
ships. What has developed out of our lack of 
scholarship money is a team of athletes who 
simply want to be swimming. Otherwise, we 
don't have a reason to go through this gruel- 
ing routine. It honestly takes the support of 
the entire team — unity and the tradition of 
togetherness — to endure a season. My Duke 
friends outside the team understand that 
through the fall semester, I go into "hiberna- 
tion," meaning never really going out in the 
evenings because of practice at early- morning 
hours, and that every breakfast and every din- 
ner from September to January will be eaten 
with my fifty teammates. 

I love to compete. Growing up, so much of 
the way that my family operated was centered 
on competition. My dad is the most intense 

competitor whom I have ever met. While our 
attraction to the water must have come from 
somewhere else, both my sister, a phenomenal 
athlete and captain of her high school swim 
team, and I certainly got our fire and tenacity 
from him. When I began swimming competi- 
tively at the age often, my dad started recording 
all of my times for the season on a spread- 
sheet. To this day, whenever he and I talk 
swimming, his spreadsheet will come out and 
he will analyze what I need to do to jump to 
the next level. My competitiveness was only 
sharpened by my elementary years on the club 
state champion team, the Lakeside Swim Team, 
and high school swimming for the Kentucky 
state champion Saint XavierTigersharks. 

As I have developed as a swimmer over the 
past three years, the biggest obstacle I have 
had to face was understanding that there are 
very few meets where the Duke swim team is 
capable of being competitive. Every competi- 
tion on our schedule is an uphill battle; we 
compete against teams that possess scholar- 
ships, larger budgets, and more speed than we 
do. Realistically, conference meets are often 
so one-sided that our races are more against 
the clock, looking for personal improvement, 
than against any of our opponents. After 
another loss and an 0-3 start at three away 
meets, I reiterate to the team the importance 
of understanding that our season focuses on 
season's end and on swimming fast at the 
ACC championships. And then I get in at 
practice and train harder and faster than ever. 

As captain, one of my main responsibilities 
is to do what it takes to get the team mental- 
ly in the game and ready to compete. I'm not 
one to stand up on a bench in the locker 
room and deliver stirring "win one for the 
Gipper" speeches meant to carry us to victo- 
ry. Generally, I leave the speech-making for 
the coach's pre-meet talk. Instead, I rely on 
my own intense competitiveness to motivate 
my teammates. I am lucky that as the back- 
stroke, the lead-off swimmer in the 400 
Medley Relay, I am the first person on the 
team to race. Right from the start, my effort in 
the first race sets the precedent for how our 
team will compete over the course of a thir- 
teen- event meet. 

Not many undergraduates make it out to 
cheer on the swim team in their four years at 
Duke. Usually, what few people there are in the 
stands are boyfriends or girlfriends of swim- 
Continued on page 55 



The Duke Alumni Association's board of 
directors, meeting in October, honored 
past presidents and current staff for 
their collective service to the association and 
to the Alumni Affairs office. After an orien- 
tation session for new members on Friday, a 
luncheon at the Washington Duke Inn wel- 
comed almost a dozen DAA presidents. Presi- 
dent Michele Clause Farquhar 79 presented 
a "book of remembrances" with more than 
fifty messages of thanks from board members 
to Bernice Charles, assistant to Alumni Af- 
fairs director M. Laney Funderburk Jr. '60, on 
her retiring after sixteen years at Duke. 

In the afternoon plenary session, Assistant 
Vice President for Student Affairs Sue Wasio- 
lek 76, M.H.A. 78, LL.M. '93 introduced a 
panel of five undergraduates and one graduate 
student. They discussed their leadership roles 
and how extra-curricular life has denned their 
Duke experience. 

Information on a study of residential-life ar- 
rangements was presented by Robert J. Thomp- 
son, dean of undergraduate affairs for Trinity 
College, and Barbara A. Baker, dean for stu- 
dent development and residential education. 
A university-wide committee is considering five 
alternative housing plans for West Campus; the 
various models prompted a lively discussion. 

Duke clubs program director Bert Fisher 
'80, using a laptop computer to access the In- 
ternet and the DAA's website, reviewed the 
homepages of several clubs around the coun- 
try. Eventually, these technological resources 
will be available to all clubs, classes, and other 
Duke affinity organizations. 

Development director Robert Shepard re- 
ported that giving to Duke had increased 41 
percent over the last two years, and that plans 
were proceeding for a comprehensive cam- 
paign. Annual Fund director Sterly Wilder '83 
reported that this year's goal is $12.2 million, 
with an expectation that 31 percent of the 
alumni body would be participating. 

On Saturday, following morning meetings of 
the standing committees and a luncheon in East 
Campus' Lilly Library, Ross Harris 78, MB. A. 

A gathering of leaders: DAA past presidents, from left, Parkie Blaylock '53 (1985-86) Jii 
(1991-92), and Ross Harris 78, M.B.A/80 (1995-96) 

'80, DAA past president (1995-96), introduced 
other past presidents and asked for their com- 
ments on memorable or notable achieve- 
ments while in office (see chart). Following 
the presentation, University Archivist William 
E. King '61, A.M. '63, Ph.D. 70 led a guided 
tour of the architecture of East Campus. 

The board began its formal meeting Sun- 
day morning with an extended report on the 
Alumni Admissions Advisory Committees. 
Edith Sprunt Toms '62, director of the alumni 
admissions program, noted that 3,300 alumni 
serve on 200 committees across the nation 
and twenty outside the U.S. Last year, alumni 
interviewed nearly 10,000 of the 13,500 appli- 
cants to Duke. Toms, who also works with the 
Alumni Endowed Scholarship program, read 
portions of letters from several scholars about 
their summer experiences. 

The chairs of the four standing committees 
presented their reports. Joanne Yoder Dearth 
70, Awards Committee chair, complimented her 
committee for its diligence in reviewing more 

than forty nominations for the DAA Distin- 
guished Alumni Award. She also noted that the 
committee will consider creating a new award 
to recognize community service by Duke clubs. 
Gwynne A.Young 71, Community Service 
chair, reviewed Duke's community service in- 
itiatives, particularly those that affect Duke- 
Durham relationships. A discussion between 
her committee and John Burness, Duke senior 
vice president for public affairs, brought for- 
ward plans to establish a partnership between 
the public affairs office and the DAA to fund 
a position jointly. The person would work first 
with Triangle area alumni and community ser- 
vice activities and then expand by working 
with Duke clubs around the country. A motion 
was made to pursue such and was approved 
by the board unanimously. The board also ap- 
proved a recommendation by the committee 
to support the sophomore class president's 
request for a $1,000 grant for his program to 
raise funds and distribute food to Durham's 
needy at Christmas. 



in the address, for new graduates and other 
alumni wishing to sign on. 

The next meeting of the board is February 
20-21, 1998. 


A record-breaking 3,022 alumni re- 
turned to campus for reunions this 
fall, representing a 10.8 percent in- 
crease over last year. The Class of 1987 set an 
attendance record at 607, the largest number 
of alumni returning in the history of Duke re- 
unions. Three other classes — 1962, 1982, and 
1992 — broke all-time attendance records for 
thirty-fifth, fifteenth, and fifth reunion gath- 
erings, respectively. 

Total giving within each class contributed 
to Duke's unprecedented fund-raising total for 

Ruth Wade Ross '68, Lifelong Relationships 
Committee chair, reported that the committee 
discussed plans for the spring reunion in April 
1999. Proposals include a large tent on the 
quad for each reunion class' registration and 
activities (except for the twenty-fifth and fiftiedi 
reunion classes, which will have headquarters 
in nearby hotels), a big dance in Cameron 
Indoor Stadium on Friday night, a big-name 
speaker, an alumni association luncheon for 
all classes, and a Sunday champagne break- 
fast in Duke Gardens. 

Wilton D. Alston B.S.E. '81, Communications 
Committee co-chair, reporting for co-chair 
Page Murray '85 (who had "attended" commit- 
tee meetings via a speaker phone), sketched 
an agenda that included a primer for clubs, 
classes, and other affinity groups to establish 
home pages on server space to be provided by 
the alumni office; and an online e-mail alum- 
ni directory, and "vanity" e-mail, with "Duke" 


Margaret Adams 

Lloyd C. Caudle 

Albert F. Fisher 

Kay Mitchell Bunting 

Richard Maxwell 

Frances 'Tarkie" 

Harris '38, LL.B. *40 


'51, B.D. '54 

B.S.N. '58 

B.S.C.E. '55 

Adams Blaylock '53 






DAA's first female 

Merged the Duke 

Hired director of 

Sought advice from 

Made the board 

Saw the close of 

president; dealt with 

University National 

Alumni Affairs Laney 

legendary alumni di- 

more national and 

Sanford's 15-year 

the Woman's College 

Council, a fund- 

Funderburk '60; 

rector Charles A. 

representative of 

tenure as president; 

merger with Trinity; 

raising organization, 

withstood the Nixon 

Dukes '29, who said, 

alumni demographics 

attended the inaugu- 

defended Duke's de- 

with the Duke 

Library debate; Duke 

"Treat alumni as you 

by providing travel 

ration of H. Keith 

cision to establish co- 

Alumni Association, 

Alum?!! Register won 

would your children 

expenses to assist 

H. Brodie, Duke's 

ed dorms, recalling 

removing much of 

a CASE gold medal 

who have left home: 

younger board mem- 

seventh president; 

one disgruntled alum- 

the day- 

for its handling of 

Write to them, invite 

bers and those living 

led effort to get 

nus' comment on "let- 

to-day fund raising 

the Nixon Library 

them back for a visit, 

in distant states; to 

DAA's past president 

ting Peter Rabbit loose 

from the Alumni 


treat them well when 

increase the number 

appointed to Duke's 

in Farmer McGregor's 

Affairs office 

they come back, and 

of association dues 

board of trustees 

cabbage patch"; at- 

let them know you 

payers, offered win- 

for an automatic 

tended the inaugura- 

love them"; part of 

a-Duke-trip drawing 

one-year term as a 

tion of Terry Sanford, 

Terry Sanford's travel- 

as an incentive 

voting member 

Duke's sixth president 

ing road show 


1996-97 of nearly $220 million. This year, re- 
union gifts and all other gifts by class members 
were combined for a total class-giving profile. 
The following is a breakdown of attendance 
and total giving for Reunions 1997: 

• Half Century Club (pre-1946), 118 attend- 
ing, $13,736,340 in gifts; 

• Class of 1947, 234, $3,279,138; 

• Class of 1952, 105, $1,055,432; 

• Class of 1957, 123, $923,634; 

• Class of 1962, 162, $8,687,000; 

• Class of 1967, 95, $907,050; 

• Class of 1972, 302, $2,858,807; 

• Class of 1977, 202, $544,395; 

• Class of 1982, 255, $454,196; 

• Class of 1987, 607, $244,918; 

• Class of 1992, 424, $125,992. 
Attendance by "Young Alumni," which com- 
prise all classes graduating after 1992, was 395. 

The Reunions 1998 schedule brings the 
classes of 1948, 1958, 1968, 1978, and the Half 
Century Club to campus September 18-20. 
The classes of 1953, 1963, 1973, and 1983 will 
hold reunions November 6-8. Homecoming 
1998, which brings back Young Alumni and 
the classes of 1988 and 1993, had not been set 
when the magazine went to press, but will be 
announced once football schedules are deter- 
mined. Check the Duke Alumni Association 
website ( 
page/) or call (800) FOR-DUKE. 


If you can't be courtside when the Blue 
Devils play, look for a gathering of Cam- 
eron-Crazy-wannabes around the big 
screen TVs at selected pubs or restaurants in 
your area. Duke clubs around the country have 
chosen the best places and spaces for hoops 

In North Carolina, the Duke Club of the 
Triangle is at the Devil's Den, the huge Duke 
sports bar on Oregon Street; the contact is club 
president Charles Wilson '51 at (919) 479-5311. 
In Asheville, the Michigan game was viewed 
at Mitchell's; Alice Weldon '69 at (704) 259- 
9133 is the contact for upcoming games. 

In other Southern states, the Duke Club of 
Nashville will be at The Box Seat; the contact 
is club president Stacy Stansell Klein B.S.E. 

Anthony "Tony" 

Paul D. Risher 

W. Barker French 

Lee Clark Johns 

James R. Ladd 

Stanley G. Brading 

Bosworth '58 

B.S.M.E. '57 











First president to sit 

Arranged for current 

Negotiated the derails 

First president from 

Second president 

First president from 

as a voting member 

DAA president to 

of the first contract 

west of the Mississippi 

from west of the 

the '70s; attended 

of Duke's board 

serve as a non-voting 

for the Duke Credit 

River; oversaw first 

Mississippi; lifetime 

the inauguration of 

of trustees under 

observer at Duke 

Card; noted the 

survey of alumni atti- 

membership in 

Nannerl O. Keohane, 

the new arrangement; 

trustee meetings; 

continuity from 

tudes and opinions 

alumni association 

Duke's eighth 

served on trustees' 

saw the approval 

president to president 

about Duke; takes 

was started, and he 

president; served 

Duke Forest Land 

of the concept of 

and the way each 

credit for Duke's first 

and his children 

on the university 

Use Committee 

Duke affinity credit 

built on the successes 

NCAA basketball 

were among the first 

committee examining 


of the former 

championship in 1991 


Greek life and other 
residential and 
social issues 

January-February 1998 23 

'91 at (615) 386-0201. The Duke Club of Rich- 
mond's Judy Craggs B.S.N. 71, club president, 
opened her home to alumni for the Florida 
State game in January, but for the Virginia game 
two weeks later, the site was Mulligan's Sports 
Grill. Contact Judy or her husband, Tom 
Craggs 71, at (804) 745-4749 for upcoming 
games. The Duke Club of Atlanta will con- 
verge on the Chicago Sports Bar & Grill; 
check with the Atlanta Hotline, (404) 605- 
7676, for specific dates. The Fourth Quarter 
in New Orleans is the hot spot for Big-Easy 
Blue Devils to gather; the contact is club 
president Thomas Guarisco '81 at (504) 891- 
9604. Florida's Duke Club of the Palm 
Beaches chose Pete Rose's Ballpark Cafe in 
Boynton Beach; club president Jill Jarkesy '83 
is the contact at (561) 416-1789. 

In the Northeast, the Duke Club of 
Northern Connecticut had a split venue: 
Rookies in Cromwell and Coach's in Hartford, 
depending on the game. For February's UCLA 
game and the ACC Tournament, it's Rookies. 
For Duke's at-home melee with North Caro- 
lina on February 28, it's Coach's. Club presi- 
dent Eric Johnson '92 is the contact at (860) 
645-1995. The Duke University Metropolitan 
Alumni Association (DUMAA) has two sites 
as well: Boomer's in Manhattan for most of 
January's games, February's Florida State and 
Carolina-at-Duke games, and the ACC Tour- 

nament; and Tracy J's for Wake Forest, Virgin- 
ia, and, on February 22, UCLA. DUMAA's 
contact is Amy Reydel '91 at (212) 822-7025. 
The Duke Club of Philadelphia can catch the 
Blue Devils at the Manayuk Brewery; BillYoh 
is the contact at (215) 299-8135. And the 
Duke Club of Delaware's site is Kid Shelleen's 
in Wilmington; club president Roy Richard- 
son '52 at (302) 992-9065 is the contact. And 
in Pittsburgh, Woodson's All- Star Grille in 
Station Square is the place where particular 
Blue Devils congregate. The contact is club 
president Alex Parrish '87 at (412) 255-3736. 

Moving southwest, you would find the 
Duke Club of Northeast Ohio watching the 
Blue Devils at the Winking Lizard or Champp's, 
both in Cleveland. But the Big Game (Caro- 
lina) will be viewed at Champp's; club presi- 
dent Denise Finkelstein '86 is the contact at 
(440) 893-2108. The Duke Club of Kentucky 
booked the University of Louisville Club for 
December's Michigan game; club president 
Chris Brice '87, A.M. '92 is the contact at 
(502) 897-6756 for other hoops watches. 

In Texas, where the Big D stands for Dallas, 
the Duke Club of North Texas will be following 
the other Big D on TV at Ben's Halfyard House; 
club president Scott Keane '95 is the contact 
at (214) 696-8755. Meanwhile, back at the Duke 
Club of Austin, alumni were on the move: at 
the Capital Marriott's Calypso Bar, especially 

for the match against Carolina on February 
28; at Posse East, near the UT campus, for the 
Wake Forest game, and the Clemson game on 
February 18; and at Shield's on Bee Caves for 
UCLA on February 22. Lyda Creus Molanphy 
'88 is the contact at (512) 474-7514. 

In Colorado Springs, Karen Anderson '89 
tested the Colorado waters with a hoops 
watch at the Phantom Canyon Brewing Com- 
pany when Duke played Michigan in De- 
cember. If you're interested in making this a 
regular thing, contact her at (719) 477-1284- 

The Duke Club of Southern California chose 
Mr. Pockets in Los Angeles as their TV screen- 
ing room for the action adventures of Duke's 
basketball stars. Cece Gassner B.S.E. '94 is 
the contact at (626) 744-2773. The Duke 
Club of Northern California chose venues to 
accommodate city and suburban alumni: Pat 
O'Shea's Mad Hatter in San Francisco and 
Old Pro's in Palo Alto. The contact is club 
president Mike Casey '87 at (415) 501-4565. 

Please check with the alumni listed to ver- 
ify sites, in case things happen to change. And 
if your club is not listed above, check the 
leadership listings for clubs on the Duke 
Alumni Association website (www.adm.duke. 
edu/alumni/homepage/), or call Sharon Don- 
nell in the clubs program at Alumni Affairs, 
(800) FOR-DUKE, to see if there's a hoops 
watch planned for your area. 


Summer Youth Programs 

$^Duke College Prep Workshop 

One one-week session for students currently in grades 10-11 
Students will prepare for college by looking at the college appli- 
cation process as well as participating in self-awareness and 
leadership activities that can ease the transition and enrich their 
college experience. 

Duke Creative Writers' Workshop 

• One one-week session • Residential participants only 

• For students currently in grades 10-1 1 

Duke Drama Workshop 

• One two-week session • Residential participants only 

• For students currently in grades 10-11 

Duke Action Science Camp for Young Women 

• Two two-week sessions • Residential and day campers 

• For young women currently in grades 5-7 

Duke Young Writers' Camp 

• Three two-week sessions' Residential and day campers 

• For students currently in grades 6-1 1 

Expressions! A Duke Fine Arts Day Camp 

• One two-week session • Day campers only 

• For students currently in grades 5-8 

Call 919-684-6259 or visit our web site at 



WRITE: Class Notes Editor, Duke Magazine, 

614 Chapel Dr., Durham, N.C. 27708-0570 

FAX: (919) 684-6022 (typed only, please) 


CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Alumni Records, 

614 Chapel Dr. Annex, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. 

Please include mailing label. Or e-mail address 

changes to: 

NOTICE: Because of the volume of class 

note material we receive and the long 

lead time required for typesetting, 

design, and printing, your submission 

may not appear for two to three issues. 

Alumni are urged to include spouses' 

names in marriage and birth announce- 

30s, 40s & 50s 

John M. Hamrick '34, the chairman of Ham 
Mills in Gaffney, S.C., was elected to the South 
Carolina Business Hall of Fame. 

I N. Klove '36 earned Equitable's Ron 
Stever's Humanitarian Award for outstanding 
philanthropy and service to humanity. He lives in 
Pasadena, Calif. 

s T. Kozlowski A.M. '41, Ph.D. '47, a 
visiting scholar at the University of California, 
Berkeley, is the author of Growth Control in Woody 
Plants, published by Academic Press. He lives in 
Lafayette, Calif. 

Charles M. Cormack Jr. '48 was named a Mel- 
vin Jones Fellow by Lions Club International Foun- 
dation, in recognition of "his commitment to serving 
the world community." He lives in Seabrook, Md. 

Frank D. Hall '49, a Miami attorney and Honorary 
Consul-General of Thailand for Florida, was conferred 
a Royal Decoration by the king of Thailand in recog- 
nition of his "zeal, devotion, and invaluable services to 
the Royal Thai government." 

i S. Weekley Jr. '51 joined the St. 

Petersburg, Fla., law office of Holland & Knight as 

W. Walker '53, LL.B. '55, a partner in 
the law firm Kennedy Covington Lobdell and Hick- 
man, became a member of the American Bar Associa- 
tion's board of governors. He lives in Charlotte, N.C. 

James P. Redwine Jr. '54 retired from Bowdoin 
College, where he was an English professor for 33 
years. He lives in Brunswick, Maine. 

Charles P. Shaw Jr. B.S.M.E. '54 returned from 
his fourth trip to Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, where he trained 
mechanics in the selection and maintenance of 
mechanical seals and pumps. He lives in Newark, Del. 

Jane Morgan Franklin '55 is the author of 
Cuba and the United States: A Chronological History, 
published by Ocean Press and distributed by 
LPC/InBook in Chicago. She and her husband, Bruce, 
live in Montclair, N.J., and recently became grandpar- 
ents for the fourth time. 

William C. Hilles '56, A.M. '58 retired as associate 
dean for administration and finance at the University 
of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. He and his wife, 
Elizabeth Southard Hilles 58, now live in 
Bethesda, Md. 

T. Alvin Wheeler Jr. '57, A.M. '72 retired as vice 
president for advancement at Lenoir-Rhyne College in 
Hickory, N.C. He will continue his consulting business, 
Wheeler and Associates. 

Jane Bock '58, a biology professor at Colorado 
University at Boulder, received the university's highest 
recognition for teaching and research. 

John E. Reed M.Div. '58 represented Duke at the 
inauguration of the president of the University of the 
Ozarks in Clarksville, Ark. 

Patricia Broadway Culp B.S.N. '59 was inducted 
into Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of 
Nursing. She is a nursing instructor at Presbyterian 
Hospital's nursing school in Charlotte, N.C. 

Jane Sale Henley '59 is the Garden Club of 
America's chair for national affairs and legislation. She 
is also a director of the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage 
Foundation. She and her husband, Page, live in 
Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Linwood B. Hollowell Jr. '59, JD. '62, an 
attorney with the Gastonia, N.C, law firm Stott, 
Hollowell, Palmer and Windham, was elected to a 
three-year term on the board of trustees at Belmont 
Abbey College. 

Charles A. Thompson '59, Ph.D. '73 represented 
Duke in October at the inauguration of the president 
of Virginia State University in Petersburg. 

MARRIAGES: William C. Wagner II '55 to 

Pamela White Leighton on June 20, 1996. Residence: 
Blue Bell, Pa. 

I. Peterson '60 is the dean of 
Kennesaw State University's College of Science and 
Mathematics in Geotgia. 

Harry J. Haynsworth IV '61, J.D. '64 represented 
Duke in October at the inauguration of the president 
of the University of Minnesota in St. Paul. 

Jerry McGee '61, former athletics director at 
Northeastern High School in Elizabeth City, N.C, was 
awarded the 1997 National Federation Citation, the 
highest honor given to high school athletics directors. 

'62 is vice president and 
director of property services at SouthPark commercial 
real estate company, which operates in Charlotte, 
N.C, as Grubb and Ellis Bissell Patrick. 

Emily Tucker Powell '62 represented Duke in 
October at the inauguration of the president of the 
North Carolina Community College System. 

'63, a professor at Belmont 
University in Nashville, Tenn., won the Deming Medal, 
awarded for "outstanding leadership in combining 
thinking and management that leads to quality in 
products and services." 

Jack Branscomb '65, a professor in the East 
Tennessee State University's English department, 
received the school's Distinguished Faculty Award 
in Teaching. 

Charles "Gary" Stephens '65 is a partner in 
the Miami law firm Halsey and Bums, practicing 
environmental and administrative law. He was deputy 
director of Broward County's department of natural 
resource protection. 

3te 2@uke 

in pour 


Traditionally, bequests have been 

a significant source of Duke's 

financial support. Your bequest to 

Duke will help to ensure Duke's 

continued strength and 

academic excellence. 

High federal estate tax rates 

significantly lower the cost of 

making a bequest to Duke. 

Join more than 1 ,500 other Duke 
alumni and friends as a member 
of the Heritage Society, an honor- 
ary circle of University alumni and 
friends who have planned an 
estate gift to Duke. 

Please contact: 

Michael C. Sholtz. J.D.. Director 

Office of Planned Giving 

Duke University 

3100 Tower Blvd. 

Suite 205 

Durham. NC 27707 

(919) 419-5070 

(919) 684-2123 

Edith Jane Carson Schnabel '66 was appointed 
deputy assistant genetal counsel in the National Labor 
Relations Board's division of Operation Management. 
She and her husband, Morton, live in Washington, D.C. 

Jack O. Bovender Jr. '67, M.H.A. '69 was 
appointed president and chief operating officer for 
Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp. He lives in 
Nashville, Tenn. 

John Canning Jr. J.D. '69, president of the buyout 
and investment firm Madison Dearborn Partners, Inc., 
was elected to a three -year term on Denison 
University's board of trustees. 

James H. Eddy III B.S.E. '69 lives in central 
Vermont, where he has worked for a small manufac- 
turing business for 15 years. His wife, Martha, owns a 
bookstore in Randolph, Vt. They have two daughters. 

William D. Gudger'69 was promoted to full 
professor in the music department at the College of 
Charleston, S.C. 

James A. Nunley '69 was elected president of the 
American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society. He is 
a professor in the division of orthopedics, department 
of surgery, at Duke Medical School. 

MARRIAGES: Karl T. Benson '64 tojannie 
Bigham on Aug. 16. Residence: Niceville, Fla.... 
Marc M. Caplan '69 to Hannah F. Roditi on Sept. 
14. Residence: New Entrain, Conn. 

Karp 70 is a partner in the 
architecture firm Taylor & Partners in Boston. She and 
her husband, Daniel D. Karp M.D. 73, and their 
two daughters live in Belmont, Mass. 

Douglas Menkes 70 is senior vice president and 
corporate actuary for the Equitable Life Assurance 
Society of the U.S. in New York City. He lives in 
Berkeley Heights, NJ. 

Nicholas A. Pope 70 was elected president of the 
Orlando law firm Lowndes, Drosdick, Doster, Kantor 
6k Reed. He lives in Winter Park, Fla. 

John M. Bowers 71 chairs the English department 
at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. 

Betsy Lawer 71, vice chair and chief operating 
officer at First National Bank, was appointed to the 
Federal Reserve's Seattle Branch board of directors. 

Lynn Saville 71, a photographet, recently had 
her book of night photographs published by Rizzoli 
International Publications, Inc. Acquainted with the 
Night comprises 102 photographs from rural and urban 
settings around the world. 

Byron R. Trauger 71 represented Duke in 
October at the inauguration of the president of Fisk 
University in Nashville. 

Paul M. StOUffer 72 is a captain with American 
Airlines. He and his wife, Jeanne McAfee 

Stouffer 73, and their three children live in Fort 
Worth, Texas. 

Laurence R. Tucker 72, a partner at Armstrong, 
Teasdale, Schlafly and Davis in Kansas City, received 
the 1997 President's Award, bestowed annually by the 
Missouri Bar. 

Henry M. Beck Jr. 73, who earned his J.D. from 
Harvard Law School, was named a partner in the firm 
Halloran and Sage. He lives in W Hartford, Conn. 

Daniel D. Karp M.D. 73 was appointed director 
of cancer clinical research at the Beth Israel Dea- 
coness Medical Center in Boston. He and his wife. 

Karp 70, and theit i 
in Belmont, Mass. 

Kenneth G. Starling J.D. 73 is a partner in the 
law firm Piper and Marbury, working in the antitrust 
and trade regulation and practice group. He lives in 
McLean, Va. 

Thomas G. Hoffman 74, a neurologist in 
Melbourne, Fla., is president of the Florida Society of 
Neurology. He and his wife, Mary, and their son live in 
Melbourne Beach. 

Mary Kay Izard 74 is head of primate breeding and 
behavior at Labs Virginia Inc., one of the largest primate 
centers in the United States, in Yemassee, S.C. She 
and her husband, Ken Wheeler, live in Beaufort, S.C. 

74, a professor of finance, ecom nines, 
and investment management at Cornell University, 
was named Financial Engineer of the Year by the 
International Association of Financial Engineers. 

74, president of Kador Communica- 
tions, is the author ot The Manager's B<x>k of Questior 
published by McGraw-Hill. He lives in Geneva, 111. 

Keiser Ph.D. 74, professor of religious 
studies at Guilford College, was awarded a $10,000 
grant for his course Science, Religion, and the Quest 
for Understanding. The John Templeton Foundation 
selected it as an "outstanding interdisciplinary 
academic course examining the relationship between 
science and religion." He lives in Greensboro, N.C. 

Connie Bossons Bishop B.S.N. 73 was 
appointed to the 1997 Board of Examiners of the 
Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. She 
lives in Gibsonville, N.C. 

Shelly Moore Capito 75 was elected to the West 
Virginia House of Delegates in 1996. She lives in 
Charleston, W.Va. 

nry Johnson Sr. J.D. 75, who earned 
his LL.M. in trial advocacy at Temple University's law 
school, is associate genetal counsel for Consolidated 
Rail Corp. in Philadelphia. He lives in Cherry Hill, N.J. 

75, M.D. 79, a physician and 
president of Cumberland Internal Medicine, was elected 
to the board of Wachovia Bank in Fayetteville, N.C. 

Laura Morgan Waggoner 75 is market executive 
for the Charleston, S.C, Private Client Group of 

: T. Harper 76, J.D. 79 represented Duke in 
November at the inauguration of Carnegie Mellon 
University's president. He is immediate past president of 
the Duke Alumni Association and lives in Pittsburgh. 

Mark Bookman J.D. 77 was listed in the 1997-98 
edition of Tfie Best Lawyers in America. He is a partner 
in the Pittsburgh law firm Reed Smith Shaw & McClay. 

Robert F. Holland J.D. 77, an Army colonel, is a 
military circuit judge based at Fort Campbell, Ky. 

Charles L. White 77 has been a district court 
judge in Greensboro, N.C, since 1992. He and his 
wife, Caramine White '88, live in Greensboro. 

Steve Bondeson Ph.D. 78, a chemistry professor 
at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, received 
the university 's.Excellence in Teaching Award. 

Ellie Hollander 78 is executive vice president 
of CMC, an energy services company based in 
Bethesda, Md. 

Carol Wiley-Cassella 78 is an anesthesiologist at 
Harrison Memorial Hospital in Bremerton, Wash. She 
and her husband, Stephen, and their two sets of twins 
live on Bainbridge Island, Wash. 

Joey Howell 79 released a new CD of solo 
acoustic guitar called "Moondog," on his record label 
Howling Sounds. He and his wife, Lisa Neal 78, 
live in Chatham County, N.C. 

Brad S. Markoff 79 is a partner in the Research 
Triangle office of the Atlanta-based law firm Alston 
and Bird. He lives in Raleigh, N.C. 

79, M.B.A. '80 is senior vice 
president, directot of business development, at the 
advertising agency D'Arcy Masius Benton and Bowles 
in New York City. He and his wife, June, and their 
three sons live in Danen, Conn. 

sry Smith 79 is an occupational therapist 
with Optimum Rehabilitation. She and her husband, 
Scott, and their two sons live in Andover, Mass. 

Bob Watral 79, a financial consultant with Smith 
Barnev Inc. in Raleigh. N.C. recently earned his 
Certified Financial Planner designation. 




Id friendships 
I can often lead 

nary reunions. For 
Carole Franco '70, the 
first American to 
become Lady Mayoress 
of Westminster, the 
result was like some- 
thing straight out of a 
storybook, perhaps "A 
Connecticut Yankee in 
St. James' Court." 

Franco befriended 
Londoner and post' 
graduate law student 
Robert Davis in 1979 
while she was studying 
for her master's in 
international relations 
at Cambridge. Both 
were classmates in the 
university's Wolfson 
College. When she re- 
turned to the States, 
first teaching in public 
schools and later work- 

organizations, and 
Davis took a partner- 
ship in a London prop- 
erty law practice, each 
occasionally traveled 
across the Atlantic to 
visit the other. 

In 1982, he secured 
a Westminster City 
council seat represent- 
ing the city's 
Bayswater Ward. After 
relocating to another 
ward and chairing sev- 
eral municipal com- 
mittees over fifteen 
years, Davis reached 
the pinnacle of any 
Council career: He 
was chosen by his 
peers as Lord Mayor 
of Westminster for the 
1996-97 term. 

The Lord Mayor is 
civic and ceremonial 
head of the council . 
As the designated First 
Citizen of Westminster, 
the position is super- 
seded in municipal sta- 
tus only by Queen 
Elizabeth herself. The 
Lord Mayor tradition- 
ally represents the 
city — encompassing 
Buckingham Palace, 
Parliament, and 75 
percent of the foreign 
embassies — in all state 
and public occasions, 
including entertaining 
royalty, members of 
Parliament, and for- 
eign dignitaries. 


was able to familiarize 
herself with interna- 
tional politics through 
visits from foreign emis- 
saries and her close 
contact with embassy 
officials living in West- 
minster. "It was like 
going around die world 
without ever having to 
get on an airplane." 
Franco and Davis 
also traveled as foreign 

Trappings of the office: Franco, left, with her friend, 
Lord Mayor Davis 

Ordinarily the wife 
of the Lord Mayor 
assumes the title of 
Lady Mayoress. As a 
bachelor, however, 
Davis was entided to 
select his own partner. 
During one of Franco's 
visits to London, Davis 
invited her to meet for 
a cup of coffee. Over 
the course of the con- 
versation, he ultimate- 
ly proposed that his 
bewildered former 
classmate join him as 
Lady Mayoress. 

She flew to London, 
some months later, 
moving into a mayoral 
flat in Mayfair in May 
1996, where she was 
graciously ushered in 
by two chauffeurs, two 
mace-bearers, a private 
secretary, and personal 
office staff. Franco was 
also presented with an 
extensive wardrobe for 
public appearances, in- 
cluding her own tiara, 
which she wore for 
banquets and state vis- 
its. Her "whirlwind of 

civic responsibilities 
began fast and furious 
just two days later, and 
over the course of one 
year, the pair logged 
967 public appear- 
ances on a rigid, seven- 

day week schedule. 

As the first Ameri- 
can Lady Mayoress, 
she says she was re- 
ceived warmly by her 
British peers. "For the 
most part, there is a 
great admiration on 
both sides. Most of 
them couldn't say 
enough about Ameri- 
cans. Everyone there 
said I was a breath of 
fresh air." 

Brushing up on 
British etiquette, Fran- 
co had to adjust to sev- 
eral cultural nuances, 
including wearing hats 
and gloves at appropri- 
ate occasions. She also 
grew accustomed to 
the rigors of social din- 
ing and entertaining, as 
well as fielding con- 
spicuously "American" 
demands for daily 
photo-shoots, public 
speeches, and televi- 
sion appearances. 

As Lord Mayor and 
Lady Mayoress, the 
two attended the offi- 
cial state visits of 
Israeli president Eric 
Weizman and South 
African president Nel- 
son Mandela, whom 
she describes as "the 
most fascinating per- 
son" she encountered 
while in office. Franco 

al international 
ances — most notably 
to Xi'an, China, for a 
conference for mayors 
of historic cities, and 
to Oslo, Norway. They 
were invited by the 
mayor of Oslo to help 
cut down the Christ- 
mas tree sent to Tra- 
falgar Square every 
December in com- 
memoration of British 
assistance during 
World War II. 

For their final inter- 
national engagement, 
they attended the Cher- 
ry Blossom Festival in 
Macon, Georgia, later 
traveling on to Wash- 
ington, D.C., where 
Franco met Vice Presi- 
dent Al Gore. "It was a 
strange experience, 
paying an official visit 
to my own country." 

The year-long tenure 
as Lady Mayoress 
ended for Franco last 
May. "It came as a real 
shock the last evening 
of our may oralitv 
when not only did we 
not have a chauffeur," 
she says, "but we could 
not even find a taxi." 

She returned state- 
side in November, after 
spending five months 
traveling extensively 
throughout the United 
Kingdom and Ireland. 
Back home in Con- 
necticut, Franco has 
begun compiling an 
account of her West- 
minster experiences, 
possibly for publica- 
tion. "It has been very 
hard to tear myself 
away," she says. "One 
has to be grateful to 
have such an opportu- 
nity so rare in the 

—Brian Henderson '98 

David Paul Hannic on lunc 21. Residence: Oak Hill, 
Va Elizabeth Haupert'78, B.S.N. '80 to Lee 
Jones 78 on July 19. Residence: San Jose, Calif.... 
Robert Joseph Vincze 79 to Sarah Elizabeth 
Bangs on April 4- 

BIRTHS: Son to Laura Morgan Waggoner 75 

and Tyre H. Moore on Dec. 28, 1995. Named Tyre H. 
Moore Jr.. ..Third child and second son to Laurie 
Akin beware 77 on June 1. Named Charles 
Curtis.. .Second child and son to Thomas Hayden 
Kesterson 77, M.S. 79 and Sherry Hammer 
Kesterson 79 on Dec. 10, 1996. Named Thomas 
Hayden...First child to Marcy Garber Fish B.S.N. 
79 on April 18. Named Emily Beth...Second child and 
son to Wendy Avery Smith 79 and Scott R. 
Smith on July 19, 1996. Named Reed Ingersoll Avery. 

David Miller Feldman '80 is a certified financial 
planner and executive vice president with Wechter 
Financial Services in Parsippany, N.J. He and his wife, 
Amy, and their two sons live in Morris County, N.J. 

Grace C. Ju '80, an assistant professor of biology at 
Gordon College in Wenham, Mass., earned the 
school's Junior Faculty Excellence in Teaching Award. 

Elaine R. Leavenworth '80 is divisional vice 

president, licensing and new business development, in 
the international division of Abbott Laboratories. She 
and her husband, Russell Jensen, live in Chicago. 

Paul W. Sperduto '80, M.D. '84, A.M. '84 is a 
radiation oncologist in Minneapolis. He and his wife, 
Jody Laursen Sperduto '80, have three children. 

Marjorie Cox '81 moved to Ho Chi Minh City, 
Vietnam, as group brand manager with British 
American Tobacco. 

Andrew D. Luster '81 received a Charles E. 
Culpeper Foundation Scholarship in Medical Science. 
He will receive $100,000 a year for up to three years to 
fund his research at Harvard Medical School. He is a 
physician and scientist in infectious diseases at 
Boston's Mass. General Hospital. 

Paul H. Trotter B.S.E. '81 is president ofTrotter 
Builders, a construction and real estate development 
firm in Charlotte, N.C. He and his wife, Kathy Rust 
Trotter M.S.N. '96, live in Charlotte. 

H. Turtel B.S.E. '81, an orthopedic 
surgeon specializing in sports medicine and joint 
replacement surgery, is team physician tor the New 
Jersey Nets basketball team and the New York/New 
Jersey Metrostars soccer team. He and his wife, 
Fredda, and their son live in New York City. 

Danal A. Blessis B.S.E. '82 is a management 

information manager for Bechtel in Hong Kong, where 
he is on the planning team for a new railway project 
that will link Hong Kong and mainland China. He 
and his wife, Marcia Ruth Barham, live in Hong Kong. 

Kerry E. Hannon 'S2, who was an editor at US. 
News &WorlJ Report, writes a financial column for 
USA Today. She and her husband. Cliff Hackel, live in 
Washington, D.C. 

Linda Jenkins M.B.A. '82 was promoted to senior 
vice president and chief financial officer of K-1II 
Consumer Magazines in New York City. She lives in 
lrvington, NY 

liar '82 is the director of cus- 
tomer loyalty, Asia-Pacific, for American Express Inter- 
national. She and her husband, Mark, and their two 
children live in Hong Kong. 

January- February 




Educational Ad 

Gardens Past & Present: 
The Legacy of Ellen 

MARCH 27 - 29 

Sarah P. Duke Gardens, Durham, NC 

$145 - $270 per person 

Come and experience the legacy of Ellen 
Shipman, the landscape architect who 
designed the heart and soul oi the Duke 
Gardens. Hear from garden experts and 
tour examples of her work. 

The Mind-Body-Spirit Connection 

The shortest path to healing the hody 
may he through the mind. Duke physi- 
cians will update you on the latest research 
and techniques for making the mind an 
ally in healing. 

Dolphins & Our Changing Environment 

Duke Marine Lab Alumni College 

May or June, Beaufort, North Carolina 


Come explore the heautiful coast of 
North Carolina and learn first-hand 
ahout the fascinating world of dolphins 
and other marine mammals. 


June 7-11, Salter Path, NC 


An intensive week of writing, reading, 
and manuscript development offering 
heginning and advanced instruction in fic- 
tion, poetry, and non-fiction, led hy 
acclaimed authors. 

July 31 - August 3, Salter Path, NC 


Technical writers and editors from a range 
of fields are invited to push their writing 
to a new level as we concentrate on the 
quality and clarity of language and syntax. 

Accessing Your Creativity: 

A Workshop and Retreat for Women 

August 4-7, Salter Path, NC 


Leam to evoke and celehrate your cre- 
ative spirit in this supportive, structured 
workshop for women. 

Creative Writing Workshop 

for Health Professionals 

August 25 - 28, Salter Path, NC 


In the ancient tradition of physician poets, 
hegin to access and express the insights 
that make the healing arts a wellspring of 
human experience. Daily workshops will 
cover poetry, essay, fiction and memoir. 

Alumni College of Tuscany 

Cortona, Italy 
May 20 - 28 

$2,195 PER I 

Immerse yourself in the 
culture of a typical 
Tuscan village, with semi- 
nars on Italian life and 
culture and excursions to 
significant sites. 

The World of the Vikings and the 

June 25 - July lO 


Scandinavia and the Baltic offer an 
enchanting destination tor famdies, 
capturing the rich pageantry and lore of 
Vikings, czars, anakings. 

tournus, france 

July 1 - 9 

$2,295 per person 

Step hack in time and immerse yourself 
in the culture of a typical small French 
town in the heart of the medieval and his- 
torical land called Burgundy. 

The Oxford Experience 

The University of Oxford, England 



Immerse yourself in centuries-old tradi- 
tions of learning and community. Study 
in small groups with Oxford faculty and 
explore the English countryside. 
Rediscover what it is to he a student again. 

County Clare, Ireland 
September 23 - October 1 
$2,095 per person 

From awesome seaside vistas to Celtic 
history, this pleasant mix of seminars 
and excursions will expose you to the his- 
tory and culture of the Emerald Isle. 

Duke Directions 

September 18 and November 6 
Durham. NC 

Rediscover the true "Duke experience" — 
the classroom experience! Return to 
Duke for a day of stimulating classes designed 
or alumni and taught hy top Duke faculty. 

Summer Youth Camps 

and Weekend Workshops 

March, June - August 
Durham and Salter Path, NC 

Camps in art, writing, drama, and sci- 
ence are offered for youth in grades 5- 
1 1 . Weekend workshops are offered in cre- 
ative writing and writing the college essay. 

Canal Cruise 

From Acapulco to Barbados, the Crystal 
Harmony Trans-Canal adventure will 
take you to Mexico, Costa Rica, the 
Panama Canal, and the Carihhean. 

Canary Islands Cruise 

February 22 - March 6 
approx. $ 2,995 per person 

Cruise ahoard the M . S. Black Prince 
from the white cliffs of Dover to the 
"floating garden" of Funchal, Madeira. 
Visit four of the Canary Islands. 

FEBRUARY 1 5 - 27 


Tour the Antarctic continent with stops 
in the Shetland Islands and Cape Horn. 
The ecology of Antartica is explored in 
depth, guided hy naturalists. 

Austrian Winter Escapade 

Spend a week in the winter paradise or 
the Austrian Alps. Explore Salzhurg 
and its majestic environs. 

Wines of the World 

APRIL 23 - MAY 3 


Spend seven days in Bordeaux visiting 
famous wineries accompanied hy a 
noted oenologist. Explore the Basque 
region and the coastal city of Biarritz . 

Wings Over the Kalahari 

MAY 8 -21 


A 14-day safari to South Africa, Namihia, 
Zimhahwe, and Botswana , with a two- 
night stay at Chohe National Park. Then fly 
to Cape Town for three nights. 

Cruise the Face ol Europe 

June 1-17 

$4,745 per person from newark or 

$4,845 per person from atlanta. 

For 17 days we sail the Rhine, the Main 
Danuhe Canal, and the Danute itself. 
From Budapest to Amsterdam. 

Northern Lights Cruise 

JUNE 20 - JULY 3 
$4,995 PER PERSON 

Discover the legendary heauty of 
Europe's northerly latitudes to 
Denmark and Norway. Visit the Shetland 
Islands and Scotland. 

Mediterranean Adventure 

JULY 1 7 - 25 
$2,995 PER PERSON 

Discover Cannes, 
Portofino, and 
St. Tropez, as well 
some lesser known 
jewels - Calvi, 
Bonifacio, Costa 
Smeralda, and 
Portoferraio. Seven 
nights on the Star 

Danube to the Black Sea 

JULY 19-31 
$2,995 PER PERSON 

An Inside Passage cruise aboard the 
four-star deluxe Crown Majesty and the 
Midnight Sun Express. Two days in 
Denah, with calls at Juneau, Skagway, 
Sitka, and Ketchikan. 

August 26 - September 8 
$3,590 per person 

Our 14-dav classic itinerarv from the 
Danuhe to the Black Sea takes you froi 
Austria to Hungary, Jugoslavia, Bulgaria, 
Romania, and Turkey. Then to Istanhul for 
two nights. Vienna is a two-night option. 

Spiritual Siam: The Traditions of 

$3,795 PER PERSON 

Spend four nights in Bankok, then to 
Chiang Mai Tor three nights. See the 
Golden Triangle, where the borders of 
Laos, Myanmar (Burma), and Thailand 

From the Bosphorus to the Sea of 

September 26 - October 8 
$4,695 per person 

A cruise ol Turkey and the Greek Isles 
and stays in Istanhul and Athens. The 
centerpiece is a seven-night cruise aboard 
Radisson Seven Seas Cruises' Song of 

Cotes du Rhone Passage 

October 14-27 

$ 3.495 per person from new York or 

$3,595 per person from atlanta 

Paris, the "City of Light," the TGV 
(world's lastest passenger train), Cannes 

md Bl 


Heritage of Northern Italy 

October 20 - November 2 
s3.900 per person 

We are pleased to offer a journey 
through Northern Italy. SeeVenice 
and Lake Como, as well as visits to 
Bergamo, Verona, Mantua, Vicenza, 

no del Grappa, Padua, and Parma. 


FALL 1998 

$55,800 PER PERSON 

Our ultimate 24-day Around the World 
journey: two nights in Kona, Hawaii; 
three nights in Queenstown, New Zealand; 
in Sydney, Australia; in the Masai Mara, 
Kenya; and in London, England. 

Yuletide in Bavaria: 

Waterways of Bussia 

August 1 8 - 30 
$3,795 F 

Spend two nights in Moscow, visit the 
Kremlin and Red Square before 
embarking on a cruise to charming villages 
and the magnificent city of St. Petersburg. 

Old World Christmas Markets 
December 7-14 
$2,495 per person 

Surround yourself in the winter wonder- 
land of the Bavarian Alps. Three nights 
in Bad Reichenhall and the musical city of 
Salzburg, Austria. 

Duke Great Teachers Video Series 


ourses from five outstanding faculty. 


Information Bequest Form 

For detailed brochures on these programs 
listed below, please return this form, 
appropriately marked, to : 
Dulse Educational Adventures 
614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 27708 
or fax to: (919)684-6022 

Alumni Colleges 

□ Gardens Past and Present 

□ Healthy Mind, Healthy Body 

Q Dolphins and Our Environment 
Summer Academy 

□ Duke Writers' Workshop 

□ Technical Writers' Workshop 
Q Accessing Your Creativity 

□ Creative Writing for Healthcare 
Professionals ^ 

Alumni Colleges Abroad 

□ Alumni College of Tuscany 

□ The World of the Vikings and the 

Q Alumni College in Burgundy 
Q The Oxlord Experience 
Q Alumni College of Ireland 
Otner Programs 

□ Duke Directions 

□ Summer Youth Camps & Weekend 

Duke Travel 

Q Trans-Panama Canal Cruise 

□ Canary Islands Cruise 

□ Antarctica 

□ Austrian Winter Escapade 

□ Wines of the World 

Q Wings Over the Kalahari 

□ Cruise the Face of Europe 

□ Northern Lights Cruise 

□ Mediterranean Adventure 

□ Alaskan Wilderness: Voyage of the 

□ Waterways of Russia 

□ Danube to the Black Sea 

□ Spiritual Siam: The Traditions of 

□ From the Bosphorus to the Sea of 

□ Cotes du Rhone Passage 

□ Heritage of Northern Italy 

□ Around the World hy Supersonic 

Q Yuletide in Bavaria: Old World 

Christmas Markets 

□ Duke Great Teachers 

Rick Travis J.D. '82 is a partner in the Nashville law 
firm Manier, Herod, Hollabaugh and Smith. He lives 
in Brentwood, Term. 

Robert Kendall Beckler 'S3 is a chemical 

engineer with Westvaco Corp. in Covington, Va. He 
and his wife, Kate, live in Lexington. 

Anita Coulter Flowe B.S.E. '83 earned her Ph.D. 
in engineering at the University of Toledo. She and 
her husband, Ken Flowe '82, and their two children 
live in Shelby, N.C. 

Christopher D. Howard 83, assistant professor 
of government at the College of William and Mary, 
received the Alumni Fellowship Award for excellence 
in teaching. He and his wife, Dorothy, and their two 

JiilJivn live in Ioano,Va. 

'83 is an assistant professor in the 
computer science department at Clemson University. 

Daniel Edward McGurn '83 is in-house counsel 
for Tire A Consulting Team (TACT), a computer 
consulting services company. His Internet address is 

Kimberly R. Cousins '84 was promoted to 

associate professor of chemistry at California State 
University, San Bemadino. She and her husband, Alan 
Ashiro, and their son live in Redlands, Calif. 

Gabriella G. Gaal '84, who earned her J.D. at 
Roger Williams University's law school in 1996, is 
practicing with the law offices of Dennis J. Roberts II 
in Providence, R.l. 

Catherine Cossey Guiley '84 was appointed 
vice president, Kids and Baby, for Old Navy, a division 
of GAP She lives in San Francisco. 

Suzanne L. Johnson '84, an attorney with 
McTeague, Higbee, McAdams & Case in Topsham, 
Maine, was re-elected president of the Damariscotta 
River Association, which works to preserve the natural 
and historical resources of the watershed in mid-coast 
Maine. She and her husband, Craig Small, live in 
Brunswick, Maine. 

Sam Liang B.S.E. '84 is director of U.S. marketing 
for Cordis Corp. He and his wife, Kelly, and their 
daughter live in Coral Cables, Fla. 

T. Ruhl '84 has opened an architectural 
practice, Ruhl Walker Architects, in Boston. 

Lisa Sigall Scimeca '84, who earned her J.D. at 
Catholic University of America, has a law practice in 
Marlton, N.J. 

Karen Smith '84 is the medical team leader for 
Firsthealth of the Carolina's Family Care Centers in 
Pinehurst, N.C. She is on the faculty in the department 
of family practice at Duke and at UNC-Chapel Hill's 
medical schools. 

Lynn Sydor '84 is a dermatologist at Harvard 
Pilgrim Health Care and a clinical instructor at 
Harvard Medical School. She and her husband, Sam 
Israelii, and their son live in Boston. 

Damon V. White '84, senior manager in the 
Atlanta office of Deloitte and Touche, was appointed 
to a five-year term on the Exporters' Textile Advisory 
Committee of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 

John S. Wiener '84, who completed a fellowship in 
pediatric urology at Texas Children's Hospital in 
Houston, is an assistant professor oi urologic surgery at 
Duke Medical School. He and his wife, Elisabeth 
Harper Wiener M.B.A. '91, and their two daughters 
live in Durham. 

Paul G. Bernhard B.S.E. '85, a Navy lieutenant 
commander, reported for duty with the U.S. Support 
Group, Haiti. 

'85 is an associate at the New 
York City law firm Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen &. Hamilton. 
He practices international law in Latin America. 

' H. Koch '85, a Navy lieutenant 
commander, is on a six-month deployment to the 
Persian Gulf aboard the L'SS Paul E Foster. 

I D. Sibley J.D. '85 is an associate with the 
law firm Myers, Bigel, Sibley and Sajovec in Cary, N.C. 

Julie Jaquiss Collins '86 earned her M.B.A. at 
Boston University's School of Management. 

Jeffrey P. Johnson B.S.E. '86, who completed his 
residency in neurosurgery at Columbia-Ptesbyterian 
Hospital, is a neurosurgeon in private practice in 
Albuquerque. His wife, Michelle Labahn 

Johnson '86, who graduated from Rutgers-Newark 
Law School, is an associate in the law firm Rodey, 
Dickason, Sloan, Akin and Robb. They have two 
children and live in Albuquerque. 

John Lucas Winkler '86 is a software developer 
with TIVOLI, an IBM subsidiary. He and his wife, 
Anneth Marie Hethcoat, live in Austin, Texas. 

Ul Balis '87, who completed a pathology residency 
at the University of Utah, works at Massachusetts 
General Hospital and at the Harvard Center for 
Bioengineering in Medicine. His research deals with 
optimizing bio-reactor topologies for the Harvard 
artificial liver project. He lives in Boston. 

Robert H. Bergdolt is a partner in the 
Research Triangle office of the Atlanta-based law firm 
Alston and Bird. He lives in Raleigh. 

Susan Periman Cohen '87 is an associate literary 
agent for Rosenstone/Wender. She and her husband, 
Neil, and their daughtet live in Memphis, Tenn. 

Tom Bellinger B.S.E. '87, who earned his master's 
in medical physics at East Carolina University, is a 
radiological medical physicist for Mission-St. Joseph's 
Health System in Asheville, N.C. 

Mara C. Georgi '87, a student teacher in 
high-school social studies, is pursuing her master's in 
teaching at Tufts University in Boston. 

'87 and her husband. Kirk 
Myers, have a joint law practice, Harrington & Myers, 
in New Orleans. 

Heather L. Higbee '87 has opened her own law 
firm in Orlando, Fla. She was an attorney at Florida's 
Office of Statewide Pro 

Cate Tinkler Mueller '87, a Navy lieutenant 
commander, earned her master's in journalism at 
American University. She has transferred to Singapore, 
where she is the public affairs officer for the Comman- 
der, Logistics Force, Western Pacific. 

Robert Nagle '87 is the owner of Nagle Paving Co. 
He and his wife. Colleen, and their two daughters live 
in Troy, Mich. 

Gabrielle "Gabby" Santore '37 i 

mental regulatory specialist in the Environmental 
Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory 
in Oak Ridge, Tenn. She and her husband, Michael 
Wayne Morris, live in Powell, Tenn. 

John Sayer B.S.E. '87 was promoted to manager 
of systems engineering for the Delaware Valley Region 
of Cisco Systems, Inc. 

Bayer '88 is a film producer and 
corporate counsel for Four Square Productions. He 
lives in La Jolla, Calif. 

Richard Bloomfeld '88 is a first-year gastroen- 
terology fellow at Duke Medical Center. 

Victoria Lynn Callaway '88, who earned her 

M.H.A. at UNC-Chapel Hill, is the director of quality 
resource management at Union Regional Medical 
Center in Monroe, N.C. 

Branan W. Cooper '88, a senior vice president at 
MBNA America Bank, is marketing manager for its 
consumer finance division. He and his wife, Desiree, 
live in Landenberg, Pa. 

Lisa Carol Discher'88 is a capital markets 
business systems specialist at First National Bank of 
Chicago. She and her husband, Jack, live in Downers 
Grove, 111. 

Mark Ebel '88 is an attorney in the law firm 
Holland and Hart. He and his wife, Catherine 
Laskey '91, live in Denver, Colo. 

Stuart C. Gauffreau '88, who earned his J.D. 
at UNC-Chapel Hill, is an associate in the Greens- 
boro, N.C, law firm Adams Keemeier Hagan Hannah 
and Fouts. 

Rich Herbst B.S.E. '88, a Navy lieutenant, is a pilot 
with Fighter Squadron 143 aboard the USS George 
Washington. He and his wife, Karen Klein Herbst 

'87, and their two sons live in Virginia Beach, Va. 

Christopher F. Joiner '88, who earned his Ph.D. 
in marketing at the University of Minnesota, is an 
assistant professor at Kansas State University. He and 
his wife, Jennie Proctor Joiner '87, and their 
daughter live in Manhattan, Kan. 

Karolyn Kabir '88, who earned her M.D. at UNC- 
Chapel Hill, is doing her pediatric residency at the 
Children's Hospital in Denver, Colo. She and her 
husband, David Greher '92, live in Denver. 

E. Joseph Kremp III 'S8 is an associate in the law- 
firm Johnson Smith Pence Densborn Wright & Heath. 
He earned both his M.B.A. and his J.D. at Indiana 

University. He lives in Indianapolis. 

Mary Penrod Ruggiero '88, a pediatrician at 
the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, has opened a 
practice in Paoli, Pa. Het practice is called Kids First 
Paoli. Her husband, Robert Ruggiero Jr. '88, who 
completed his residency in orthopaedic surgery at 
Allegheny University Hospitals, has begun a fellowship 
in spinal surgery. 

ite '88 earned her Ph.D. m English 
at UNC-Greensboro, where she's currently teaching. 
She and her husband, Charles L. White '77, a 
district coutt judge, live in Greensboro. 

en '89 is an associate with 
the law firm Mays & Valentine, at their Richmond, 
Va., office. 

Heidi A. Boyd '89 earned her M.D. at the 
University ofTexas Medical Branch at Galveston. 
Her husband, William D. Dwyer B.S.E. '89, works 
on the space station at NASA. The couple and their 
daughter live in Houston. 

Kimberly A. Brown '89 is a partner at the law firm 
Thorp, Reen and Armstrong. She and her husband, 
David Oney, live in Pittsburgh. 

Carlos Felipe Castellon Jr. '89, who earned his 

M.B.A. at the University of Virginia's Parden School, 
works for Lucent Technologies in Piscataway, N.J. 

Rachel Ziva Fein '89, who earned her M.B.A. at 
the University of Virginia's Darden School, works for 
the Coca-Cola Co. in Atlanta. 

Christopher F. Foster '89 joined the Kansas City, 

Mo., law firm Shook, Hardy and Paeon as an associate 
in the Health Cate Law Practice Group. 

Leora Y. Ger '89 opened a bakery, cafe, and wine 
bar. Linger Longer, in Bellevue.Wash. 

Louis Kennerly Gump '89, who earned his 




The Miltonic fall 
from angel to 
devil prefigures 
the biblical notion of 
original sin present in 
us all. Yet Commander 
George B. Dom '77, 
leader of the Navy's 
decorated flying team, 
succeeded in bucking 
the trend. He ascended 
heavenward, from 
Blue Devil to Blue 

Respecting the 
wishes of his World 
War II Navy veteran 
father, Dom applied 
for a Naval Reserve 
Officer Training Corps 
scholarship and opted 
to attend Duke. After 
his graduation, in a 
post-Vietnam period of 
national skepticism 
over the role of the 
military, he was com- 
missioned as a Navy 
ensign and reported 
for flight school. He 
earned his own Golden 
Wings the following 

After various de- 
ployments at naval air 
stations and aircraft 
carriers, he got his first 
taste of military action 
during the 1985 anti- 
terrorism air strikes 
against Libyan targets. 
Reassigned to the 
Middle East in 1991 
aboard the USS 
America, Dom flew 
twenty-five missions 
from the Red Sea and 
the Persian Gulf dur- 
ing Operation Desert 
Storm. It was during 
these military deploy- 
ments that Dom be- 
came familiar maneu- 
vering the F/A-18 
Hornet, the official 
strike fighter jet of the 
Blue Angels for the 
past twelve years. 

Formed in 1946 by 
Admiral Chester W 
Nimitz to spark public 
interest in naval avia- 
tion, the Blue Angels 
have as their primary 
mission to enhance 
Navy and Marine 
Corps recruiting 
efforts. "We're trying to 
show vividly to young 
people the excitement 
of Navy and Marine 
Corps life," he says, 

Commander Dom: the 
Blue Devil and, below, 
his Blue Angels 

"but at the same time, 
we're out there to 
show the American 
people where their tax 
money is going — to 
the pride and profes- 
sionalism of the young 
folks in the Armed 

Each year, seven 
new tactical jet pilots 
and staff officers re- 
lieve departing mem- 
bers — of the six fight- 
ers flying behind 
Dom's command, at 
any time three will be 
flown by rookies. All 
performance pilots, 
including the com- 
manding officer, are 
limited to two-year 
tenures. Aspiring 
replacements are 
selected by the Chief 
of Naval Training. 

Applying for the 
rank of commanding 
officer in July 1996, 
Dom surpassed the cri- 
teria of 3,000 tactical 
jet flight hours. "When 
the bottle stopped spin- 
ning," he says of a 
series of selection 
meetings held in 

Corpus Christi, Texas, 
"it was pointed at me." 
Now a second-year 
Blue Angel, Dom will 
return to a Naval air- 
craft carrier to assume 
the rank of air wing 
commander after he 
completes his tour of 
duty next November. 

The pilots adhere to 
an intense 120-flight 
training regimen of 
three-a-day practices 
and six-day weeks, 
performing exercises 
designed to build 
group trust and gradu- 
ally tighten flight pre- 
cision. By the first 
demonstration of the 
season, a mid-March 
performance in the 
clear skies of El Cen- 
tre, Dom will have his 
Angels flying their 
wing tips thirty-six 
inches apart and skim- 
ming a mere 200 feet 
off the ground. 

During the exhibi- 
tion season — which 
features roughly seven- 
ty shows at thirty-five 
military and civilian 
sites, running through 
early November — the 
squadron's regular 
weekly routine entails 
more than aerial show- 
boating. The pilots and 
support team practice 
in Pensacola during 
the early part of the 
week before flying out 
to sites on Thursday; 
Fridays are split be- 
tween dry-runs from 
site runways and local 
appearances, all lead- 
ing up to the two 
weekend perfor- 
mances. Each season, 
the Blue Angels log 

more than 140,000 sky 

When it comes 
down to showtime, 
Dom leads the Blue 
Angels' demonstrations 
through approximately 
forty-five minutes of 
exhibition featuring 
flying maneuvers in 
three formations — 
"diamond," "delta," and 
"solo." The diamond 
formation showcases 
the pilots' teamwork 
and precision, and fea- 
tures four fighters per- 
forming acrobatic 
maneuvers in tight uni- 
son. The delta forma- 
tion assembles all six 
jets in triangle align- 
ment, generally con- 
cluding the perfor- 
mance with a powerful 
team showing. Solo 
formation, with two 
fighters performing 
alternating maneuvers, 
demonstrates the maxi- 
mum performance 
capabilities of the F/A- 
18 Hornet. 

Following every 
show, Dom helps sup- 
port officers steer two 
hours of debriefing dis- 
cussion and evalua- 
tions from video-tap- 
ings. "We never get on 
the ground and say 
that a show has been 
'good enough.' We're 
always nitpicking and 
finding ways to make 
it better." As the year 
progresses and the 
pilots develop more 
confidence in their 
partners, the squadron 
takes each show to, 
appropriately, new 
— Brian Henderson ' 

M.B.A. at the University ofVirginia's Harden School, 
works for Andersen Consulting in Atlanta. 

Judith Hill '89 has relocated to Manhattan as a free- 
lance singer after two years of touring full time with 
the National Opera Company and after three summer 
seasons of operetta with the Ohio Light Opera. 

Ted Lothstein '89, who earned his J.D. at the 
University of Connecticut's law school, works in the 
New Hampshire Public Defender's office in Concord. 

Mary Beth Namm '89 completed her master's in 
English at N.C. State University, where she has taught 
in the Freshman Writing Program for two years. 

Paul Nietert '89, who earned his Ph.D. in epidemi- 
ology at the Medical University in South Carolina, 
works at its Center for Health Care Research. He and 
his wife, Ellen, and their son live in Mt. Pleasant, S.C. 

Bill Piatt M.B.A. '89 is chief information officer for 
the Peace Corps in Washington, D.C. He lives in 
Arlington, Va. 

Jon B. Shain '89 is a musician in his new band, 
Wake, which just released its first compact disc. He 
lives in Chapel Hill. 

Laura Bolton Smith '89 was promoted to vice 
president in the leveraged finance department at 
Goldman, Sachs and Co. She and her husband, James, 
live in Atlantic Highlands, N.J. 

Mike Solano M.Div. '89, an Air Force chaplain, was 
selected for clinical pastoral education at Wilford Hall 
Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas. He and his 
wite, Leigh, and their two children live in San Antonio. 
Robert Bruce Stewart III '89, who earned his 
M.B.A. at the University ofVirginia's Darden School, 
works for Paine Webber Inc. in New York City. 

Maureen Smith Waters '89 is a brand manager 
at MCI Telecommunications in Arlington, Va. 
MARRIAGES: Paul H. Trotter B.S.E. '81 to 
Kathy Rust M.S.N. "96 on June 21. Residence: 
Charlotte, N.C. Robert Kendall Beckler 
to Katherine Elaine Tessieri on July 5. Residence: 
Lexington, Va.... Joseph A. Sinsheimer'82 
Ph.D. '96 on June 21.... 
'85 to Rebecca Herman on June 
1. Residence: Bethesda Md....John Lucas 
Winkler '86 to Anneth Marie Hethcoat in March. 
Residence: Austin, Texas.. Lauren Goldstein '87 
to William Hoffman on Aug. 31. Residence: Charlotte, 
N.C ..Elisabeth Harrington '87 to Kirk Myers 
on June 3, 1995. Residence: New Orleans.. .James 
Alexander Karrh M.B.A. '87 to Alison Knott on 
May 31 Micheller Renee Aust'88, M.D. '92 to 
Lee F. Veazy '88 on June 28. Residence: Wichita 
Falls, Texas. Victoria Lynn Callaway '88 to Scott 
Edwin Wolfe on May 25, 1996. Residence: Charlotte, 
N.C. Lisa Carol Discher'38 to Jacob Rosmanitz 
III on June 29, 1996. Residence: Downers Grove, 
111 Mark Ebel'88 ti .Catherine Laskey'91on 

David Greher ' 
Jon B. Shain '89 i 
Maureen Smith 

1996. Residence: Ale 


24. Residence: Denver... 

i Bilinski on Aug. 9... 

lomas Waters on April 27, 
Va David Tendler 

'89 to Susan Elizabeth Spratt on Sept. 14. 

BIRTHS: First child and daughter to Grace C. Ju 
'80 and Garth Miller on [une 16, 1996. Named Zea 
Mana...Third child and first son to Leah Morgan 
Korbel '80 ind Bradley David Korbel '80 on 
Aug 5. Named Huntei Michael. ..Second son to 
Mack T. Ruffin IV B - E. 80 and Katfy E. Carter 
on April 14. Named Noah ( artei & c ind daughter to 
Leslie Campbell Tucker '80 and Burnet Tucker 
on April 1. Named Sarah Campbell.. Second child and 
first daughiei to Thomas D. Hickey ,S2 and lsobel 

•-February 1998 

Hickey on May 14. Named Maeve Margaret.. .Second 

child and first son to Edith Johnson Millar '82 

and Mark Lloyd Millar on June 15. Named Reed 
Lloyd.. .First child and son to Don Robert Banner 
Jr. '83 and Sarah Burnap Bahner on Aug. 10, 1996. 
Named Robert Burnap.. .First child and son to Molly 
Eden Hendrick '83 and Thomas Hendrick on Feb. 
11, 1997. Named Jared Bums...Fourth child and first 
son to Todd D. Rangel '83 and Kim Rangel on 
Aug. 22, 1996. Named Daniel Reames... First child and 
daughter to Linda Jeanne Blodgett Treco 'S3 
and Gordon Davis Treco on May 5. Named Gwendolyn 
"Wynne" Jeanne.. .Second child and son to Beth 
Cohen Besner'84 and Brad Besner '84 on May 
26. Named Grant Mitchell...Son to Ellen Eisenlohr 
Dorn '84 and Jim Dorn on July 16. Named Raymond 
Peter.. .First child and daughter to Sam Liang 
B.S.E. '84 and Kelly Liang on Dec. 9, 1996. Named 
Kendall Ward...First child and son to Amy Hurite 
Macdonald '84 and Alan S. Macdonald on March 
26. Named Andrew Scattergood... First child and son 
to Lynn Sydor '84 and Sam Israelit in July 1996. 
Named Max Peter.. .First child and daughter to Abbie 
Baynes '85 and Steve Nason on July 25. Named 
Sara Parker Nason.. .Second child and daughter to 
Cathy McCurry Milliken '85, A.M. '89 and 
Charles Milliken B.S.E. '85, M.B.A. '89 on April 
17. Named Rebecca Anne... Second child and first son 
to David Raben '85 and Carrie Pinkerton 
Raben '86 on May 11. Named Samuel Stevens.. .First 
child and son to Lisa Prifty Sposato '85 and Tim 
Sposato on July 9. Named Timothy Robert.. .Second 
child and daughter to Linda Hammer Constand 
'86 and Rich Constand on Aug. 11. Named Gwen 
Nicole... Dau.iiliK i to Lucy Nolley Jones Gaines 
'86, A.H.C. '88, M.S. '88 and Jeff Gaines. Named 
Mollie Dean... Son to Amanda Berlowe Jaffe 
'86 and Mark Jaffe '86 on Feb. 17, 1997. Named 
Ian Scott.. .Second child and daughter to Elisa 
Davidson Szweda '86 and Eric Szweda on July 27. 
Named Lila Cardwell... Second child and son to 
Timothy N. Thoelecke Jr. '86 and Chris 
Thoelecke on July 8. Named William Louis.. .First child 
and son to Sarah Miller Assousa '87 and Mark 
Assousa B.S.E. '87 on Oct. 5, 1996. Named George 
Jacob...Second child and first son to Julie Pease 
Buranosky '87 and Mark Paul Buranosky 87 
on June 1, 1996. Named Reid Paul.. .First child and 
daughter to Jennie Proctor Joiner '87 and 
Christopher F. Joiner '88 on June 23. Named 
Cameron Holliday... Second child and son to Shep 
McKinley '87 and Cyndy McKinley on June 10. 
Named Alec Risser... Second son to Cate Tinkler 
Mueller '87 and Dan Mueller on July 5, 1996. 
Named Patrick Joseph...Second child and son to 
Steven Joseph O'Brien '87 and Kathy 
Swanson O'Brien '88 on June 2. Named Reid 
Joseph.. .First child and daughtet to Lynn Buch 
Beirl '88 and Tim Beirl on June 11. Named Sara 
Diane...Second child and son to Richard Bloom- 
feld '88 and Christine Ferraro-Bloomfeld '88 
on March 15. Named Jackson Ferraro Bloomfeld... 
Third son to Gary A. Budlow M.B.A. '88 and 
Jennifer N. Budlow on Aug. 21. Named Kyle Joseph... 
First child and daughter to Christopher F. Joiner 
'8S and Jennie Proctor Joiner on June 23. 
Named Cameron Holliday.. .First child and son to 
Dana Albert Kaplan '88 and Andrew Kaplan on 
Aug. 3, 1996. Named SayTes Alexander.. Triplet 
daughters to Kevin M. Murtagh '88 and Cynthia 
Murtagh. Named Alison Patricia, Caroline Marie, and 
Meaghan Elizabeth...Third child and second son to 
ggiero S8 and Robert 
Jr. '88 on June 12. Named William 
Penrod..Twin sons to Wendy Cramer Sanford 
'88 and Andrew Sanford on Dec. 15, 1996. Named 
Timothy Jacob and Nicholas Trower... Second child 
and son to Nancy Risher Ward '88 and William 

Ward on Aug. 21. Named Jackson Francis... Daughter 
to Lowell D. Aptman '89 and Eileen Aptman. 
Named Isabel Rose...Second child and son to Heidi 
A. Boyd '89 and William D. Dwyer BSE. '89 
on Jan. 16, 1997. Named Zachary Robert Dwyer... First 
child and daughter to Juan Pablo Cappello '89 
and Ana Maria Larrain on May 21. Named Alessandra 
Larrain Cappello.. .Second child and first son to Lee 
Stephens Mullett 89 and Charles Mullett 89 
on Jan. 10, 1997. Named Jacob Thomas... First child 
and son to Brad R. Onofrio '89 and Michelle 
Onofrio on Dec. 24, 1996. Named Nicholas Shane... 
First child and son to Deborah B. Rosenthal '89 
and Brian Kombrek on June 27. Named Ethan 
Rosenthal Kornbrek. 

David M. Colborne B.S.E. '90 is a mechanical 
engineer for JSG Technical Services in Goshen, N.Y. 

Timothy S. Crisp J.D. '90 has joined the Madison, 

Wise, law firm Michael, Best and Friedrich. 

Kyle A. Glerum '90, a Marine captain, reported for 
duty with Marine Aircraft Group 42, 4th Marine Air- 
craft Wing, Naval Air Station Atlanta, Marietta, Ga. 

Raymond Hahn '90 will conduct documentary 
studies in Seoul, Korea, with a Fulbright grant to 
"increase mutual understanding between people of the 
United States and the people of other c 

'90 graduated from New York 
University's law school and is a clerk for a judge in 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Jennifer Wallis Kotzen '90 is an associate spe- 
cializing in corporate law with the law firm Lowenthal, 
Landau, Fischer and Bring in New York City. 

Timothy J. O'Sullivan J.D. '90 is an associate 
with the law firm Myers, Bigel, Sibley and Sajovec in 

'90, a graphic designer and 
photographer, has produced a 1998 calendar of South 
Beach color photographs, published by Key Press. 
Her photographs were exhibited in December and 
January at Jamson Whyte gallery in Miami Beach. 
Her calendar is available at major book stores. 

Karen Herzig Apsel '91, who is pursuing her Ph.D. 
in clinical psychology at the University of Virginia, is 
an intern at the D.C. Commission for Mental Health. 
She and her husband, Steve, live in Arlington, Va. 

James R. Cannon J.D. '91 is an associate in the 
law firm Myers, Bigel, Sibley and Sajovec in Cary, N.C. 

Anne Bryan Faircloth '91 is a writer-reporter for 
Fortune magazine. She and her husband, Frederick 
Beaujeu-Dulour, live in New York City. 

Sally Redding Hanchett 1 is coordinating 
producer for NBC News Channel at the Washington, 
D.C, network bureau. She and her husband, Jim, live 
in Vienna, Va. 

Catherine Laskey '91 is director of admissions at 
Colorado Academy. She and her husband, Mark 
Ebel '88, live in Denver. 

Frances Shank '91, who earned her 
M.B.A. at the University ofVirginia's Darden School, 
works for General Motors Corp. in New York City. 

Adam Stock Spilker '1 was ordained as a rabbi 
in New York City in May. 

Mark Owen Timperman '91, who earned his 
M.B.A. at the University ofVirginia's Darden 
School, works for First Union Capital Markets in 
Washington, D.C. 

D. Ashley '92 is an attorney at the law 
firm Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher and Flom in 
Washington, D.C. 

Sarah Elizabeth Barnard '92, who earned her 
M.B.A. at the University ofVirginia's Darden School, 
works for Deloitte & Touche in Chicago. 

Virginia C 

the law firm My 

J.D. '92 is an associate with 
, Sibley and Sajovec in 

D. Brickhouse '92, a Na\-y lieutenant, 
participated in "Operation Sail 200," the bicentennial 
celebration for the L'SS Constitution, the world's oldest 
commissioned warship afloat. 

Rhonda Burnette-Bletsch '92, who is pursuing 
her Ph.D. at Duke, teaches religion at Greensboro 

Jan Paul De Weer '92 is in his third season as a 
goalkeeper in the USOSL outdoor professional minor 
soccer league, now playing tor the Baltimore Bays. 
When not playing outdoor soccer, he trains with the 
Washington Warthogs protessional indoor soccer team 




Trying to find a 
coral reef in the 
Baltic Sea might 
be scientifically impos- 
sible. But thanks to 
popular syndicated 
cartoonist Jim Toomey 
B.S.E. '83, Swedes— 
and Americans — need 
look no further than 
their Sunday ninnies. 

Toomey's recent 
collection of cartoon 
strips, Sherman's 
Lagoon: Ate That, 
What's Next? may be 
his first book published 
stateside — or even in 
English, for that mat- 
ter — but it certainly 
isn't a freshman offer- 
ing. He has already 
released two collec- 
tions from his ram- 
bunctious daily strip 
"Sherman's Lagoon" in 
Scandinavia, where his 
rabid Swedish and 
Norwegian following 
knows his work as"Sig- 
ge's Lagun" and "La- 
gunen," respectively. 
Set in the Palauan 
archipelago of Micro- 
nesia, the seven-year- 
old daily "Sherman's 
Lagoon" features the 
wry adventures of an 
assortment of talkative 
underseas animals who 
"team up to battle the 
encroachment of civi- 
lization" on their re- 
mote paradise. 

The strip's name- 
sake, Sherman the 
Shark, is a dimwitted 
Great White generally 
too lazy to hunt any- 
thing larger than bags 
of fried squid puffs. 
His sea turtle sidekick, 
Fillmore, supplies the 
bookish foil. Toomey's 
cast of coral reef char- 
acters also includes a 
rocket scientist fish, a 
crab with a "Napoleon 
complex," and an 
expatriate polar bear 

who dallies in the 
warm South Pacific 

Toomey didn't 
initially plan to go pro- 
fessional with his art- 
work, despite car- 
tooning for The 
Chronicle, beginning in 
his sophomore year. 
Instead, he signed on 
with a Virginia engi- 
neering firm after 

He began as a free- 
lancer for the Alex- 
andrian Gazette, supply- 
ing two editorial car- 
toons each week at 
twenty-five dollars a 
pop. "It was really 
more of a way to build 
up a portfolio than 
anything else." 

Having to politicize 
even the most bland 
local happenings grad- 
ually took its toll on 
his interest in stinging 
editorial insight "With 
political cartoons, you 
have to pick one side 
of an argument and 
blast it with a cannon. 
A lot of times, I just 
wasn't motivated to 
make people look 
worse than they really 

Between drawing 
and a part-time engin- 
eering job, the money 
wasn't coming; he 
could hardly meet his 
rent. So in the fall of 
1989, he dropped polit- 
ical cartooning, packed 
up, and moved west to 
San Francisco. 

There he found 
more part-time work 
and settled down on a 
new project — creating 
a self-syndicated car- 
toon strip, featuring 
character-based plots 
instead of political 
satire. After several 
different submissions 
to California papers 

Toomey: Engineering a career in cartooning; below, 
his popular strip, "Sherman's Lagoon" 

received no response, 
he struck gold in May 
1991 when the Es- 
condido Times-Adiiocate 
agreed to run his daily 
"Sherman's Lagoon." 
By the time Creators 
Syndicate took notice 
and signed Toomey to 
a seven-year contract 
that fall, the strip's 
popularity was already 
beginning to "snow- 
flake," picking up two 
or three new papers 
monthly. Toomey's car- 
toon now appears in 
125 North American 
papers, like The Wash- 
ington Post, as well as 
in journals in South 
Africa, Australia, Hong 
Kong, and Singapore. 
Though he admits 
that his creative pro- 
cess keeps changing, 
Toomey usually spends 
the first three or four 
days of each week 
writing storylines. The 
actual drawing takes 
another day and a half, 

before the strips are 
sent in four-week 
batches for publica- 
tion. (Given the flexi- 
ble schedule, Toomey 
was able to squeeze in 
enough hours to earn a 
master's degree from 
Stanford University on 
the side.) 

Toomey cites the 
recent retirement of 
"Calvin and Hobbes" 
creator Bill Watterson 
as a rare windfall for 
aspiring cartoonists 
jockeying for slots in 
an extremely competi- 
tive market. "It has 
become really hard to 
grow as a comic strip 
today because strips 
just never seem to die 
anymore. Even in cases 
when the original artist 
dies, today they just 
get redrawn by other 

—Brian Henderson '98 
The website for "Sher- 
man's Lagoon" is <u>iuwj. 


nmm. irsMmmmioH, 


and works as an independent business consultant for a 

technology tirm in Fairfax, Va., where he lives. 

Jenny Douglas '92 is pursuing her Ph.D. in social 
psychology at the University of Minnesota. She and 
her husband, James Patrick Vidas '94. live in 

David C. Fuquea A.M. '92, a major in the 
Marines, is on a six-month deployment with the 22nd 
Marine Expeditionary Unit, aboard the ships of the 
VSS Kearsarge Amphibious Ready Group. 

Alayna A. Gaines '92 earned her M.S. in 
journalism at Northwestern University's Medill School 
of Journalism. 

Michael G. Grable '92, who graduated from the 
William and Mary School of Law, is working as a law 
clerk for the Hon. Craig Enoch, Supreme Court of 
Texas, in Austin. 

David Greher '92, who earned his J.D. at the 
University of Virginia, is an associate in the litigation 
department at Parcel, Mauro, Hultin and Spaanstra 
in Denver. He and his wife, Karolyn Kabir '88, 

live in Denver. 

Jason Reams Jordan '92, who earned his 
M.B.A. at the University of Virginia's Darden School, 
works for Arthur Andersen in Washington, D.C. 

Edie Legg '92, who earned her M.D. at the Uni- 
versity of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston in May, 
is a resident in urology at Oregon Health Sciences 
University. She lives in Portland. 

Emily A. Lopez '92 earned her J.D. at Pennsylvania 
State University's Dickinson School of Law. 

Jason Earl Myers '92 was promoted to manager 
with Andersen Consulting. His wife, Jennifer 
Braden Myers '92, who graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Tennesee's College of Medicine, is a resident 
in pediatrics at Vanderhilt University. They live in 
Nashville, Tenn. 

John Erik Thorsten Olsson '92, who earned his 
M.B.A. at the University of Virginia's Darden School, 
works tor Marriott International, Inc., in Bethesda, Md. 

'93, M.D. '97 is an 
intern in internal medicine ai Rrigham and Women's 
Hospital in Boston. Her husband, William Giles 
Beamer '93, completed his service as a Navy lieu- 
tenant and is an M.B.A. student at Harvard Business 
School. They live in Brookline, Mass. 

Paula Chaiken '93, who earned her M.S. at Spertus 
College, is the assistant director of annual giving at 
Northwestern University. She and her husband, Joseph 
Kraus, live in Chicago. 

Julie Cohen '93, who earned her M.B.A. at the 
University of Chicago, is an assistant brand manager at 
Procter & Gamble. She and her fiance, John A. 
"Jay" Woffington '94, who also works for P&G, 
live in Cincinnati. 

Katerina M. Lent '93, who graduated from the 
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 
was commissioned as a Na%7 lieutenant. 

P. Lissy B.S.E. '93, a Navy 1 
on a six-month deployment to the Western Pacific 
Ocean aboard the USS Nimitz. 

' Urioste '9 3 is a medical student at 
Wake Forest University's Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine. He and his wife, Kristine Novak Ph.D. 
'97, live in Winston-Salem, N.C. 

" G. Williamson '93, a Marine first 

, returned to Camp Pendleton, Calif, after a 
th deployment to Australia and Thailand. 

Craig S. 

'94, a Navy lieutenant, is on ; 




Durham's country bed an 
breakfast. Restored 1775 
plantation on four rural acres, 20 minutes to Duke. 
Written up in USA Today, Food & Wine, Mid- 
Atlantic. 106 Mason Rd„ 27712. (919) 477-8430; 
outside 919 area, (800) 528-2207. 
BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS: Luxury waterfront 
house on Beef Island, sleeps six. Pool and spectacular 
views. Great swimming and snotkeling. John 
Krampf '69, 812 W Sedgwick St., Philadelphia, PA 
19119. (215) 438-4430 (home) or (215) 963-5501 

ST JOHN: Two bedrooms, pool. Quiet elegance, 
spectacular view. (508) 668-2078. 
ST. MAARTEN: Small, private, creamy-pink villas 
on the sea. Secluded snorkeling.Tahirian gardens, 
sugar birds, and tree frogs. One, two, and three 
chilled bedrooms. Maria Licari (800) 942-6725. 




Highest standards, best locations: Mayfair, 

Belgravia, Knightsbridge, Chelsea, Holland Park, 

and Covent Garden 


Airport pick-up with each reservation 

One, two, three, four, five bedrooms available. 

$650 to $3,500 per week. 


Near Tetbury 


Located on a private estate with manor house 

Filled with history and charm 

Fully modernized to a very high standard 

Studios to five -bedroom cottages 

$650 to $1,200 per week 


The London Connection 

Mr. Thomas Moore 

Phone: (801) 393-9120 Fax: (801) 393-3024 

new Ranch Inn & Restaurant. Great weather, 
spectacular views, nearby golf, hiking, birding, and 
Tubac shopping. Good seasonal rates. Call (888) 

FRANCE, DORDOGNE: Attractive three-bed- 
room house, garden in medieval village. (513) 221- 
Four bedrooms (two master suites), three baths. 
Numerous amenities: linens, VCR, Cable, bikes, etc. 
Screenporch, panoramic views sound /ocean. 
Weekly $2,050. (910) 686-4099. 
EDISTO ISLAND, SC (featured in NY Times 
and Washington Post): Fantastic front beach house 
sleeping 13. Great spring/fall rates. Near Charleston. 
(202) 338-3877 for information, pictures. 

open water view. Key Deer Refuge, National Bird 
Sanctuary, stilt house, 3/2, screened porches, fully 
furnished, stained glass windows, swimming, diving, 
fishing, boat basin, non-smoking, starting at 
$l,900/week. (305) 665-3832. 


Luxuriously furnished all-suite hotel. 

Award-winning gardens, magnificent outdoor pool, 

fitness center, covered walking track, 

fully equipped kitchen, two temote control 

color TVs, HBO and cable, two telephones, 

free local calls, call waiting, and voice mail, 

laundry room, fax and copier service, 

uniformed security, pets permitted. 

One minute from East Campus, two minutes 

from West Campus and Duke Medical Center. 

Just streets away from many restaurants and 

Northgate Mall, fifteen minutes to RDU Airport. 

For reservations and information, 

call (919) 687-4444; fax (919) 683-1215. 


TOPSAIL BEACH, NC: Panoramic views of 
ocean/sound. Second-row, single-family home. Three 
bedrooms/bath. (800) 523-5333, extension 5372. 


near Naples, Florida, with emphasis on environment, 
wildlife, and quality development. Selling homes, 
villas, condominiums. Four golf courses, parks, 
bike paths, beach, tennis, fitness center, marina with 
Gulf access. A very special place! Contact Carol 
Wood '68, Realtor, for information and video. 
(800) 868-3020. 

Lake Lure Area 

Three Creeks — an unparalleled community. 

Only 16 three-acre homesites, none contiguous 

with another, will ever be offered within 

240 nature-filled acres. The surrounding park-like 

common land is deeded to the owners... 

to be enjoyed by all. Abundant water sources, 

prominent waterfalls, meadows, forest, swim pond, 

trails, library cabin. Protective covenants 

with architectural review. Paved roads, 

underground utilities. 

John Nelson, Owner/Broker 

241 Three Creeks Road 

Lake Lure, NC 28746 

(704) 625-4293. 


CLASS OF 1995 ALUMNA: Did you lose a gold 
bracelet in Chapel Hill? Someone found it two 
years ago. For its return, identify it by e-mailing 
ekarvazy@shs.unc .edu. 



CAROLINA and three SENIOR LIVING magazines! 

Send $10 (PckH) for all four to 

PO. Box 11968, Charlotte, NC 28220. 















buyers, renters, consumers, through Duke 

RATES: $2.50 per word, minimum 10 words. Ten 
percent discount for two or more insertions. 
DISPLAY RATES (with art or special type treat- 
ment): $150 per column inch (2 3/8" wide). 
REQUIREMENTS: All copy must be printed or 
typed; specify section (FOR SALE, etc.) in which 
ad should appear. Due to postal regulations, no 
travel arrangements or financial services allowed. 
money order (payable to Duke Magazine) to: 
Classifieds, Duke Magazine, 614 Chapel Drive, 
Durham, NC 27708-0570. 
We also accept VISA, MASTERCARD, and 
DISCOVER. No phone orders, except FAX orders 
with credit card numbers and expiration date: 
(919) 684-6022. 

DEADLINES: November 15 (January-February 
issue), January 15 (March-April issue), March 15 
(May-June issue), May 15 (July-August issue), July 
15 (September-October issue), September 15 
(November-December issue). Please specify issues 
in which ad should appear. 


six-month deployment to the Mediterranean Sea 
aboard the aircraft carrier L'SS John ¥ Kennedy. 

3avis '94 completed her first year of 
teaching secondary school geograpln at an inner-city 
school in London, England. Her Internet address is 
CDavis(5'crankcall. demon. 

Terry S. Francis M.B.A. '94 joined the Atlanta 

office of Ernst and Young as a senior manager. 

Daniel W. Koenig '94, who earned his J.D. at 
Southern Methodist University, is an associate in the 
Greensboro, N.C., law firm Adams Kleemeier Hagan 
Hannah and Fouts. 

Eric W. Law A.M. '94 is program officer at the 
Foundation for The Carolinas. He lives in Charlotte. 

William McClatchey Jr. '94 is a student at the 
Kenan-Flagler School of Business at UNC-Chapel Hill. 

M. Nicole Morrison '94, who graduated from the 
University of Texas School of Law, passed the Texas 
bar exam. 

R. Salter B.S.E. '94, a Navy lieuten- 
ant, is on a six-month deployment to the Mediterranean 
Sea with Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 141- 

Dev Sethi '94, who earned his J.D. at the University 
of Arizona's College of Law, has moved to Las Vegas 
and will begin work a! the law firm Rrocning, Oherg, 
Woods, Wilson, and Cass after taking the bar exam. 

David Swayne '94 is a medical student at Wake 
Fotest University's Bowman Gtay School of Medicine. 
He lives in Winston-Salem, N.C. 

'94, who earned her J.D. at the 
University of Virginia's law school, is a judicial clerk in 
Washington, D.C. 

James Patrick Vidas '94 is an information 
technology specialist at ReliaStar Financial. He and 
his wife, Jenny Douglas '92, live in Minneapolis. 

John A. "Jay" Woffington '94, who recently 

graduated from the Kellogg Graduate School of 
Management, is an assistant brand manager at Proctet 
&. Gamble. He and his fiancee, Julie M. 

'93, who also woiks |,,i PMi, live in Cincinn.m. 

Christopher Blackwell '95, assistant professor of 
classical and modern languages at Furman University, 
is the author of The Absence of Alexander: Harpaidus 

and the Failure of Macedonian Authority, published by 
Petet Lang Publishing of New York. 

Al Cohn '95 joined a Global Volunteets service 
program in Tanzania. 

Rachel G. Luther '95 was promoted to senior 
consultant at Emst and Young in Atlanta. 

Kendra E. Novick '95, who gtaduated from 

Northwestern University's dental school, is practicing 
dentistry with her fathet in northern Virginia. 

Julie H. Richardson J.D. 95 is an 

with the law firm Myers, Bigel, Sibley and Saj. 

Jlt)'95 is teaching English for the 
Aeon Corp. in Gifu-city, Japan. 

Maria Winkler '95 is an assistant in the promotions 
department of Penguin-Putnam, book publishers. She 
lives in New York City. 

James S. Goudie '96, a Navy ensign, completed 
the Officer Indoctrination Course. 

'96, a Navy ensign, received 
his commission as a naval officer after completing 

Officers Candidate School in Pensacola, Fla. 

H. LaVoy B.S.E. '96, a Marine second 
lieutenant, received a Letter of Appreciation while 

Aviation Logistics Squadron-13 

assigned with Ma 
in Arizona. 

Karen A. Magri J.D. '% is an associate with the 
law firm Myers, Bigel, Sibley and Sajovec in Cary, N.C. 
Thomas A. Post '96, a Navy ensign, reported 
for duty aboatd the USS Essex, whose home port is 
San Diego. 

Kathy Rust Trotter M.S.N. '96 is an adult and 

geriatric nutse practitioner with Presbyterian 
Healthcare Associate's Inpatient Medicine Team in 
Charlotte. She and her husband, Paul H. Trotter 
B.S.E. '81, live in Charlotte. 

J. Wesley Ulm '96 won more than $63,000 on the 
TV game show JEOPARDY! in June. A four-time 
winner, he qualified for the tournament of champions. 
He and his family live in Alexandria, Va. 

' J. Wyse '96, a Navy ensign, reported for 

duty aboard the guided missile cruiser L'SS Mobile Bay. 

Brian L. Feldman BSE '97, Russell W. 
Fusco 97, Matthew T. Gabay BSE '97, Eric 
H. Hanemann '97, Paul W. Kim '97, Chris- 
topher S. Malfant 97, and Jason S. Manse 

'97 were all commissioned as Navy ensigns with the 
Naval Reserves Officers Training Corps unit upon 

Ph.D. '97 is an assistant professor 
of New Testament at Luther Seminary in St. Paul, Minn. 

MARRIAGES: David M. Colborne B.S.E. '90 to 
Christine Sinkeldam on June 20...Scott Clement 
Fauver M.B.A. '90 to Tracy Leigh Smith on Aug. 
16 Cheryl Floeckher B.S.E. '90 to Allen White 

on June 7. Residence: Columbus, Ohio... Steven 
Ertel B.S.E. '91 to Shara Ruth Goldstein on Sept. 13... 
Anne Bryan Faircloth '91 to Frederick Beaujeu- 
Dufour on April 19. Residence: New York City... 
Karen Herzig '91 to Steve Apsel on May 25. 
Residence: Arlington, Va... .Suzanne Hewitt '91 to 
Ian Cohen on May 25. Residence: Seattle-Catherine 
Laskey '91 to Mark Ebel '88 on July 5. Residence: 
Denver.Timothy Richard Nugent '91 to 
Amanda C. Tuttle on Aug. 23. Residence: Chicago... 
Sally Redding '91 to Jim Hanchett on June 7 in 
Duke Chapel. Residence: Vienna, Va.... Jill Aranson 
'92 to Michael Snyder on April 5. Residence: Chicago... 
Katharine B. Bernard '92 to Phillip H. Buchanan 
on Aug. 2 3. Residence: Blacksbutg.Va.... James 
Brennan B.S.E. 92 to Shilpa Agarwal '93 on 
Aug. 30. Jenny Douglas '92 to James Patrick 

Vldas '94 on July 5. Residence: Minneapolis- 
Elizabeth Ellen Gibson '92 to Trevor Richard 
Hopkins on Sept. 6. Residence: Durham.. .David 
Greher '92 to Karolyn Kabir '88 on May 24. 
Residence: Denver.. .Andrew Siderowf M.D. '92 to 
Rachel Michelle Werner on Sept. 14.. Alexander 
Urioste '93 to Kristine Novak Ph.D. '97 on June 
7... Sara Lynn Ayres '94 to Konrad Urberg on June 
7. Residence: Fort Wayne, hi Meredith Anne 
Baish '94 to Thomas Robert Timothy Massey on 
Aug. 16. Residence: Wilmington, N.C. ..Christopher 
Guy Canonico B.S.E. '94 to Adelie Wright 
Oakley '95 on Aug. 2. Residence: Houston. ..Paula 
Chaiken '94 to Joseph Kraus in August 1996. 
Residence: Chicago.. Taryn Samantha Gordon 
'94 to Joseph Anthony Mecia '94 on Aug. 9. 
Residence: Chapel Hill.. .Molly K. Joondeph'94 
to Brad W. Rubin '94 on May 31. Residence: Palo 
Alto, Calif.. ..Karen Matsushima '94 to Gregory 
King on Aug. I (William M. McClatchey '94 to 
Donna Christine Curtis on Aug. 2. Residence: Chapel 
HilL.Andrea Roddy B.S.E. '94 to J. Scott Reider 
on Aug. li Michael Solecki '94 to Katherine 
A. Lorscheider 97 on Aug. 9. David Swayne 
'94 to Gayle Venters '94 on July 19. Residence: 
Winston-Salem.. .Astrid E. Woodward B.S.E. '94 

3ft papsi to 
intoesrt m 

Put your trust in Duke 
University by establishing a 
charitable remainder trust 
which benefits both you and 
Duke. For a minimum of 
$100,000, you can: 

* Earn 5 to 7-1/2 percent 
income on your gift 

Receive an income for life for 
you and your spouse 

Receive a charitable income 
tax deduction this year 

Transfer appreciated 
securities to your trust and 
potentially avoid capital gains 

Select a payment option that 
either pays you a fixed dollar 
amount or a fixed percentage of 
the trust assets revalued 

Support a University program 
that interests you or create a 
scholarship or other endowment 

If you want to learn how a 
charitable remainder trust can 
benefit both you and Duke 
University, call the Office of 
Planned Giving and we will 
send you a personal financial 

Please contact: 

Michael C. Sholtz, J.D., Director 

Office of Planned Giving 

Duke University 

3100 Tower Blvd. 

Suite 205 

Durham, NC 27707 

(919) 419-5070 

(919) 684-2123 

January-February 1998 35 

to Gwo-Chin Lee on June 21. Residence: Houston... 
Anjali Enjeti '95 to Brian David Sydow'95 on 
Aug. 2. Residence: Philadelphia.. Toddi A. Steel- 
man Ph.D. '96 to Joseph A. Sinsheimer '82 on 

June 21... Jennifer Wong '96 to Jamie Christenson... 
Bryan Carter Hancock '97 to Lindsay Michelle 
Mattin on July 12. Residence: Wrightsville Beach, N.C.... 
Diane Hutter'97 to Steve Wallace. Residence: 
Kernersville, N.C....Peter Ocko J.D. '97 to Hilary 
Sauters Jones on Sept. 13. 

BIRTHS: First child and son to Carlos R. Olarte 

'90 and Adrians Pallar on Sept. 2. Named Carlos 
Esteban... First child and son to David C. Quam '90 
and Laura L. Quam on March 5. Named Justin David... 
First child and son to Carolyn Gregg Hayes 
Butler '91 and Stephen Edward Butler BSE. 
'92 on March 29. Named William Hayes...First child 
and daughter to Brian C. Reed B.S.E. '91 andTonja 
M. Reed on July 1. Named Hannah Rose...First child 
and daughter to Angela Frith Antrim '93 and 
Patrick W. Antrim on July 26. Named Sarah Aislinn... 
First child and daughter to Melissa Segal '93 and 
Aaron Miller on Aug. 29. N;uik\1 Shosh.m.i Rose Segal- 
Miller.. .Daughter to Hakon Heimer M.S. '94 and 
Alden Bumstead on April 7. Named Kaia Heimer- 


Miriam Clyde Padgett Johnson '25 on Nov. 
24, 1996. She worked with her husband in the real 
estate business for 60 years, and served as district vice 
president ot the Women's Society of the United 
Methodist Church. She is survived by four children, 
including Sarah Johnson Williams '58 and 
Rebecca Ann Johnson Kistler '54; and son-in- 
law Jack Kistler 54. 

Henry Folger '29 on Sept. 18, 1995. He was the 
postmaster of Mount Airy, N.C, from 1936-1949, but 
he retired as an attorney. He is survived by two 
nephews, S. Bailey Glenn Jr. '50 and Fred 
Folger Jr. '49, LL.B. '52; and a niece. 

Charles Elmer '31 of Painesville, Ohio, on May 31. 
He was a retired public school teacher. 

Henry P. Richards '32, of Elizabethtown, Ky., on 
Nov. 30, 1996. 

Dorothy Wyvell '34, M.D. '38, of Midland, Texas. 

Thomas Williams Graves '35 of Wilson, N.C, on 
June 23. He had retired as a vice president of Imperial 
Tobacco Co. of Great Britain. He served for many 
years as a director and chairman of the board of 
Atlantic Savings and Loan Association. He is survived 
by two sons, including Thomas W. Graves Jr. '62, 
J.D. '65 and his wife Sara Thomasson Graves '65; 
and William Thompson Graves '67, J.D. '72 and 
his wife Sara Simons Graves '65; two daughters, 
including Nancy Graves Osborne '79; eight 
grandchildren, including Kathryn Graves Dod- 
son '91; a sister, Elizabeth Graves Perkinson 
'48; and a brother, John Graves '43. 

H. Hinck '37, of Sun City Center, Fla., on 
July 8. At Duke, he was a member of Kappa Sigma. 
He earned his law degree at Fordham University. A 
retired management consultant and principal with 
Kurt Salmon Associates, Inc., he was a founding 
member of the Institute of Management Consultants. 
He is survived by two sons, a daughter, a brother, two 
grandchildren, and a great-granddaughter. 
Helen Germaine Lewis Pittman '38 on March 
18. At Duke, she helped found the concert artist 
series. She is survived by a daughter, Germaine 
Pittman Ostridge '64; a son, Warren Lewis 

'71; and two grandchildren, including 
Laurie Suzanne Ostridge '97. 

Mary Pearce Budd '39 of Lansdowne, Pa., on 
Nov. 16, 1996. 

Robert Earle Campbell M.Ed. '39 of Clearwater, 
Fla., on Sept. 7, 1996, of heart failure. An educator for 
41 years, he is survived by his wife, Carrie M. 
Campbell M.Ed. '39. 

Ralph Murray Havens Ph.D. '41 on June 19, of a 
heart attack. After serving as a captain in the U.S. 
Army, he directed the reopening of Heidelberg Univer- 
sity. He was on faculty at the University of Alabama 
for 24 years, serving as chairman of the economics 
department for 14 years, while also working as an 
economist on the Marshall Plan in Paris and Washing- 
ton, D.C. He is survived hy two sons, including Harry 
S. Havens '57; two grandchildren; four step-grand- 
children; and five step-great-grandchildren. 

Lavinia Allen Spencer '42 of Carbondale, 111. 

William Paul O'Connor '43 of Long Beach, 
Calif., on June 20, 1996, of cancer. A World War II 
veteran, he was awarded a Purple Heart. He worked 
for General Telephone in California. He is survived by 
his wife, Fotine. 

Donald F. Larsen '44, of Green Bay, Wise, on 
June 5. He was a World War II veteran in the Marine 
Corps. He joined the Larsen Co. as a vegetable 
product manager and was later elected to its board 
of directors. He was a past director of the YMCA and 
was a founding member and first ptesident of the 
Heritage Hill Foundation. He is survived by his wife, 
Bette, four children, and 11 grandchildren. 

Hobart A. Schroeder B.S.E. '45 of Torrington, 
Conn., on May 6. 

Fred William Whitener'46 of Pinehurst.N.C, 
on June 24. He worked in Duke's alumni affairs office 
and was director of special events for three years. He 
had also directed the Duke Ambassadors for three 
years. He was a past director of the National Con- 
ference of Christians and Jews. He is survived by three 
daughters, four grandchildren, and two sisters. 

Benjamin Ralph Cato '48, A.M. '50 of Lake Juna- 
luska, N.C, on June 15, of cancet. He taught at the Uni- 
versity of Arizona and, for 31 years, at the College of 
William and Mary in Virginia. He is survived by his 
wife, Wilma Roberts Cato '49; his mother; a daugh- 
ter, Karen Lee Cato Doran '74; and two sons. 

Shirley Segall Kahana '49, of Tampa, Fla., on 
Aug. 3, 1996. She is survived by her husband, Lawrence. 

Alonzo L. Harman '50, B.D. '53, of Patterson 
Creek, WVa., on April 23, 1996. Before being ordained 
as an elder in the United Methodist Church, he was 
a chief petty officer in the U.S. Navy during World 
War II. He is survived by his wife, Frances, a son, two 
daughters, and six grandchildren. 

William Lynn Wilson '51 of Dover, Del., on May 
27, after a long illness. He was a retired Air Force lieu- 
tenant colonel. He is survived by his wife, I 
Blizard Wilson '50; a son; and a daughti 

A. Martin Jr. '52 of Summersville.WVa., 
on Jan. 13, 1997, of a heart attack. He and his wife, 
Margie, owned and operated a bed and breakfast in 
Summersville. He was a former employee and member 
of the board of directors of Merchants and Miners 
Bank, a regional bank examiner for the Treasury 
Department, a loan officer with Huntington National 
Bank, and executive vice president of the National 
Bank of Commerce, Charleston. He is survived by his 
wife, a son, two daughters, and five grandchildren. 

56 of St. Louis, Mo., 
Nov. 22, 1996. He was a chemist at Monsanto 

Industrial Chemical Co. for more than 30 years. In 
1974, he chaired the St. Louis section of the American 
Chemical Society. He is survived by his wife, his 
mother, two sons, and two grandchildren. 
George A. McCammon Jr. '60 of Savannah, 
Ga., on June 25, 1996. He is survived by a son, two 
daughters, his parents, and a sister. 

Martea Reed Scott '60, of Dallas, on Sept. 21, 
1996, of cancer. 

; Edward Selby '60 of St. Augustine Beach, 
Fla., on May 17, 1995, of cancer. An Army veteran, he 
was senior program administrator for Northrop/Grum- 
man. He is survived by his wife, Lee; four children; his 
father, William P. Ricks'37; his mother; a sister; 
and eight grandchildren. 

William A. Ruth B.D. '64,Th.M. '65 on June 25. 
He is survived by his wife, Robyn, and two daughters. 

Willis W. Powell III '65, on Oct. 17, 1995, of a heart 

i W. Wood M.D. 71, of Myrtle Beach, S.C. 
He is survived by his wife, Carol, a son, three daughter: 
and two sisters. 

R. Johnson Ph.D. '77 of Hillsborough, 
N.C, on July 18. A professor emeritus of economics at 
Meredith College, he was selected by his students as 
Outstanding Professor in 1996. He is survived by his 
wife, Maureen McCauley Johnson A.M. '72, 
M.B.A. '84; a son; a sister; and a brother. 
Divinity Professor Proctor 
Samuel Proctor, professor of the practice of Christian 
ministry from 1993 to 1996, died of a heart attack May 
22 while on the lecture circuit. In 1964, he was the 
first African-American to preach in Duke Chapel. 

He earned his B.A. at Virginia Union University, his 
B.D. at Crozer Theological Seminary, and hisTh.D. at 
Boston University. At the invitation of the Kennedy 
administration, Proctor led the first Peace Corps team 
to Nigeria, and returned to the United States to serve 
as the Peace Corps' associate director. 

He held administrative positions with the Univer- 
sity ofWisconsin at Madison, the National Council of 
Churches, the Office of Economic Opportunity, and 
the Institute for Services to Education. He was a 
professor at United Theological Seminary and at the 
theology schools at Boston University and Virginia 
Union University. He was a visiting professor at 
Vanderbilt University and, in 1990, the Lyman Beecher 
lecturer at Yale Divinity School. 

Proctor was honored with the Outstanding Alumnus 
Award from Boston University, the Distinguished 
Service Award from the State University of New York 
at Platsburg, the Rutgers Medal for Distinguished 
Service, and thirty-eight honorary degrees. 

Alumnae Association President Ward 

The president of the Woman's College alumnae 
association in 1939, Courtney Sharpe Ward '31 

died August 26 of cancer. 

Born in Lumberton, North Carolina, she chaired 
the Social Standards Commitee while at Duke and 
helped organize the first Co-Ed Ball. After graduating, 
she began working with her father, editor and publisher 
of The Robesonian, as a reporter and then a columnist. 
She remained in journalism for fifty years, retiring in 
1982. She and her brothers sold the paper to Park 

She served two terms on the Alumnae Council of 
the Woman's College and became its president in 1939. 

A pacifist, she served several terms as president of 
the North Carolian Peace Action Committee, which 
she helped found in the 1930s. 

She is survived by a daughter, Ann Courtney 
Ward Little '63; a son; and three grandchildren, 
including Lisa Nicole Little '89 and Laura 
Little Thorne '92. 





They sprawl on the grass 
and talk about saving the 
world. People lean for- 
ward, listening intently, 
their brows knitted in 
concentration. No one 
gets cut off, but no one 
hesitates to test an as- 
sumption, challenge a conclusion. And over 
and over again they want to know: Are we 
asking the right question? 

Forget what you're thinking. This is a 
A reunion? 

Like no other. On a balmy September week- 
end, some 150 former and current students of 
Professor Thomas McCollough gather from 
around the country to celebrate his retirement 
from the religion department, and the way his 
teaching of practical ethics changed their 



But the McCollough Reunion Ethics Sympo- 
sium is no picnic: Attendees are expected to 
submit a paper, attend a lecture, join small- 
group discussions for the better part of a day, 
and attend a final class on Saturday night. 

These alumni, representing a thirty-five-year 
chunk of Duke's history, are here to work. On 
Friday evening we are to hear a talk from 
Douglas Hicks M.Div. '93, now a doctoral can- 
didate at Harvard, about the misuse of econo- 
mic imagery to define our relationship to time. 

I find myself sitting next to Katie Hender- 
son '99, a pre-med majoring in biological an- 
thropology and a student in McCollough's 
current (and last) class, "Ethical Issues, Social 
Change, and Public Policy." Will she be writ- 
ing a paper on this talk? "No," she says without 
irony, "I'm just here to be enlightened." 

And we turn to the speaker. Hicks advocates 
"down-shifting": not keeping up with the Joneses 

January- February 

but "letting the Joneses go to the mall 
without us." As if on cue, as the speaker 
deplores the sacrifices we often make in 
order to work harder and longer, some- 
one's pager starts beeping. 

The someone turns out to be Kim- 
berly Blackwell '89, a physician and fel- 
low in hematology/oncology at Duke, 
who's on call at the VA hospital to- 
night. One of the conference organiz- 
ers, Blackwell had an undergraduate 
ethics education that later tempered 
her medical school experience. As she 
moved into a specialty in cancer medi- 
cine, she says, she began reffaming the 
questions she had been taught to ask 
— "What is disease?" Instead she be- 
gan to ask herself, "How do I help the 
patient cope with their disease?" and 
even "How does this patient want to 
die?" For Blackwell, these were pro- 
foundly ethical questions. 

"Very quickly," she concludes,"my so- 
called 'war' on cancer was finished." 
And her vocation had begun. 

Saturday begins at 8:30 a.m. 
with the reading of more es- 
says. Several attendees recall 
the shock of awakening to The Ethical 
Question: "My first course in ethics — 
which I assumed would be a glorious 
intellectual game — was a kick in the 
ass," wrote Jeff Georgi 71, now a clini- 
cal associate in Duke Medical Center's 
department of psychiatry and behav- 
ioral sciences. "I owe [Professor McCol- 
lough] many sleepless nights, long peri- 
ods of confusion and ambivalence, and 
the profound satisfaction of engaging 
an issue honestly." 

Georgi gives one example, a hard one. A 
few years after helping launch an exciting sub- 
stance-abuse treatment program for mothers 
addicted to cocaine, the ethical question arose 
about his own position: "Was it ethical, given 
the racial and gender imbalances of power in 
our culture, for a white, middle-class male to 
be the primary clinical and administrative di- 
rector of a woman's program administering 
services to black women caged not only by 
their poverty but by their addiction?" 

No, he decided, it wasn't. And with great 
sadness, he did what he had to do: He stepped 
down as director. 

McCollough "has been, in all candor," says 
Keith Harary 75, "personally responsible... for 
my having made some of the most painful 
decisions of my life." As a researcher in the 
politically and emotionally charged field of 
parapsychology, Harary found his name being 
used in two research reports whose underly- 
ing data had been cooked — crediting him 
with achieving certain results he knew were 






being misrepresented. The researchers who 
were making those claims wanted definitive 
results — if not scientific proof of the validity 
of parapsychological phenomena, then scien- 
tific endorsement to impress both their col- 
leagues and those who provided the money 
for the research. 

Harary wanted only the truth. "If you tor- 
ture the data to make it confess, you will get 
a false confession," he says simply, "and that 
won't lead you to the truth." His fellow re- 
searchers became alarmed when he insisted 
on exposing the deception — and even many 
of those who had not been involved tried to 
persuade him to sweep the matter under the 
rug to protect the field's public image, or face 
being ostracized if he objected. They cornered 
him and demanded to know why he was 
being so stubborn. 

"Because I'm responsible for what I know," 
he replied. The idea had been so basic to stu- 
dents in his ethics course that Harary was 
shocked to discover it could not be taken for 
granted in the wider world. While at Duke, he 

notes, "making difficult choices based 
not upon expediency but upon our 
own personal relationship to what we 
know to be true became an absolutely 
inescapable part of our lives. If I lie 
about something I know, my life 
becomes meaningless." 
Seems melodramatic. 
"Listen," he says, "science itself is an 
ethic, a way of looking. I'm going to 
observe this and try not to fool myself 
or you. Adding anything on to that is 
crazy. If you approach science only as 
a career and not as an ethic, you're not 
a scientist. God knows, it's utterly 
tempting. The money's there. All the 
rewards for producing certain results, 
for going along with the cause. But 
science isn't just a business: It's a re- 
sponsibility. In my particular case, al- 
lowing myself to be used in that way 
would have entailed abandoning all 
that I knew to be true and good and 
right, based upon my own lifelong per- 
sonal experience. What I did not know 
was how agonizing it would be to have 
to challenge a whole community." 

But after Harary decided to quit, 
thinking he'd reached the end of his 
scientific and research career because 
he had refused to play the game, oth- 
ers who had been watching in the 
mainstream community of scientists 
approached him. He had credibility, 
I they said. There was still room for an 
I honest man. Could they cooperate with 
him in future research? The main- 
stream science -journalism community 
also supported his position, and 
Harary was asked to report on para- 
psychology and other controversial fields for 
Omni magazine. 

Harary now works as research director of 
the Institute for Advanced Psychology in Ti- 
buron, California; he continues to serve as 
Omni's editor-at-large. He shakes his head. 
"Finding a balance between community and 
your own integrity is hell on Earth." 

Ethical reflection consists, then," writes 
McCollough in The Moral Imagination 
and Public Life: Raising the Ethical Ques- 
tion,' "not of analysis and application of princi- 
ples derived from historical texts, but of critical 
analysis of what we say, what we do, what we 
are. To state the ethical question as What is 
my personal relation to what I knowl is to relate 
knowledge to its human, historical context and 
to assume responsibility for knowledge within 
that setting.... It leads me to press the moral 
question beyond 'What ought I to do in this 
situation?' to 'What are my deepest intima- 
tions of what it is to live a well-lived life? 
What do I know about what it means to be 


human that would point me in the right 
direction here and now?' " 

"The lesson," repeats Moe Sandstead '64, "is 
not in an answer but in the question. What in 
fact is the right question when wrestling with 
an ethical decision?" 

The attempt to formulate the right ques- 
tions led Sandstead first into law school and a 
private firm — "I thought it was a profession 
of public service and ethical decision making, 
a savior of the poor and downtrodden. I was 
naive." But in 1983, he was called into juris- 
prudence, where he found his niche, working 
hard and loving it ever since. Today Sand- 
stead is a respected District Court judge in 
the 20th Judicial Circuit of Boulder, Colo- 
rado, where, he admits sheepishly, he often 
sits up at night reading probation reports. "I'm 
no longer attempting to 'save the world' each 
day," he says. "But I do take satisfaction in 
managing a fair process that, whatever its lim- 
itations, is better than other last-ditch efforts 
at conflict resolution." 

Like many at this conference, Sandstead's 
self-effacing style belies the critical impact of 
his work. A Colorado attorney who has ap- 
peared often in Judge Sandstead's court re- 
ports, "One of the things I like best about him 
is the sensitivity he brings to bear on family 
law. For instance, we sometimes have to deal 
with what's called a 'removal,' meaning that a 

parent is leaving the state for good after a 
divorce, taking the kids. They're going to grow 
up without one parent, whom they may never 
see again. Time and again, I've watched Judge 
Sandstead agonize over these cases because 
he knows the repercussions his decision is 
going to have on the children. It's definitely 
hard on him — but good for society to have a 
judge of that caliber making such crucial de- 
cisions. He never, ever, trivializes the cases 
that are in front of him." 

Like Sandstead, physician Meg Word-Sims 
79 flinches at talk of heroism. A zoology 
major, she found that one of her preoccupa- 
tions during college was fighting against the 
highway department when it pushed through 
a plan to build roads obliterating poor neigh- 
borhoods in Durham. Today she practices in- 
ternal medicine for an impoverished, under- 
served, rural population in mountainous Madi- 
son County, North Carolina. "I don't think 
about saving the world anymore," Word-Sims 
says with a smile. "I'm just a dirt doctor." 

Why does she do what she does? 

"You can't lose your passion or you lose 
your vision," she tells her discussion group. "We 
have to call on the common good and sacri- 
fice some of our self-interest, or it ain't gonna 

Psychology major Betsy Taylor 76 nods in 
agreement. Taylor is executive director of the 

Merck Family Fund, a private foundation es- 
tablished by grandchildren of the pharmaceu- 
tical giant. Her latest passion is an effort to 
look at how Western lifestyle choices can un- 
dermine both our spirit and our environment. 
In an age when watching TV and shopping 
are our main recreations, Taylor challenges the 
idea that everything is and should be about 
The Market. Enter the Center for a New 
American Dream, on whose board of direc- 
tors she sits; the center fosters critical discus- 
sion about the good life, and promotes new 
consumption patterns and sustainable prac- 
tices to ensure a healthy planet. 

Returning to Duke for the first time in 
twenty years was easy, Taylor says: She knew 
that those attending such a symposium were 
here not to party, not to reminisce, but "to get 
good work done." 

Work they did. Many left renewed, inspired 
by one another's courage and compassion, 
with rekindled enthusiasm for the question- 
ing life. And if they didn't save the world that 
long fall weekend, maybe it's because they'd 
been saving it all along. 

Baerman M.B.A. '90, a Buddhist, oboist, and busi- 
nessman, lives in Durham. His e-mail address is Inquiries about ongoing 
efforts to honor Tom McCollough can be directed 
to Fred Bonner 79 at fbonn2000@ ad. com. 

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News. Views & Sports 

January-February 1998 39 

It G A 



andscape architect 
Ellen Biddle Shipman, 
who designed the Sarah 
E Duke Gardens as 
well as 650 private and 
public gardens during her 
career, is being recognized 
twice this spring on 
campus. A weekend symposium, "Gardens 
Past and Present: the Legacy of Ellen 
Biddle Shipman," will be held March 27-29; 
it's sponsored by the Duke Gardens and 
the Duke Alumni Association. The event 
coincides with the opening of the traveling 
exhibit, "The Gardens of Ellen Biddle 
Shipman," at the Duke University Museum 
of Art on March 27 through May 24. 

From 1914 to 1946, Shipman designed 
the private gardens for the homes of Fords, 
Astors, du Ponts, and others known in 
industry or as patrons of the arts. In 1936, 
she was commissioned by Mary Duke 
Biddle, a distant relation by marriage, to 
revamp a flooded iris garden at Duke that 
was originally conceived by Shipman's 
friend Frederick M. Hanes. On April 21, 
1939, the terraces of Duke Gardens were 
dedicated by Biddle in memory of her 
mother, Sarah R Duke, wife of Benjamin 
N. Duke, one of the university's founders. 

Shipman's design for this public space 
reflected the look and feel of the private 
gardens for which she had long been 
praised as the "dean of American women 
landscape architects." Her seven curved 
terraces, replete with Japanese cherries, 
crabapples, and other lush shrubs, led to 
the wisteria-covered pergola that is the 
gardens' familiar focal point and a hallmark 
in Shipman design. 



Opposite, clockwise from top: Shipman m 
her Beekman Place office, New York City, 
during the 1920s; Halfred Farms, the Windsor 
White estate in Chagrin Falls, Ohio; 
Graliampton, 1917, the Henry Croft estate 
in Greenwich, Connecticut; dovecote at 
Rynwood, the Samuel A. Salvage estate in 
Glen Head, NewYork, 1926 

January -February 






^SIPbHB^^^ — ^^^^MHHBBP 

Below: a 1940s vista, in the 

cottage-garden style; right, 

a recent winter's dusting defines 

the "bones" of Shipman's design 

^"^^^f— ^ 


For symposium information, contact 

Deborah Weiss Fowlkes 78, director 

of Alumni Lifelong Education, at 

(800) 367-3853, (919) 684- 3046, 

or deborah.fowlkes(« The 

Duke Gardens' website is dukegardens. 


view, above, of the site's 
steps, fountains, and 
strata of plantings; 
from the drawing board, 
left, to spring's splendid 
culmination, top 

January-February 1998 43 



Long before she became re- 
search professor of Women's 
Studies and African and 
African American Studies 
at Duke in 1996, Paula Gid- 
dings wrote the ground- 
breaking volume When and 
Where I Enter: The Impact of 
BlackWomen on Race and Sex in America. First 
published in 1984, it is still a prime source 
book worldwide in a range of cultural-studies 
curricula. Few texts so boldly and accessibly 
delve into the difficult relationships among 
race, class, and gender as status markers in 
America. And perhaps just as significantly, few 
voices in the academy today have traversed the 
route taken by Paula Giddings. 

She began her professional career as a word- 
smith, first as an associate editor for Howard 
University Press, then as Paris bureau chief for 
Encore American & Worldwide News, covering 
Europe and Africa. Later, she served as a con- 
tributing and book review editor for Essence 
magazine. Giddings never intended to be a 
scholar, professing a long-held mistrust of large 
institutions. Rather, her research and writing 
have always been driven by a profound per- 
sonal curiosity born of her own experience as 
a middle -class, black, American female living 
in the second half of the twentieth century. 

The galvanizing moment that sparked her 
journey came in 1961. Giddings was thirteen 
years old, living in Yonkers, New York, in the 
predominantly white neighborhood where she 
was reared. "And suddenly across the TV screen 
came something called the Freedom Rides," 
Giddings, now forty-nine, remembers. "It was 
such an incredible thing to see. I was very 
struck by the young people who were keeping 
the whole movement going, even when oth- 
ers wanted to stop because of the violence 
that had occurred." Giddings leans back in 
her chair, looks up to the ceiling in her East 
Duke Building office, and shakes her head. "I 
can intellectualize it now, but as a young per- 
son I remember thinking, Where does the 
courage come from? Why would people be 
willing to die for something like this? " 

On the negative side, Giddings was also 
curious about the wellspring of such hatred 



from civil rights opponents. "I had always writ- 
ten poetry as a young person," she says, "but 
after that moment I wanted to write narra- 
tive, because I wanted to explain this to peo- 
ple and to figure out for myself what it was all 
about. It seemed like a whole new world of 
questions opened up to me." At school the 
next day, Giddings found to her dismay that it 
was as if nothing had happened. When she 
brought up what she'd seen on TV, there was 
scarcely any reaction from her mostly white 
classmates and teachers. "Of course, there really 
wasn't even a language back then to talk 
about such things. And I began to wonder, am 
1 crazy 1 . I felt like my world had turned upside 
down, and nobody else was even very con- 
cerned about it, not even the teachers. I guess 
right then my mistrust of institutions got 
started." She laughs. 

Finding the language to explore the histor- 
ical origins of racial and gender inequality in 

the United States would come later, but, fortu- 
nately, as a teenager Giddings did have another 
place beyond school where she could talk about 
what she had witnessed on television. Her 
family understood. Her grandfather, Arthur T. 
Giddings, was Yonkers' assistant city engineer 
and the first black to serve on the local board 
of education. Giddings' father launched the 
Yonkers chapter of CORE, the Congress of Ra- 
cial Equality. Meanwhile, two uncles were in- 
volved behind the scenes in a number of local 
political campaigns. "Our house was full of 
books on politics," she explains. 

On her mother's side of the family, there 
was an important historical context for Gid- 
dings' emerging curiosity about the courage 
that drives people forward in the face of life- 
threatening resistance. Her great-great grand- 
mother had been born a slave but lived long 
enough to achieve her freedom. Giddings' 
grandmother left the South and, with savings 
from domestic work, sent Paula's mother to 
college. In When and Where I Enter, Giddings 
addresses black women in general but refers 
to her own mother, Virginia Giddings, as well 
when she writes: "An indomitable belief in the 
continuing progress of each succeeding gen- 
eration was, like a brightly colored thread, 
woven through the record of our experience." 

Leaving Yonkers after high school, Giddings 
took up her part of the family thread at 
Howard University in Washington, DC. Her 
newfound interest in racial identity had con- 
vinced her that she wanted to attend a his- 
torically black school. At Howard she took 
her first courses in black literature and studied 
with the distinguished literary critic Arthur R 
Davis. Though the school's administration 
was "pretty conservative," Giddings says she 
often had the chance to hear various move- 
ment leaders speak on campus. An active 
chapter of the Student Nonviolent Co- 
ordinating Committee (SNCC) helped gen- 
erate many lively debates and discussions. 
This was heady stuff in the years 1965 to 1969. 
While a new wave of feminism was also on 
the rise, Giddings admits that it was not until 
later — when the schism developed between 
blacks and whites in the women's movement — 
that the issue of gender came alive for her. 


With B.A. in hand, she left Washington for 
New York City, where she and several girl- 
friends from Howard shared an apartment, 
working by day as secretaries for Random 
House. Their entry-level jobs were not with- 
out perks, however. The not-yet-Nobel-laureate 
Toni Morrison, then a Random House editor, 
needed some help typing a manuscript. "I can't 
pay you all anything," Morrison told Giddings 
and her roommates, "but when you finish, I'll 
come over to your apartment and make you 
the best carrot cake you ever ate." The manu- 
script turned out to be Morrison's first novel, 
The Bluest Eye, and the carrot cake "was defi- 
nitely the best I ever had," Giddings says. 

In the early Seventies, Giddings wrote es- 
says on black literature, published some poet- 
ry, and worked for a time as an acquisitions 
editor for Howard University Press. Then came 
the invitation to serve as associate editor and 
Paris bureau chief for Encore American & 
Worldwide News. Giddings seized the oppor- 
tunity to examine first-hand the origins of 
European culture while also making several 
trips to Africa to report on political develop- 
ments there. Leopold Sengor, poet and first 
president of Senegal after the country de- 
clared its independence from France, im- 
pressed her, as did the late president of the 
Pan African Congress, Robert Sobukwe, who 
was then still under close surveillance for his 
activities. Giddings worried for his safety 
when he defied a scheduled parole appoint- 
ment in order to finish his interview session 
with her. She attended parties where citizens 
risked their lives by simply playing the banned 
recordings of Miriam Makeba and Harry 
Belafonte. Under apartheid in South Africa, 
says Giddings, "People left their houses to go 
to work every day and they never knew what 
might happen to them. Being able to tran- 
scend one's fears — now that is real freedom." 

In all her journalistic travels, however, only 
once did she find herself in fear of her per- 
sonal safety. At the end of a week's stay in 
Uganda, sitting with dictator Idi Amin for her 
final interview session, "He asked me if I would 
stay in the country and help him identify CIA 
agents working there. I thought, Okay, when is 
the next plane out of here?" 

Back in the States in the early Eighties, 
Giddings got involved in a project at Bene- 
dict College in South Carolina that sought to 
produce a number of volumes about the con- 
tributions of African- American women across 
various fields. For her part, Giddings wrote 
about black women in the arts and in civil 
rights. "It was then that I began to think 
about what was and was not being written 
about black women's contributions to the cul- 
ture, and what I thought needed to be talked 
about. We were just beginning to document 
the history and had not really begun to ask 
questions from an analytical perspective." The 

realization was another galvanizing moment. 

She was now ready to tackle the book that 
all of her varied experiences had been leading 
her toward. She began her research, carefully 
tracing the emergence of African-American 
women as a social and political force in the 
antebellum, abolitionist movement. She ex- 
amined how their efforts would give ground- 
ing to the Southern anti-lynching and inter- 
racial movements at the turn of the century, 
and later find expression in the civil rights 
and feminist movements. 

Thanks to her years as an editor and jour- 
nalist, Giddings was able to write When and 
Where I Enter with both the authority of a 
scholar and the artistic skill of a seasoned 
writer of popular prose. Keeping the language 
accessible, she allows the drama of her subjects' 















lives to convey her thesis. She concludes that 
the black woman has provided "the link be- 
tween the two most significant social reform 
movements in America," and that "the progress 
of neither race nor womanhood can proceed 
without her." 

Before Giddings' work, black women's role 
in the anti-lynching and suffrage movements 
had rarely been written about. Neither had 
much attention been given to the pivotal or- 
ganizing role of the female majority in black 
churches throughout the South — women 
who worked diligently behind the scenes in 
voter-registration drives and in pressuring 
their male pastors to take up the cause of civil 
rights in the 1960s. As Giddings told a re- 
porter for the Raleigh News & Observer, 
"Black history has always been seen in terms 
of men's history. Primarily, black history 
redeems black manhood, so women's roles 
become secondary and overlooked." 

"Paula Giddings' work reminds us that it is 
often a historical act to write history," says Eliza- 
beth Kamarck Minnich, professor of philosophy 
and women's studies at the Union Institute 
and the keynote speaker at a symposium on 
diversity held at Duke last spring. "She has 
made history by retrieving the stories of black 
women previously unrecorded in the classical 
texts. In this way, Giddings' work demonstrates 
the degree to which scholars not only note 
long-held truths, but may establish new truths 
long obscured by the dominant culture. Gid- 
dings' work adds a strand to the history of this 
country, which has consequences for all of us. 
She is both joining the tradition and changing 
it. In this way, her scholarship is a political act." 

Karla F. C. Holloway, the William R. Kenan 
Jr. Professor of English and African American 
Literature who chairs Duke's program in Af- 
rican and African American Studies, charac- 
terizes Giddings' work an "act of citizenship, of 
participation in American democracy. Paula's 
scholarship has rescued a part of black wom- 
en's history and placed it in the larger matrix 
of the United States' cultural history." 

In highlighting the role of African-Ameri- 
can women, Giddings' book was cited by The 
New York Times Book Review as "a jarringly 
fresh interpretation." It also became a Book of 
the Month Club alternate selection, was widely 
reviewed, and has been translated into Japan- 
ese and Dutch. She soon found herself in de- 
mand as an adviser in the production of a 
variety of documentary films and as an inter- 
view subject herself on such programs as 
NPR's All Things Considered, PBS's Frontline, 
and NBC's Today Show. It was at this juncture 
in her career that she was invited into the 
academy to teach and continue her research, 
first at Spelman College, then as the chair for 
Women's Studies at Rutgers' Douglass College, 
and later at Princeton University. Following 
fellowships from the John Simon Guggenheim 
Foundation and the National Humanities 
Center in Research Triangle Park, Giddings 
was invited to join the Duke faculty in 1996. 

"It is a basic feminist proposition that know- 
ledge can be derived not only by scholarship 
but by alternate routes of experience," says 
Jean O'Barr, director of Women's Studies at 
Duke. "That Paula Giddings — working ini- 
tially outside of the academy and without a 
Ph.D. — has written books to answer the 
questions she has had is representative of one 
of the means by which women's studies first 
emerged as a field. We were not organized by 
books, but by questions left unanswered." 

Giddings has answered her questions in the 
public domain, in books both academic and 
accessible to audiences beyond the academy, 
and has thus joined a distinguished and grow- 
ing group of black intellectuals known for 
their very public scholarship. Notable among 
this group is Henry Louis Gates Jr. (formerly 

January - February 


at Duke and now at Harvard); bell hooks, 
Distinguished Professor of English at City 
College of New York; and Harvard ethicist 
Cornel West — all of whom have used their 
own lives and particular cultural experiences 
to help define and shape their academic pur- 
suits. Speculating about why this particular 
group of black intellectuals, including Gid- 
dings, has recently emerged with such a high 
profile, Duke's Karla Holloway says, "This 
scholarship has been going on for a long, long 
time, going back to Frederick Douglass and 
W.E.B. DuBois, for example. The difference in 
this moment is the attention that comes to 

racialized matters in the media." Holloway 
says she is not particularly fond of the term 
"public intellectual," suggesting that it is "just 
a quick way to label media favorites and does 
not adequately reflect the importance and 
depth of the work being done." 

Women's Studies' Jean O'Barr suggests that 
Giddings' evolving range of subject matter in 
her writing also mirrors the development of 
women's studies as a discipline. The first step 
in feminist scholarship was the recovery of lost 
women in history; When and Where 1 Enter is 
a prime example. Giddings' 1988 sequel In 
Search of Sisterhood: Delta Sigma Theta and the 

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Challenge of the Black Sorority Movement rep- 
resents the second phase of women's studies' 
development as a discipline — the study of 
women in community. And her third book, a 
biography of anti-lynching crusader Ida B. 
Wells, still in progress, "leads us," says O'Barr, 
"back to the individual, locating Ida Wells in 
her community and explaining how that con- 
text enabled her to do what she did. We can't 
understand individual actors in history with- 
out understanding the structures they worked 
in and around." 

In this most recent work, Giddings has not 
only aligned herself with the resurgent popu- 
larity of biography and memoir as narrative 
form, but has also challenged herself as a writ- 
er in a profoundly different medium. As she 
puts it, "Biography requires more writing skill 
than anything I've ever done before. You must 
have the novelist's ability to make someone 
come alive. At the same time, to make that 
life more coherent, you must also understand 
who that individual was in the culture of her 
time. I've had to learn how to write biography 
by doing it with a variety of strategies. I go 
back and forth. It's hard to know when to let 
go, when to stop the pursuit of a single detail 
that may take weeks to uncover and yet may 
only end up in a single sentence." 

Giddings' research on Ida B. Wells has car- 
ried her to dusty little courthouses in Missis- 
sippi and to Memphis, Tennessee, where Wells, 
only five feet in stature and often alone in her 
outspokenness, took on the issue of lynching 
through Memphis' black newspaper, Free 
Speech. Her first editorials encouraged black 
Memphians to flee the city following the 
lynchings of three black grocery store owners 
in 1892. Later, Wells took a more aggressive 
stance, arguing that "a Winchester rifle should 
have a place of honor in every [black] home. 
When the White man.. .knows he runs as 
great a risk of biting the dust every time his 
Afro -American victim does, he will have 
greater respect for Afro-American life." These 
remarkably bold words from Wells, incorpo- 
rated into the first chapter in When andWhere 
1 Enter, suggest that Giddings has come full 
circle in her scholarship, now returning to the 
woman whose dramatic story launched the 
first few pages of her first book. 

"I guess I am just drawn to courage," says 
Giddings. It's the same trait she first saw in 
the Freedom Riders and encountered repeat- 
edly in Africa among the challengers of apar- 
theid. "In my life I have been fortunate enough 
never to have been up against a lot of big in- 
stitutions that could wipe you out, never had 
to make daily decisions requiring bravery." For 
these reasons, she says she has shied away 
from writing about the particulars of her own 
story. But she will quickly claim "that doing the 
right thing, no matter what it takes or what 
the consequences, can make the difference 


between those people who have a sparkle in 
their eyes and those whose eyes are dead." 

Bringing this perspective to the Duke class- 
room, she says, has been a great pleasure for 
her, and a challenge for her students. Her spe- 
cial-topics seminars focus on contemporary 
events, using newspapers and magazines as texts 
to analyze race, class, and gender issues as they 
find expression in the media. Her courses reg- 
ularly draw students from the University of 
North Carolina, North Carolina State Uni- 
versity, and North Carolina Central Univer- 
sity. Often the white students in her classes 
have found themselves — some for the first time 
in their lives — in the minority. Says Giddings, 
"One student told me last semester that she 
had never really felt white before, nor felt the 
burden of her race until she sat in that class." 

Giddings says she's found that her students 
"seem to have a greater sense of angst and are 
engaged in a search for meaning that is 
stronger than what I saw in my first years of 
teaching. Students these days seem to be 
searching, not with a sense of adventure and 
joy, but burdened by trepidation and cynicism 
about the world around them." She attributes 
this condition to the "anti-intellectual and ahis- 
torical, market-driven environment of the 

Upon coming to campus, she was surprised 
by what she characterizes as a lack of sophis- 
tication about race and racial issues at Duke. 
"I think this is a paradigm from a period past, 
perhaps the legacy of the Souths binary ideas 
about black and white, which have not been 
mediated until recently by the presence of 
other races and cultures, by literature, new 
ideas, and the growing body of new scholar- 
ship around race." But Giddings has already 
seen a change, even in her short time at 
Duke. "I am very happy to see race becoming 
more prominent as an issue among black and 
white faculty and students alike. And I have 
been impressed with President Keohane's di- 
rect approach. Her convocation speech to 
this year's freshman class was courageous." 

In September, Keohane told incoming stu- 
dents about a campus incident last spring, in 
which an African-American male student was 
improperly arrested by campus police; he had 
been mistakenly identified as a burglar. She 
also frankly noted that Duke had been ranked 
ninth worst among universities for interaction 
among students of different backgrounds, ac- 
cording to a recent national survey of 56,000 
students published by the Princeton Review. 
Keohane promised university-wide action to 
remedy this climate and charged incoming 
students with helping to solve the problem 

"I am optimistic," says Giddings, "that at 
Duke we will be able to go beyond simply 
holding more forums on race relations, which 
usually end up as conversations only between 

liberal whites and blacks. We need to see the 
dialogue transformed into meaningful actions, 
such as the hiring of more black faculty and 
the infusion of race and gender issues into the 
main curriculum, which is an issue being con- 
sidered on campus right now." 

She cites the appointment of Duke history 
professor emeritus John Hope Franklin as chair 
of a Clinton administration task force de- 
signed to tackle the problem of healing old 
wounds across racial divides. "We face the 
same challenge as Dr. Franklin's group. We 
need to prioritize and organize the issues at 
Duke, not just issue another report," she says. 

"There will be turmoil. And we need more 
space for black students to meet and talk 
about their concerns. The good news about 
Duke is, we are moving toward some real 
structural changes. After all, this is the place 
where, as young people, our passions begin. 
Higher education must continue to be a vital 
force for community change. I wouldn't be 
here if I didn't believe that." 

Enbanks '76 is assistant director of the Office of 
Continuing Education and Summer Session at 
Duke and chair of the North Carolina Humani- 
ties Council. 

Help Build the Center for Duke Gardens 

• Visitor reception/orientation space • Special events hall 

• Classrooms for children and adults • Exhibition and interpretive space 

• Outdoor classroom • Volunteers' work space 

• Teaching greenhouse • Tearoom 

• Public horticultural library • All the Gardens' horticultural services 

Duke Gardens is the only public garden of its caliber 
in the country that has no public indoor space. 
Building the Center and doing the necessary landscaping and parking will 
cost $4.7 million. We have $2.7 million and need $2 million more. (We 
already have exceeded a separate endowment goal by $1 million.) All 
donors of $5,000 or more will be recognized on an honor roll in the Center, 
and there are numerous naming opportunities in a broad range of prices. 


ow is the time to capitalize on the investment that 
the Gardens represents and to make it a powerful 
force in education and public involvement." 
-Nannerl 0. Keohane, President of Duke University 

To contribute or for additional information, call (919) 402-0156 or 
write Jean E. Can, Box 90626, Duke University, Durham NC 27708-0626 

January -February 1998 47 


i from page i9 

fiscal constraints mandate a think-small agenda. 
Yet a true visionary, according to Wilson, breaks 
through the constraints. "Theodore Roosevelt 
created opportunities for greatness or perceived 
greatness, certainly with the Panama Canal. 
We stole it, but we stole it in a way that con- 
tributed to the image of a robust America." 

Often, says Wilson, heroes out of the past 
weren't heroes in their times. "Washington was 
hated when he left office; he was a Federalist, 
and he was guided very strongly by Alexander 
Hamilton, just as you're beginning to see the 
movement of the 'common man.' Lincoln was 
widely disliked; there was a memo in which 
he advised his Cabinet to cooperate with a 
presumed McClellan administration. He was 
hurt by the perception that the war was drag- 
ging on and on and that the North, which 
had been superior in so many things, should 








have been able to bring it to a successful con- 
clusion. And basically he was a Whig who was 
seen as representing business interests." 

Harry Truman also left office as a much- 
despised figure, with a 31 percent popularity 
rating. But we see, or invent, historical heroes 
to serve current needs. Now, Wilson notes,"We 
are having this love affair with Truman. Why? 

Because he represents virtues that we hunger 
for. He was a man who was decisive, a man of 
character. He was honest, and he took respon- 
sibility for his actions." Truman the indepen- 
dent thinker grows into heroic proportions as 
today's poll-propelled, self-serving politicians 
shrink in public esteem. 

We may still need our heroes, and we can 
find them if we look hard enough. Wei Jing- 
sheng spent eighteen years in prison challeng- 
ing Chinese authoritarian rule. As The NewYork 
Times reported, he turned down the repeated 
urgings of family members to keep his head 
down and stay out of trouble. "Wei Jingsheng 
was a natural-born leader," a fellow activist told 
the newspaper. "The desire and impulse to 
accomplish great things burns in his veins." 

Of one knows if this hero of free- 
dom can still be a hero as a free man, exiled to 
the United States in November. An age of in- 
stant image -making helps create the heroic 
Chinese dissident. Then it forgets him. ■ 

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Cameron addition 

The Doris Duke Charitable 
Foundation announced a 
$1.7-million grant to endow 
a chair in conservation ecology at 
Duke's Nicholas School of the 
Environment and a $1.2-million 
program to create environmental 
fellowships at Duke, the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, and Yale Uni- 

The awards are part of $18.6 
million in grants to advance the 
causes of environmental conserva- 
tion, medical research, and the 
performing arts. The grants are the 
first from the $1.25-billion founda- 
tion, which was founded earlier 
this year. 

The $1.7-million grant will establish the 
Doris Duke Chair in Conservation Ecology at 
the Nicholas School. The foundation also es- 
tablished a three-year, $1.2-million pilot pro- 
gram to fund Doris Duke environmental and 
natural resource fellowships at Nicholas, the 
University of Michigan's School of Natural 
Resources and the Environment, and the Yale 
School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. 
The $400,000 fellowships for each school will 
support the studies of master's-level students 
in applied conservation and management of 
natural resources and environmental systems, 
beginning with the 1998-99 academic year. 
Each school will provide fellowships for ten 
students over the next two years. 

The environmental grants reflect Doris 
Duke's long-standing interest in conservation 
and ecology. Her will, which established the 
foundation, expresses her "special interest in 
the conservation of wildlife, both flora and 
fauna" and her desire to support "ecological 

Duke, the only daughter of James B. Duke, 
bequeathed the bulk of her estate to the foun- 
dation to support a variety of charitable causes, 
including the performing arts, preserving the 
environment, and advancing medical research. 
The foundation, of which President Nannerl O. 
Keohane is one of seven trustees, will award 
$55 million in grants each year. Keohane re- 
moved herself from participation in the 
board's decision pertaining to the university. 


At their December meeting, Duke trus- 
tees made decisions that will enhance 
both athletics and athletic facilities 
on campus. Women's crew was approved as 
the twenty-sixth sport at Duke, and the de- 
sign of a proposed addition to Cameron In- 
door Stadium was given the go-ahead. The 
building will house an academic center for 
student-athletes, men's and women's basket- 
ball offices and facilities, and a new sports 
Hall of Fame. 

With women's crew, Duke will now have 
thirteen men's and thirteen women's varsity 
teams. The board also approved a plan to add 
a fourteenth women's varsity sport by the year 
2000, although no decision has been made 
which sport it will be. Representatives of the 
softball team have already expressed an inter- 
est in becoming a varsity team. 

The trustees also agreed to add twenty-one 
more scholarships for women's sports over the 
next ten years. Associate Athletics Director 
Joe Alleva says a fund-raising campaign will 
be held to endow the new scholarships. Duke 
plans to hire a new crew coach in the spring, 
and plans for varsity competition to begin in 
the fall of 1998, he says. 

Crew will add forty- two women to the 
overall number of female varsity athletes at 

Duke. The second sport would 
increase that figure by another 
eighteen athletes. By 2000, the 
university would have 314 women 
athletes, compared to 415 men. 

The Cameron addition, a $10- 
million structure called the Athletic 
Center, will be designed by Cesar 
Pelli. Construction could begin 
this spring, if the full board gives 
final approval to the project, and it 
could be ready for use in 2000. The 
design extends along the west and 
northwest side of Cameron, and is 
anchored on the north by a six- 
story building housing the athletes' 
academic center, offices, and train- 
ing facilities. The Hall of Fame will 
be a linear structure along the 
northwest side of the arena, above 
new locker rooms directly accessi- 
ble from Cameron's court level. 
"The new Athletic Center will be a major 
addition to the facilities for our student-ath- 
letes, and has long been needed," says Ath- 
letics Director Tom Butters. He has led the 
fund-raising drive for the center as well as the 
$19-million Wilson Recreation Center, now un- 
der construction southeast of Cameron, and 
for the $5-million Brodie Center on East Cam- 
pus, completed last year. 

The Athletic Center project will also create 
an athletics plaza that will link the new center, 
Cameron, existing facilities, and the new Wil- 
son recreation center. 


The church-going habits, worship styles, 
and religious beliefs of three genera- 
tional groups of Americans have been 
examined in a new study by a Duke Divinity 
School professor who says the results could be 
used to help reverse the nationwide trend of 
declining church membership. 

As part of a larger study of twenty congre- 
gations of various faiths in North Carolina 
and California, Jackson E. Carroll, Williams 
Professor of Religion and Society at Duke, and 
Wade Clark Roof, Rowney Professor of Re- 
ligion and Society at the University of Cali- 
fornia at Santa Barbara, surveyed a random 


sample of 1,150 North Carolinians and 
Southern Californians. 

They divided the sample into three groups: 
Generation Xers, those who were bom be- 
tween 1964 and 1979; (Baby) Boomers, born 
between 1946 and 1963; and Preboomers, 
those born before 1946. 

"One of the most striking findings of our 
study is the difference between the family ex- 
perience of Xers and that of the two older 
generations," Carroll says. "Forty-five percent 
of the Xers went through some sort of family 
disruption — the divorce or separation of 
their parents, or they were raised by a single 
parent. That compares to 27 percent of the 
Boomers and 23 percent of the Preboomers." 

"It may be that the high incidence of fami- 
ly disruption is one of the denning character- 
istics of the Xer generation and contributes to 
their general distrust of institutions," he says. 

In general, members of Generation X said 
they are less religious than their elders, but 
agreed in nearly equal numbers with the 
members of the two older generations that 
religion is very important in their lives. More 
than 80 percent in each group indicated that 
they believe in God, and the majority of all 
three groups said they are dissatisfied with the 
spiritual vitality of their congregations. Xers 
agreed more strongly than the other genera- 
tional groups that individuals should arrive at 
their own religious beliefs independently of 
their church or religious group. The younger 
generation also believed more strongly that 
people who have God in their lives don't need 
the church. 

Carroll says that even though the Xers and 
Boomers aren't strikingly different in their 
religious involvements and understandings, 
they are very different from Preboomers. 

"There's much more interest in autonomy, 
freedom, making up one's own mind, and reli- 

gious exploration and less commitment to in- 
stitutional involvement in religion," he says. 
"Churches need to take those differences into 
account and not take for granted that people 
have been raised in a religious tradition." 



Addressing audiences of hundreds in 
two October speeches, part of the 
Terry Sanford Distinguished Lecture 
Series on campus, former Israeli Prime Minis- 
ter Shimon Peres discussed the importance, 
challenge, and necessity of the Middle East 
peace process, both as a practicality and as 
keeping with the Jewish moral code. 

An advocate of the land-for-peace philoso- 
phy, Peres has been active in Israeli politics 
since he was sixteen. His political career cli- 
maxed with his winning the Nobel Peace Prize 
in 1994 for negotiating with Palestinian lead- 
er Yasser Arafat to construct the Oslo agree- 
ments. Shortly after receiving the joint award 
with Peres and Arafat, Prime Minister Yitzhak 
Rabin was assassinated and Peres was sworn 
in as prime minister, for the second time. In 
office, he continued working toward peace, 
but after a chain of terrorist incidents, he was 
voted out of office and succeeded by Benja- 
min Netanyahu. Peres served as chairman of 
the opposing Labor Party for several months 
after the election. 

Peres told his Duke audience, "We knew in 
our hearts that we could not continue the 
history of our people if we were the occupiers 
of another people. It is one thing to cultivate 
land; it is another to occupy people." 

Because he strongly supports the notion of 
land for peace, Peres noted the impossibility 

of retaining territory in which there are large 
Palestinian communities. "We cannot have 100 
percent security unless we give the Palestin- 
ians 100 percent freedom.... If Israel was to 
try to keep all its land and all its people, it 
would stop being a Jewish state and it would 
become bi-national. One state would mean 
permanent conflict." 

In his remarks, Peres identified the main chal- 
lenge to peace as extremist groups that neither 
side of the negotiations can control. "Enemies 
can be identified, but dangers are floating in 
the air.... Dangers are more dangerous than 
enemies because they are not limited; they do 
not have borders. 

"For peace you need a majority. But for ter- 
ror you need a minority to commit suicide and 
throw bombs. We should not be impressed by 
them. If we are, we encourage them. We can- 
not stop the peace process at the hands of a 
few. If we submit to them, we surely will not 
have peace." 

Peres answered questions on issues ranging 
from nuclear disarmament to the possibility of 
Israel creating jobs for Palestinians. One topic of 
concern was the conflict within the Jewish 
community between Orthodox and Reform 
factions. Orthodox Jews are currendy trying to 
pass legislation allowing only Orthodox rabbis 
to perform conversions. Peres is opposed to 
government-supported religious rule. 

"Democracy is based on two principles: the 
right to be equal and the right to be different. 
A person can be whatever religion he wants 
to be without the state deciding," he said. 
"Politics is the art of compromise. Religion is 
the commitment not to compromise. So we 
do not let religion run politics." 

In terms of foreign policy, Peres stressed the 
urgency of securing a peace arrangement. "If 
I am critical of our current government, it is 
because they are trying to postpone the prob- 
lem for the next generation. What is extreme- 
ly difficult today may be impossible tomorrow. 
Let's face the future dangers now." 

The incentives for negotiation are powerful, 
he said. "If we compare today's Israel to what 
it was in the past, war and peace were not en- 
tirely in our hands. It is much more so today, 
because we are stronger and greater. We are able 
to negotiate out of strength, but we can't for- 
get to negotiate. When you are strong, you can 
impose war, but you cannot impose peace." 


An oceanography researcher from 
Duke's Nicholas School of the En- 
vironment went on a ten-week sci- 
entific cruise into the Antarctic polar front in 
an attempt to learn more about how global 



Three or four times a week 
during the summer, a 
chartered bus arrives at a 
housing complex in Alexandria, 
Virginia, and picks up a group 
of about fifty children, age five 
to thirteen. They pile onto the 
bus, where they're met by a set 
of camp counselors ready to take 
them to a local amusement park, 
or perhaps a Washington, D.C., 
museum. Leading this camp, 
called Grandma Rita's Children, 
is Duke first-year student 
Gillian Kilberg, who created 
the organization with an inheri- 
tance from her grandmother. 
After receiving the $20,000 
inheritance, Kilberg decided 
that she wanted to express her 
admiration for her grandmother 
by forming a summer camp 
for needy children, a cause in 
which Kilberg had been in- 
volved for years. Her grand- 
mother came to the United 
States from Russia without 
knowing English, did well in 
school, worked as an accoun- 
tant, and put Kilberg's mother 
through college. 

Kilberg describes Grandma 
Rita as "a truly amazing wom- 
an." Creating the organization, 
she says, was the best way for 
her to show her respect "A lot 
of grandparents brag about 
their grandkids, but I hadn't 
done enough to let people know 
how I felt about her. She was a 
very giving person. Whenever 
she got sick, she wouldn't want 
to be seen because she was sup- 
posed to be taking care of peo- 
ple. She would do anything for 

After gaining the support of 
the Fairfax County sheriff, 
whose deputies regularly partic- 
ipate in community service pro- 

jects, she began a letter-writing 
campaign that resulted in dona- 
tions from George and Barbara 
Bush, retired General Colin 
Powell, and Lamar Alexander, 
former Tennessee governor and 
presidential candidate. The 
funds let her put her ideas into 
action: She formed Grandma 
Rita's Children. 

Because many of the campers 
come from single-parent families, 
Kilberg says their parents are 
supportive of her efforts. "A 
lot of them say they're really 
thankful. Many of the parents 
work all day, and they can't 
afford to send the kids to a reg- 
ular day camp. They are very 
grateful that their kids don't 
have to sit around all day." 

At first, Kilberg encountered 
problems as a seventeen-year- 
old trying to arrange trips for a 
new organization; bus services 
were unreliable and working 
with field trip destinations was 
difficult. But after Grandma 
Rita's Children gained recogni- 
tion around the community, 
she says, these obstacles were 
reduced. "Once they realized 
what I was doing and where I 
was going with this, everyone 
became a lot more understand- 
ing and willing to help out. It 
was much easier the second 

In supervising the camp, Kil- 
berg is responsible for activities 
ranging from scheduling field 
trips to choosing T-shirt colors. 
Camper reactions play a large 
role in many of her decisions: 
She makes sure to include field 
trips that receive thumbs-up as- 
sessments in the next summer's 
schedule. "We try to make the 
trips both inspirational and fun." 

Because of her work with 

Grandma Rita's Children, Kil- 
berg won the Prudential Spirit 
of Community Award, granted 
to ten students in the nation in 
recognition of outstanding com- 
munity service. Since winning 
the award, she has been fea- 
tured in magazines like Time 
and People and has appeared on 
CNN. In early December, she 
appeared on The Oprah Winfrey 
Show with the other award win- 

While at Duke, Kilberg will 
continue to head the organiza- 
tion, though she says there are 
some difficulties in working 
away from home. "I will type 
up letters and send them to my 
mother, who will type them 
onto letterheads. But sometimes 
I'll send something to my moth- 
er and get a new idea while the 
old copy is still in the mail — 
then I have to start over again." 

Kilberg is unsure as to 
whether she will start a division 
of Grandma Rita's Children in 
Durham. "I have been in touch 
with the Community Service 
Center about starting here, but 
I'm still trying to get settled in," 
she says. "The Durham com- 
munity played a big part in my 
coining here because I wanted 
a place in need in case I did get 
it started." 

Despite the amount of work 
she does in organizing Grand- 
ma Rita's Children, Kilberg says 
it is worth the effort to develop 
relationships with her campers. 
"The best experience I've had 
with this is getting to know the 
kids. I love working with them; 
they're an amazing group. I 
love their smiles, to see them 
happy. That's the reason I love 
doing it — for them." 

— Jaime Levy '01 

climate change may affect oceans. 

Richard T. Barber, the Harvey W. Smith 
Professor of Oceanography at the school's 
Marine Laboratory, was the chief scientist 
aboard the 280-foot Scripps Oceanography 
vessel, R/V Revelle, one ot the newest ships in 
the National Science Foundation fleet. The 
ship traveled to a region called the Antarctic 
frontal zone, where the polar ocean meets the 
temperate ocean. 

The scientific party left in November from 
Christchurch, New Zealand, headed toward 
the 60th Parallel, and returned in January. 
"There's a great front there where tempera- 
tures range from to 10 degrees Centigrade," 
says Barber. "There's a lot of activity on that 
front." The scientists planned to collect data 
at ten stations in weather conditions where 
one hand is used for science and the other for 
holding the boat. "If you don't pay attention, 
you might find yourself on the other side of 
the boat," according to Barber. 

Part of the U.S. Global Ocean Flux Study, 
the cruise was designed as an attempt to find 
out "how a healthy ocean works with regard 
to carbon recycling. This is very important in 
predicting how the ocean and atmosphere 
will behave if you disturb the system a lot by 
increasing carbon dioxide," says Barber, refer- 
ring to increasing emissions of carbon dioxide 
into the atmosphere by the burning of fuels 
around the world. "When we gain an under- 
standing of this undisturbed system, we'll be 
better able to go forward to global change 
models to assess future scenarios." 

Barber is a veteran of many marine scien- 
tific expeditions, having sailed in every major 
ocean. The Antarctic Ocean is an area with 
wind-driven waves often reaching heights of 
ninety feet. But he is used to working in these 
conditions. "Every time I finish a cruise, I swear 
it will be my last. But the next day, I find 
myself working to find a way back to the sea." 

The team's thirty-seven researchers and 
twenty-two-member crew spent Christmas and 
New Year's holidays together at sea. Barber's 
wife, Elaine, accompanied him. 


Discussing her views on politics and the 
media in mid-November, conservative 
Los Angeles Times columnist and politi- 
cal pundit Arianna Huffington sprinkled her 
distinct opinions with the humor that has 
landed her regular spots on the TV show Po- 
litically Incorrect. 

Huffington displayed some of this humor in 
several shots at political figures and recent 
scandals. In a reference to a story by Sir Isaiah 
Berlin, she divided political figures into two 

January-February 1998 51 

categories: hedgehogs and foxes. Hedgehogs, 
she explained, are people who have "an over- 
all vision" and are prepared to fight for it. 
Foxes, however, are "people who know a little 
bit about a lot of things." Foxes, including Bill 
Clinton and Newt Gingrich, dominate Ameri- 
can politics, she said. "Clinton is definitely a 
cuddly fox. If they found him in bed with the 
Spice Girls, he'd still be a cuddly fox. It doesn't 
matter what he does." 

Huffington, whose new book Greetings from 
the Lincoln Bedroom comes out in April, spent 
most of her appearance in Page Auditorium 
talking about her perception of what the 
media are and what they should be, especial- 
ly in relation to the press' role as watchdog for 
the government. One of her major concerns, 
she said, is "how the same point of view dom- 
inates the news. There is a sort of flock qual- 
ity to the media, an intuitive sense of what 
their colleagues think and what is safe to say 
and believe. We need more of an independent 
streak that the First Amendment and the Con- 


anus, Letitia, Praesepe, 
Sarph, and Zuben'ubi, five 
black-and-white ruffed 
lemurs born at Duke's Primate 
Center, ventured out of their 
cages at the home of their an- 
cestors in November, the first 
of their species ever to be 
returned to the wild. 

The lemurs join a dwindling 
population of their cousins on 
the island of Madagascar. They 
are part of a project by the in- 
ternational Madagascar Fauna 
Group (MFG) to repatriate sys- 
tematically as many as twenty 
of the animals over the next 
three years. MFG researchers 
said they hope the lemurs, 
among the tropical island's most 
endangered, will interbreed 
with the threatened local popu- 
lation of about thirty, enhancing 

the gene pool of ruffed lemurs 
in the 5,000-acre Betampona 
Natural Reserve. 

Charles Welch, the MFG pro- 
jeer's director, kept his colleagues 
at Duke informed from Mada- 
gascar through dispatches. Here 
is an excerpt that appeared De- 
cember 2 in The New York Times: 

"The day of release started 
off with a last trimming of tail 
hair... to make it as easy as pos- 
sible to identify them in the 
treetops. Two of the project's 
conservation agents then led a 
traditional ceremony in which 
they explained the lemur- 
release project to the ancestors 
and asked the ancestors for 
their blessing. Short speeches 
were made and everyone took 
a sip of the local homemade 
rum, held in a folded leaf. 


pile of 
stones at 
the base 
of the 

"The ceremony complete, 
the doors were opened.... Each 
ruffed lemur cautiously stepped 
out, and the reintroduction was 
under way!" 

Since 1968, Duke's Primate 
Center has been breeding lemurs 
for eventual release. The re- 
search and conservation efforts 
of the primate center were 
featured in the January-Febru- 
ary 1985 issue of Duke Magazine. 



Fall semester 1997, first day of class: I'm 
meeting the seminar "New Ways of 
Looking: The Writings of Humberto 
Maturana" and reviewing the syllabus with 
the ten adventuresome students who are en- 
rolled. I point out that in the third week of 
November there will be no class because I'll 
be giving a paper at the Universidade Fe- 
deral de Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte, 
Brazil. I explain that my paper will be part of 
the conference "Biology, Language, Cogni- 
tion, and Society: International Symposium 
on Autopoiesis." I mention that Humberto 
Maturana, the Chilean neurobiologist whose 
work is the focus of our seminar, will be the 
speaker at that conference. One of the ten 
students — or perhaps it was I — imagines an 
outrageous possibility: "Wouldn't it make a 
cool field trip for the whole seminar to go to 
Brazil for the conference?" 

Eleven weeks later: During the break after 
Maturana's first lecture in Brazil, my semi- 
nar students and I are standing outside a lec- 
ture hall at the university. We're looking at 
each other, and one of us says, "Well, guys, 
we did it." 

What we did in those eleven weeks was: 
research the Raleigh-Durham/Rio de Janeiro 
airfare group rates plus the round-trip Rio/ 
Belo bus rates; secure student housing in 
Belo; get our Brazilian visas (and, for the 
two of us who had never been out of the 
country, apply for passports!) ; buy some dra- 
matically titled "Repatriation and Evacua- 

tion Insurance"; fill out forms; fill out more 
forms; go to the Duke Travel Clinic for immu- 
nizations; do homework in advance for the 
classes we would be missing during the nine 
days in Brazil. Oh, yes, in the midst of all of 
this, we wrote up a great funding proposal and 
raised nearly $8,000 — largely from Duke 
sources, but also from the parents of one of the 
students — to make this remarkable cultural 
and educational experience possible. 

Internationalization isn't just a fancy catch- 
word at Duke. It's a reality. 

Once in a lifetime: Amazing, simply amazing. 
This is the only way to describe participating 
in a high-powered academic conference with 
250 people attending from eighteen countries. 
We lived our seminar for the week of the con- 
ference, and all of us came away not only with 
a deeper understanding of how autopoietic 
theory is put into practice in various disci- 
plines but also with a wonderful acquaintance 
with the theory's practitioners on the inter- 
national scene. We're now in electronic-mail 
contact with scholars all over the world, and 
the students are wisely consulting them on 
their term papers! 

The students were grand. They were well pre- 
pared for the conference (if I do say so my- 
self), asked intelligent questions, and made an 
excellent impression on the conference -goers. 
One student said, "We represented Duke at 
an international conference, and we all did a 
great job. I felt comfortable to introduce my- 
self as 'one of the Duke students.' " Another 
one said, "This is the way education should 
take place — conferences, papers, discussions, 
'networking,' and becoming absorbed within 
a group of thinkers who simply live for learn- 
ing. We kept telling ourselves, 'This is normal. 
This is the way education should be.' But 

what is normal does not usually take place. It 
is extraordinary to me that we could do some- 
thing this normal" 

Note Bene: Autopoietic theory emerges from 
the biological branch of the larger field of cy- 
bernetics that studies self-regulating systems. 
The term "autopoiesis" (literally: self-creation) 
refers to the process by which a living system 
conserves its organization, and autopoietic 
theory provides a new framework for under- 
standing biology, cognition, language, and so- 
cial systems. The theory is most closely iden- 
tified with Francisco Varela and Humberto 
Maturana. For more information, see: The 
Observer Web Page at www.informatik.umu. 
se/~rwhit/AT.htm and The Maturana Web 
Page at 

— Julie Tetel 
Tetel '72 is an associate professor of English. 


On May 16, 1703, Saint Petersburg (or- 
iginally Sakt-Piterburx) was founded. 
On October 10, 1997, a group of 
twenty- seven Duke freshmen discovered in 
today's St. Petersburg — built on ninety rivers 
and canals, 400 bridges, sixty parks, and 150 gar- 
dens — one of the most beautiful cities in the 
world. A city of many names, including most 
recently Petrograd (1914-1924) and Leningrad 
(1924-1991), St. Petersburg still demonstrates 
its ability to create a sense of awe in its visi- 
tors. For six days, the freshmen participating 
in one of this year's "Focus" programs — "The 
Changing Faces of Russia" — had an intense 
exposure to the cultural life of the city. 

"Focus," a first- semester program in which 
students take a core of courses in one of more 
than a dozen interest areas, often extends to a 


stitution are supposed to encourage and pro- 

She also critized the media's lack of coverage 
and, therefore, the government's neglect of what 
she calls "community solutions." These solutions 
come from smaller communities working to- 
gether to combat important neighborhood 
problems that are also of concern to the na- 
tion, such as homelessness, child abuse, and es- 
pecially education. "[Neither the media nor 
the politicians] are willing to take on the chal- 
lenge — they're avoiding the problems. The 
major issues are not being covered in a com- 
pelling way.... We cannot get radical reform 
without upsetting the apple cart, but it seems 
to be all about maintaining the status quo. 
We're not fundamentally changing anything; 
we're just tinkering at the edges and saying all 
is well." 

Huffington chairs the Center for Effective 
Compassion, an organization that describes its 
mission as "the transformation of a bureau- 
cratic, impersonal system into a community- 

oriented, decentralized approach that is chal- 
lenging, personal, and spiritual." 

Because a large portion of American citizens 
do not pay attention to traditional political 
coverage, she said, her unorthodox methods 
to express her opinions on politics and society 
allow her to reach this generally non-voting 
audience. "It is increasingly easy to make points 
through satire and humor. I got more atten- 
tion working with [comic] Al Franken, than I 
did through writing a book. If you believe in 
something, you need to find a medium to say 
it and capture the public." 


Where does science now stand on 
what's been called the case of the 
"cell from hell" — the marine or- 
ganism Pfiesteria piscicida, which has killed 

Hs9i ! B 

111 ill ti m - H~Z-~ 

Hint w ij" "„ 


m > A '."> 1' 

in front of 

field-trip experience. This, though, was a Duke 
field trip without precedent. 

Events of the week included time at the 
Hermitage and the Russia Museum — in the 
course of a couple of days, students sampled 
one of the outstanding collections of Western 
art and the premier collection of Russian art. 
There were also visits to the Peter and Paul 
Fortress and Cathedral, the Smolny Cathedral 
and Institute, the Kirov/ Mariinka Theatre, 
the Musorgsky Theatre, and the Philharmo- 
nic — along with an evening of folk dancing 
and music at the Palace of Belosel Skix-Belo- 
zerskix. There was a pre-excursion lecture be- 
fore each specialized tour. 

For indulging in this "Venice of the North" 
setting (much of it designed by Italian archi- 
tects), the students were asked to contribute 
just $100, which essentially covered the visa 

fee and postage. I was fortunate enough to 
raise the money for the trip through alumni 
donors, a generous trustee, and funds from 
our Duke semester programs in Russia. The 
University of St. Petersburg was cooperative 
in providing room and board at inexpensive 
rates; and with the help of our faculty friends 
in Russia, we were able to purchase all of the 
theater tickets at student rates. 

Despite the enormous amount of work for 
the organizer, the rewards were truly remark- 
able. Although I anticipated that the trip would 
make a positive impact on our freshmen (ap- 
parent even in the energy with which they com- 
pleted their post-trip assignments), I failed to 
imagine the full extent of their gratitude and 
the profound intellectual stimulation they 
would receive. One of the reasons for the in- 
tellectual success of the program comes from 

fish along the U.S. eastern shore and affected 
humans as well? Seven researchers provided 
answers at a one-day Duke Integrated Toxi- 
cology Program symposium in November, in- 
cluding faculty from the medical center and the 
university, North Carolina State University, 
the University of Miami, the National Center 
for Toxicological Research, and the National 
Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 

"Pfiesteria is a medical mystery," says the 
conference's organizer, Edward Levin, a neu- 
ro -behavioral toxicologist and head of Duke's 
Integrated Toxicology Program. "We want to 
explore what is known and unknown and what 
clues we need to solve it." He provided up- 
dates to his own research on an animal model 
for Pfiesterias effects and presented new evi- 
dence that the toxin retards learning in rats. 

Since its identification in 1988 by JoAnn 
Burkholder, associate professor at North Caro- 
lina State, Pfiesteria has been implicated in 
about 30 percent of all fish kills in North 

the intensive preparation our students un- 
derwent six weeks before departure. "The 
Changing Faces of Russia" program consists 
of four courses: in twentieth-century history, 
literature, legal traditions, and culture. Be- 
yond these classes, students and all partici- 
pating faculty members met each Monday 
evening for dinner and discussion. Thanks 
to these evening meetings, in conjunction 
with their regular course work, we were able 
to fill in gaps to prepare them for the enor- 
mous amount of information and cultural 
differences they discovered in Russia. 

In anticipation of Swan Lake, for exam- 
ple, we had talked about the construction of 
the music and dance components of the 
performance, the history ofTchaikovsky, the 
place of his music in the Russian context, 
and the key moments that would signal a 
particular interpretation of the ballet. In St. 
Petersburg, one of our Russian museum 
guides remarked on how diligently the stu- 
dents were taking notes — a sign that their 
encounter was all the deeper for their hav- 
ing studied the building's paintings and its 
architecture in advance. 

It is not uncommon to hear universities 
talking of the importance of "internationali- 
zation." In many instances, the words fail to 
make the desired impact on the curriculum. 
But Duke fosters an environment that 
allows faculty members and students to re- 
imagine what the classroom experience 
might include, and so to transport ourselves 
into a different world. 

— Edna Andrews 
Andrews, professor of Slavic languages and lit- 
erature, chairs the linguistics program and is 
director of the Center for Slavic, Eurasian, and 
East European Studies. 

January- February 


Downsizing the 

By Thomas H. Naylor 
ami William H. Willimon. 
William B. Eerdmam 
Publishing Company. 
289 pages. $25. 

In this trenchant anal- 
ysis of American soci- 
ety, Naylor, economics 
professor emeritus at 
Duke, and Willimon, current dean of Duke 
Chapel and a divinity school professor, take 
an unabashed stance against the belief that 
"bigger is better." They argue that our govern- 
ment, cities, corporations, schools, churches, 
military, and social welfare system are all too 
big, powerful intrusive, insular, and unrespon- 
sive to the needs of individuals and small, 
local communities. The authors audaciously 
call for the peaceful dissolution of the United 
States through secession and provide a 
thoughtful game plan for achieving this con- 
troversial objective. 

The Mythical 
Essays on 
B31 Frederick P. Brooks 
Jr. '53. Addison- 
Wesley Publishing 
Company. 322 pages. 
Few books on soft- 
ware project man- 
agement have been 
as influential and timeless as Mythical Man- 
month by Brooks, founder of UNC-Chapel 
Hill's computer science department, where he 
is a Kenan professor, and best known as "the 
father of the IBM System/360." This twenti- 
eth anniversary edition has four additional 

Women, Poverty, and AIDS: Sex, 
Drugs, and Structural Violence 

Edited by Paul Farmer '82, Margaret Connors, 
and Janie Simmons. Common Courage Press. 
470 pages. $19.95. 

Co-editor Farmer is a physician and anthro- 
pologist and the author of The Uses of Haiti 
and AIDS and Accusation. In 1993, he was 
awarded a MacArthur Foundation "genius" 
award for his work. This book begins with a 
series of portraits of poor women with HIV 
disease from Haiti, India, the United States, 
and elsewhere. Although they share neither 
language, culture, race, nor ethnic back- 
ground, they do share their poverty and their 
gender. Women, Poverty, and AIDS brings to- 
gether community activists, physicians, and 
social scientists to explore one of the greatest 
threats to women's health in our times. 

The Essential 
Guide to 
Cosmetic Laser 

By Tina Alster B.S.N. 
'81.M.D. '86 and Lydia 

Preston. Alliance 
Publishers. 198 pages. 

Alster, internationally 
recognized as one of 
the leading practitioners of cosmetic laser sur- 
gery, offers this comprehensive consumer guide, 
subtitled "The Revolutionary New Way to 
Erase Wrinkles, Age Spots, Scars, Birthmarks, 
Moles, Tattoos. ..and How Not to Get Burned 
in the Process." The director of the Washing- 
ton Institute of Dermatologic Laser Surgery, 
she also teaches at Georgetown and Harvard 
medical schools. 

Changing Channels: Television and 
the Struggle for Power in Russia 

B31 Ellen Mickiewicz- Oxford University Press. 
340 pages. $35. 

"From the days when Leonid Brezhnev clung 
to power through the tumult of Mikhail Gor- 
bachev and the election victories of Boris 
Yeltsin, Russian leaders have struggled over the 
control of television," writes David Gergen, 
editor at large at U.S. News & World Report. 
"In this fine and penetrating book, Ellen 
Mickiewicz traces those struggles and exam- 
ines the larger question still ahead: whether a 
free and independent television can emerge 
that will bolster prospects for a stable, demo- 
cratic nation. No one else has better captured 

the important saga." Mickiewicz is director of 
the DeWitt Wallace Center for Communica- 
tions and Journalism at Duke's Sanford Insti- 
tute of Public Policy. 

The Hidden Welfare State: Tax 
Expenditures and Social Policy in 
the United States 

By Christopher Howard '83. Princeton 
University Press. 272 pages. $39.50. 

Howard, an assistant professor of government 
at the College of William and Mary, analyzes 
the "hidden" welfare state created by such 
programs as tax deductions for home mort- 
gage interest and employer-provided retirement 
pensions, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and 
the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit. Basing his work 
on the histories of these four tax expendi- 
tures, he highlights the distinctive characteris- 
tics of all such policies and the reason why 
individuals, businesses, and public officials 
support them. 

Romantic Theat- 
ricality: Gender, 
Poetry, and 

By Judith Pascoe '82. 
Cornell University 
Press. 251 pages. 
In a significant rein- 
terpretation of early 
romanticism, Pascoe 
shows how English 
literary culture in the 
1790s came to be shaped by the theater and 
by the public's fascination with it. She focus- 
es on several intriguing historical occurrences 
of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries, emphasizing how writers in all areas 
of public life relied on theatrical modes of 
self-representation. Pascoe is an assistant pro- 
fessor of English at the University of Iowa 

Worship With One Accord: Where 
Liturgy and Ecumenism Embrace 

B31 Geoffrey Wainwright. Oxford University 
Press. 276 pages. 

In his book, Wainwright, Cushman Professor 
of Theology at Duke, "explores a theme that is 
vital for ecumenism but perhaps has not al- 


ways received adequate attention: the rela- 
tionship between liturgical renewal and the 
search for Christian unity," writes Edward 
Cardinal Cassidy, president of the Pontifical 
Council for Promoting Christian Unity, Rome. 
"While illuminating ecumenical progress, he 
also speaks forthrightly about present dangers 
to the movement for Christian unity." 

Women Imagine Change: A Global 
Anthology of Women's Resistance, 
600 B.C.E. to Present 

Edited by Eugenia Delamotte, Natania Meeker, 
and Jean O'Barr. Routledge. 509 pages. $29.95. 
Organized around themes of concern to con- 
temporary readers, this collection presents 
vivid, diverse life experiences. The relation- 
ships between sexuality and spirituality 
include a feminist rabbi's account of her 
struggle with religious traditions, and a thir- 
teenth-century French peasant's explanation 
to the Inquisition of her sell-invented doc- 
trine of free love. Introductions enhance the 
writings with historical and biographical in- 
formation, enabling readers to see each writer 
in her unique context. Co-editor O'Barr is 
the director of Women's Studies at Duke. 

Friday's Foot- 
print: How 
Society Shapes 
the Human 

By Leslie Brothers 
M.D. '80. Oxford 
University Press. 187 
pages. $25. 

have long used the 
Robinson Crusoe 
metaphor — a starkly isolated figure, working, 
praying, writing alone — when discussing the 
notion of the brain. Now the question arises: 
Is the brain truly isolated, or is it an extension 
of, and an organ shaped by, a larger, more 
complex network — society? Brothers begins 
her exploration of the brain at the individual 
neuron level, looking at in particular the re- 
sponse of brain cells to social events. More 
importantly, she connects neuroscience, psy- 
chiatry, and sociology as never before, show- 
ing how our daily interaction creates an orga- 
nized social world — a network of brains that 
generates meaningful behavior and thought. 

Balkan Justice: The Story Behind 
the First International War Crimes 
Trial Since Nuremberg 

By Michael P Scharf'85,].D. '88. Carolina 

Academic Press. 250 pages. $25. 

Based on extensive interviews and other 

sources, the book describes the key players in 
this international judicial drama: the investi- 
gators, prosecutors, judges, defense attorneys, 
and the defendant himself — DuskoTadic. It's 
the inside story of the politics and diplomacy 
behind the establishment of the Yugoslavia 
War Crimes Tribunal and the launching of its 
investigations. Scharf draws from his own ex- 
periences as the State Department attorney 
responsible for drafting the Security Council 
Resolutions leading up to the establishment 
of the tribunal and the U.S. proposals for the 
tribunal's Statute and Rules of Procedure. 

Staging Reform, 
Reforming the 
Stage: Protes- 
tantism and 
Popular Theater 
in Early Modern 
By Huston Diehl 
Cornell University 
Press. 238 pages. 

The author, a professor of English at the Uni- 
versity of Iowa, sees Elizabethan and Jacobean 
drama as both a product of the Protestant 
Reformation — a reformed drama — and a 
producer of Protestant habits of thought — a 
reforming drama. According to Diehl, the 
popular London theater, which flourished in 
the years after Elizabeth re-established Protes- 
tantism in England, rehearsed the religious 
crises that disrupted, divided, energized, and, in 
many respects, revolutionized English society. 

Long celebrated in 
Methodist mythol- 
ogy as mother of 
the movement's founders, Susanna Wesley 
now takes her place as a practical theologian 
in her own right. This collection of her letters, 
edited by Wallace, Williamette University's 
chaplain and religion professor, includes her 
spiritual diary and longer treatises (only one 
of which was published in her lifetime). Her 
writings show her to be a well-educated 
woman conversant in the historical and con- 
temporary theological, philosophical, and lit- 
erary works of her day. 


Continued from page 20 

mers, or fraternity brothers who lost some sort 
of bet and have to pay up with their presence. 
I once helped the captain of the Dancing 
Devils dance team move several hundred 
pounds of luggage into her dorm room in ex- 
change for a performance at one of our home 
meets. Two years later, I'm not holding my 
breath that she'll ever pay up. 

Still, swim meets turn out to be spectacles. 
I've been in the stands at more than one meet 
in my days as a swimmer, and I can say hon- 
estly that watching people cheer for swimmers 
is something that defies my understanding. 
All kinds of sounds are made, from shouts, 
barks, and whistles, to strange "whooping" 
noises, as the swimmer turns his head to 
breathe. The crazy thing is that any swimmer 
will tell you that we don't hear a thing when 
in the water; yet we continue this bizarre rit- 
ual of noises. 

From the time we arrive in Durham in Sep- 
tember, our practice schedule makes weekend 
get-aways impossible. We stay on campus for 
both fall and Thanksgiving breaks for our 
most intense periods of training of the season. 
Our coach uses the unlimited practice time 
to break us down physically to the point of 
exhaustion. But for me, the demands of swim- 
ming during breaks are overshadowed by ex- 
periencing the relaxed pace of the campus — 
and by the promise of our January training 
trip to Fort Lauderdale. That trip directs our 
attention to the ACC championships. By the 
first of February, morning practices have ended, 
and afternoon practices begin to center on es- 
tablishing the rhythm and pace necessary to 
swim fast at the end. 

Professional swimming does not exist. For a 
senior, ACC championships are the conclu- 
sion to his career. In my case, when I finish 
the last lap in the final heat of the 200 back- 
stroke in late February, I will have brought to 
a close fifteen years of competitive swimming. 
Will I be satisfied with my last race? While I'm 
certain that I will, I want to avoid the ques- 
tion for as long as possible. 

If I could go back to being a freshman on 
the team, I would do it in a heartbeat. I always 
hated the end of the season, when I had so 
much free time that I didn't know what to do 
with myself. And this is the end of the last 
season. The sport that has come to define my 
life will be over; I will have to find a non- 
swimming route to travel. 

You don't even begin to understand the 
value of what you do as a varsity athlete until 
your senior year. It's only then that you start 
to find deeper meanings to common words 
like success, dream, and love. If I can pass on 
this senior knowledge to my teammates, then 
I have succeeded as a captain. 

January-February 1998 55 

\(^hat book do you have on your 
nightstand, one you're reading or 
ready to read when time permits? 

Psychology professor Robert C. 
Carson says he recently finished 
Angela's Ashes: A Memoir, by 
Frank McCourt. "As a grandson 
of four Irish immigrants, I have 
never encountered anything close 
to a better understanding of my 
direct progenitors, my other rela- 
tives, of the kids I grew up with 
and their parents, of Irish 
Catholicism, or of the plight of 
the Irish in their own homeland." 

Robert S. Shepard, associate 
vice president and executive 
director of development, com- 
bines business with pleasure 
reading. "I have the opportunity 
to travel to Asia with President 
Keohane in May 1998. Instead of 
the standard Guide to Asian 
Culture one finds in book stores, 
I'm reading an insightful and 
wonderfully written little book on 
Japanese education and culture. 
It's tided Learning lb Bow." 

Professor emerita and author 
Helen Bevington says she is read- 
ing several books, but that 
Montaigne's Essays "is my favorite 
reading. I keep coming back to it." 
Considered the "French Shakes- 
peare," and a contemporary of the 
Bard, Montaigne "invented the 
essay, which means 'trial or at- 
tempt.' His essays are easy," says 
Bevington. "I think anyone would 
like them." 

Ralph Snyderman, chancellor 
for health affairs and dean of the 
medical school, is reading One 
Blood: The Death and Resurrection 
of Charles R. Drew, by Spencie 
Love Ph.D. '90. The book "por- 
trays the life of the highly regard- 

ed African-American surgeon 
and his tragic death in an auto 
accident in nearby Alamance 
County. This story is intertwined 
with a similarly tragic auto acci- 
dent that killed an African- 
American college student named 
Malthus Avery in Alamance 
County as well. Both these deaths 
involved Duke through actual 
events or myths that arose soon 
after the incidents." He describes 
it as "a fascinating documentation 
of North Carolina and the South 
in the early Fifties, the tragic con- 
sequences of segregation policies, 
and the relation between legend 
and fact." 

We asked fifteen 

first-year students: 

What is Hie biggest surprise 

you've been at Duke? 

After completing only one 
semester of experiencing not only 
a new school but a new home, 
new friends, and a whole new 
style of living, the freshmen we 
polled met a range of surprises. 
Several students found it in the 
classroom. Carolyn Davis said she 
was impressed by the accessibility 
of her professors. "The teachers 
are very helpful, especially consid- 
ering the size of some of the 
classes I have." 

Economically, some were faced 
with the shock of living without 
their parents' pockets. "Money 
disappears very quickly," said 
Jennifer Bassler. "I have seven 
cents left on my food account." 

But the biggest surprises came 
on the social front. Some found 
the city of Durham not as lively 
as they had hoped. " The biggest 
surprise is the town, or lack there- 
of. If you really need something, 
you need to drive because there's 
not much on Ninth Street," said 
Liz Jacobs. 

But others think Duke basket- 
ball provides enough entertain- 
ment. Rob Grant said he was 
impressed by the enthusiasm of 
the student body in Cameron 
Indoor Stadium. "The crowd was 
really in sync. I think that is sym- 
bolic of the student body outside 
of Cameron. There is a sense of 
community on campus that is 
very healthy for a college." 

That unity, however, is not 
always present on a day-to-day 
basis. "The groups still segregate 
themselves-it's the same feeling 
as there was in high school," said 
Dan Bierenbaum. Others found 
homogeneity. "You would expect 
a ton of diversity in terms of cul- 
ture, ethnicity, race," said Adam 
Hudes. "People here do not vary 
much in their backgrounds, poli- 
tics, outlooks." 

Politically, some students 
did not encounter what they 
expected. Keith Cascio, for 
example, said, "I came from New 
York, the bastion of liberal poli- 
tics. I expected to find intense 
liberal activity on campus and a 
general liberal attitude among 
the vast majority of students. 
However, I was surprised to find a 
pleasing conservative tendency; I 
agree with many students on 
many issues." 

Aside from social aspects, other 
students found major changes in 
living styles since coming to col- 
lege. Richard Pearsall enjoys the 
freedom: "You make all decisions 
by yourself. You don't have to tell 
anyone where you're going or 
when you're coming back." 

— compiled by Jaime Levy '01 

"Of course, a race-blind society is 
the ideal, but this society is not 
race-blind, and we cannot afford 
to treat it as such. By increasing 
the number of black undergradu- 
ates, graduate students, and pro- 
fessors, we can, however, begin to 
take strides toward an environ- 
ment in which black students no 
longer feel they have to stage a 
protest to make their voices 

"Exposure to difference — 
whether cultural, social, or racial, 
and including differences in ideas 
and perspectives — plays an 
essential role in the education of 
all students, both minority and 
majority. Too often diversity is 
seen as something that serves 
only minority students. It serves 
majority students every bit as 
much, bringing those in the 
dominant group to far greater 
understanding of the complexity 
and richness of human endeavor 
and experience." 

"My dream for what I wanted to 
do in my life was to be a college 
coach. With people's dreams, if 
you're fortunate that they actually 
become a reality, you're lucky. My 
reality is better than my dream." 


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from the Vigil 

You've always been there in spirit. 
Maybe its time you brought yourself along, too. 





1-800-44-MI D WA 

Duke Magazine is 
printed on recycled 



Robert J. Bliwise A.M. '88 


Sam Hull 


Bridget Booher '82, A.M. '92 


Dennis Meredith 


Funderburk Jr. '60 


Brian Henderson '98 

Jaime Levy '01 


Mills/Carrigan Design 


Litho Industries, Inc. 

Michele Clause Farquhar '79, 
president; John A. Schwarz III 
'56, president-elect; M. Laney 
Funderburk Jr. "" 

APRIL 1998 





Cover: The Vigil, a defining moment both 
in Duke's history and in the lives of its 
students. Photograph by Bill Boyarsky '69 
for The Chanticleer 

James R. Cook Jr. '50, B.D. 
'>K Dniv.ay S,-h.n,'l; George J. 
Evans B.S.E.E. '56, School of 
lzni:mc,:niig; Barrett B. McCall 
M.E'91, Nicholas School of the 
Environment; Walter W. 
Simpson III M.B.A. 74, Fuqua 
School of Business; Judith Ann 
Maness M.H.A. '83, Department 
of Health AJimnt>lY,ilic,n, Bruce 
W. Baber J.D. '79, School of 
Law; David K. Wellman M.D. 
'72, H.S. '72-78, School of 
Medicine; Linda Spencer 
Fowler B.S.N. 79, School of 

j\ r ifr\:)i/j; M.iir kov;ll N.trJpne 

M.S. 79, A.H.C. 79, Graduate 
Program in Physical Therapy; 
J. Alexander McMahon '42, 
Hal/-Cenmry Club. 

Clay Felker '51, chairman; 
Frederick E Andrews '60; 
Debra Blum '87; Sarah 
Hardesty Bray 72; Nancy L. 
Cardwell '69; Jerrold K. Footlick; 
Edward M. Gomez 79; Kerry E. 
Hannon '82; Stephen Labaton 
A.M. '86, J.D. '86; Elizabeth H. 
Locke '64, Ph.D. 72; Thomas R 
Losee Jr. '63; Kimberly J. 
McLarin '86; Michael J. 
Schoenfeld '84; Susan Tifft 73; 
Jane Vessels 77; Robert J. 
Bliwise A.M. '88, secretary. 

$15 per year ($30 foreign) 
Duke Magazine, Alumni House, 
614 Chapel Drive, Box 90570, 
Durham, N.C. 27708-0570. 

Alumni Records, Box 90613, 
Durham, N.C. 27708-0613 
or e-mail 

© 1998 Duke University 
Published bimonthly by the 
Office of Alumni Affairs. 


Thirty years later, students, faculty, and administrators reflect on the Vigil's importance 
at the time, and its lasting significance 


A portfolio: Campus jobs — the mundane and the marvelous alike — are a commitment 
for undergraduates who are otherwise devoting hours to the library, lab, and classroom 


Psychologist David Rubin uses sophisticated machines, immobilizing masks, 
and modest children's rhymes to explore how we store the memories of our lives 

SCHOOL IN A BOX by Robert]. Bliwise 

"We're not so much moving from the traditional model of teaching to the cyberworld,' 

says a business school professor. "We're doing both." 


Duke ecologists are sweating to discover why America's rich grasslands are rapidly 

evolving into barren stretches of coarse sand 


Lessons in global education-and in building community 





Complaints from Canada, easing into the final transition, ruminating on the 
wounds of war 


Tiered tuition, Oxford addition, athletic elevation 


The ethnography of Colonial Williamsburg, the landscape of contemporary poetry 


Leadership and student government, basketball and boisterousness 






What began as a protest march eventually blossomed into a campus- 

and community-wide happening that found thousands camping out on the quad. 

Thirty years later, students, faculty, and administrators reflect on the Vigil's 

importance at the time, and its lasting significance. 

In the wake of Martin Luther King Jr.'s 
assassination on April 4, 1968, riots and 
protests broke out across the country as 
supporters of the civil rights movement 
mourned the loss of their most visible leader. 
On Duke's campus, the occasion had pro- 
found historical consequences as well. In the 
week that followed, a series of events took 
place that came to be known as the Silent 
Vigil. What began as a protest march eventu- 
ally blossomed into a campus- and communi- 
ty-wide happening that found thousands 
camping out on the quad; trustees, adminis- 
trators, faculty, and students locked in negoti- 
ations over university governance and policy; 
classes canceled by professors sympathetic to 
the cause; and attention from national media 
outlets and leading political figures (tele- 
grams of support came in from Robert Ken- 
nedy, Eugene McCarthy, and Nelson Rocke- 
feller, among others). 

Duke was still very much a Southern uni- 
versity, where maids daily cleaned the dorm 
rooms and made the beds on West Campus 
(residents of the Woman's College were as- 
sumed to be proficient in such domestic tasks 

and made their own beds). A referendum pre- 
sented by the student government calling for 
a boycott of off-campus segregated facilities 
had earlier been defeated by the student body. 
And the university had not even admitted 
black undergraduates until 1963, relatively 
late compared with other institutions. Yet the 
civil rights and anti-war movements were 
gaining momentum, "teach-ins" about the 
Vietnam War took place frequently, and stu- 
dent organizations such as the YMCA/ 
YWCA and religious groups were active in 
the local community. At the time of King's 
assassination, there was a solid core of indi- 
viduals who were cognizant of social-justice 
issues and the politics of protest movements, 
and they quickly found themselves at the 
forefront of a campus uprising. 

Shocked by King's murder, these students 
came together to discuss what could be done to 
express their collective anger and frustration. 
After lengthy discussions among themselves, 
and with advice from a small assortment of 
faculty, community leaders, and university ad- 
ministrators, the group decided to march to 
the Duke Forest neighborhood to distribute 

leaflets and talk to the residents. As planning 
continued, leaders decided to make universi- 
ty president Douglas M. Knight's house one 
of the stops along the way, and to present him 
with a list of demands. These included asking 
Knight to endorse a newspaper ad that stated, 
among other things, that "we are all implicat- 
ed" in the assassination of King; that Knight 
resign from the segregated Hope Valley Country 
Club; that non-academic employees be paid 
the federal minimum wage of $1.60 per hour 
(for colleges and universities at the time, it 
was $1.15, although many Duke employees 
were paid far less); and that a committee of 
administrators, faculty, students, and workers 
be established to design a method of collec- 
tive bargaining for the workers. (Local #77 
was the union working on behalf of Duke's 
non-academic employees and was involved in 
the Vigil early on.) 

On Friday, April 5, organizers gathered to 
march. Expecting forty or fifty people to join 
them, they were surprised when 450 fellow 
students showed up. As the crowd arrived at 
Knight's house, the president came outside to 
meet them. As he spoke, dozens of students 


trickled inside, and Knight soon invited the 
rest to come in. Negotiations between a hand- 
ful of designated students and Knight dragged 
on through the night, with Knight refusing to 
agree to the demands, and students refusing 
to leave. The president told them they were 
welcome to stay. 

Within two days, Knight, who was still 
recovering from a bout with hepatitis, was or- 
dered by his personal physicians to remove 
himself from the situation. With Knight out 
of the picture, students decided to continue 
their protest on the main quad while discus- 
sions with administrative representatives con- 
tinued. On the evening of April 7, board of 
trustees chairman Wright Tisdale flew to Dur- 
ham to join in the deliberations. There were 
rumors that the university might be closed 
down, or that students would be removed 
from the quad by police with fire hoses. The 
number of people on the quad continued to 
grow. On the first night, 546 people camped 
out in front of Duke Chapel; by the time 
Tisdale delivered an official statement to the 
crowd on April 10, it numbered approximate- 
ly 2,000 strong. 

During the week, a number of speakers ad- 
dressed the crowd, including leaders from Dur- 
ham's black community, faculty members, and 
folk singers Joan Baez, David Harris, and Pete 
Seeger. The national press was slow to cover 
the story, ostensibly because the protest was 
orderly and peaceful rather than marked by 
the more headline -making turbulence pre- 
vailing at other campuses. The dining-hall 
workers, maids, and janitors went on strike, 
and factions of students were in charge of 
bringing food to campus and distributing it 
among the crowd. The entire event was or- 
derly — there were even row monitors — with 
few exceptions. Those ranged from inconse- 
quential heckling by non-participants to 
antagonism between faculty colleagues in 
certain departments. After Tisdale's public 
statement, which broadly recognized the need 
to respond to "the financial situation of our 
non-academic employees," the student body 
trekked to Page Auditorium to discuss the 
next step, a gathering marked by exhaustion 
and disagreement. 

In practical terms, the Vigil brought about 
significant change. Local #77 gained visibil- 

Reachingfor consensus: After the board of 
trustees announced it was sympathetic to the 
needs of non-academic employees, Vigil participants 
joined hands to sing "We Shall Overcome." 
Pictured, from left, are administrators Charles 
Huestis and Frank Ashmore, hoard of trustees 
chair Wright Tisdale, and students Reed Kramer 
and ]on Kinney 

ity; wages for non-academic employees were 
eventually raised to the minimum wage; and 
Knight ultimately did resign from Hope Valley 
Country Club. (The first black club member 
was admitted in 1992.) 

On a more philosophical level, the Vigil 
touched the lives of those involved in myriad 
ways. Significantly, more than three-quarters 
of those who eventually participated in the 
Vigil had never joined in any kind of demon- 
stration before. Some mark it as the moment 
of their own personal political awakening; 
others cite it as a turning point in the univer- 
sity's history that ranks with the Bassett Affair 
of 1903 (when the board of trustees refused to 
censure professor John Spencer Bassett for his 
published views critical of race relations at 

March -April 1998 

the time). Thirty years later, we invited students, 
faculty, and administrators to reflect on the 
Vigil's importance at the time, and its lasting 

William Griffith 50 was assis- 


emissary between the students and ad- 
ministration as events unfolded. now 
a vice president emeritus, he lives in 
Durham and continues to be involved 
in A variety of 



After Martin jf~^ 
Luther King was 
killed, the students 
made it clear that 
they wanted to do 
something. It gave 
me great concern 
when they indica- 
ted that they were 
thinking of going 
into Hope Valley 
and some of the 
other wealthy 
areas of Durham 
to knock on doors 

tell the resi- < ^ ri ffi t ' l: " rea "^ was s P ecia L to Duke and to higher education; 
\ like it happened anywhere else in the country." 

dents what the 


community should be doing. I knew that a 
lot of the people who lived there carried fire- 
arms and there was concern about black- 
white relationships, and I felt it would be a 
dangerous thing to do. I also felt it would be 
counterproductive. I told them I thought they 
were making a big mistake and that if they 
really wanted to make an impact, they should 
go into Duke Forest, where people would be 
more receptive. They would be talking with 
Duke faculty and staff and people who shared 
a sensitivity to what they were doing. 

After the first meeting or two [at Doug 
Knight's house], I told them I thought they 
were losing momentum by staying there. I 
thought they should come back to campus. 
The university was already working on a num- 
ber of aspects of the demands — salaries of 
biweekly employees and other areas. So I felt 
that what the students were doing had the 
potential to accelerate those discussions. I guess 
my feeling in a circumstance like that is that 
Duke is a family and if you want to change 
things, you should try to work with your fam- 
ily first before going externally. 

[Back on campus] I was concerned that there 
were students who were very much opposed — 
I guess you would call them conservative — 
who felt that it was wrong and didn't feel 
there ought to be some of the changes that 

were being suggested. And I was afraid of 
conflict between those groups, and also peo- 
ple from the outside who had started to come 
in. The thing I liked best about it was that it 
didn't have the ramifications that there were 
at other universities, meaning no damage to 
buildings and people. It was a non-violent oc- 
casion and students were very good at main- 
taining that, and wouldn't pay attention to 
the taunting. That was the uniqueness of the 
situation. I think it's a lot easier to do physi- 
cal violence to something because you're re- 
sponding to your emotions and you get im- 
mediate gratifica- 
tion. And this was 
slow gratification, 
and it took disci- 
pline to do that. I 
have a great deal 
of respect for the 
leadership that 
made it happen 
that way. It really 
was special to 
Duke and to 
higher education; 
^nothing like it 
I happened any- 
i where else in the 
1 country. 

g I have always 
= had a lot of re- 
spect for Doug 
Knight and felt 

that he was damaged so badly that he might 
never recover. But I always felt that he was 
the right person at the right time. Knight was 
a very sensitive person; he was an administra- 
tor but also a poet and a scholar. He was sen- 
sitive to what was taking place. You really 
needed someone who had a feeling for the 
community and I think he did. He had a spe- 
cial empathy for Duke. 

Jon Kinney '68 


Students of Duke University (ASDU) 
and chosen as one of the negotiators 
at Knight's house. He traveled to 
Atlanta for Martin Luther King Jr.'s 
funeral with a group of duke stu- 
dents and faculty member s.amuel 
DuBois Cook. Now an attorney, he 
lives in Arlington, Virginia. 

We did this one right. It showed me the 
value of a small cadre of people making com- 
mitted decisions. We may have argued among 
ourselves, but we made a commitment and 
we worked together. To this day, I don't think 
the administration realized how organized we 
were. We made demands the university could 
agree to, not pie-in-the-sky things like stop 
the war or end segregation. I was not there 

when Joan Baez and David Harris played [on 
April 8], but the students turned down their 
request to make the Vigil into a Vietnam anti- 
war protest. That was a legitimate issue, but it 
was not what the Vigil was about. 

The only negative was the gathering in 
Page Auditorium. It was democracy run amok, 
with everyone shouting. People were extremely 
tired and emotional and we were close to a 
situation where we had lost control because 
groups were divided among themselves. That 
was one time when it could have derailed, but 
the rest of the time there was a strong feeling 
that we're in this together. I believe that if 
given the choice and people are forced to 
think beyond their immediate needs, there is 
an innate sense of community and doing what 
is right that transcends everything else.... 

Running for office never had any appeal to 
me after my Duke experience. I felt we ac- 
complished more with the Vigil than I would 
have in twenty years of elected office. My 
ASDU presidency was nothing compared to 
the ability of a small group of people to effect 

Douglas M. Knight was presi- 
dent of Duke University from 1963 to 
1969. Like most university presidents 
of that time, he found himseli 
up in rapidly changing political and 


of Dreams-. The Nature and Legacy of 
the 1960s (Duke University Press), 
Knight describes the role of universi- 

Given the power of the board of 
trustees and his own diminished abili- 
ty to make binding administrative 
decisions, "he says, he "often had 
authority but no power." now at 
work on a new autobiographical 
book, Enduring Change, about the 
role of education from the thirties 
to the present, knight lives in new 
Jersey and is the president of the 
Questar Corporation. 

I don't know if the students realized where 
my heart was and where my efforts were to 
deal with the very things the Vigil went on to 
address — the place of our employees and our 
lower-paid staff. I had to fight against some 
pretty reactionary opinions among senior 
administrators who felt that we should pay 
[those employees] as little as we could, using 
appalling language and so forth. There were a 
great many members of the Duke constituen- 
cy who didn't care whether Martin Luther 
King lived or died; they felt he was disruptive. 
So there were real stress lines, really ugly things 
going on in the community. That's what made 
my position so odd; students felt I had a cer- 
tain set of attitudes I didn't have. My own 


convictions regarding the war and race rela- 
tions were very much like theirs. They couldn't 
imagine how much I agreed with them. 

I was fighting things both internal and 
external. I had grave difficulties working with 
The Duke Endowment. When I was hired, 
they gave me a list of people they wanted to 
see fired. I had to do combat to save my own 
and the university's integrity. Things are very 
different now, hut at the time, the Endowment 
exerted a great deal of power over how the 
university was run. [History professor] Robert 
Durden is writing a book about The Duke En- 
dowment with the encouragement and sup- 
port of the Endowment; they've tried to make 
amends for the past, and I'm happy I've lived 
long enough to see that happen.... 

[When all this happened] I was still in my 
forties, so I was much younger than most of 
my peers. In a sense, I was a prisoner of my 
own success. I had been a college president at 
the age of thirty-two and had already been a 
college president ten years before I got to 
Duke, so I was thoroughly embedded. I felt 
that it required more energy every day than I 
could recruit and that's why at the time I got 
sick for awhile. The energy demands were so 
intense, way beyond what anyone knew except 
for one or two people. These were situations 
that by definition you couldn't handle proper- 
ly; whatever you did was wrong because the 
constituents were so divided among them- 
selves.... [When I left my house for medical 
reasons] part of me felt like a draft dodger, I 
suppose, but I was told flatly that I must not 
be there anymore, that I was stressing myself 
too much. We had a place on Kerr Lake, and 
I kept up with things through phone calls. 
But I had a wonderfully strong group in 
place — Chuck Huestis, Taylor Cole, Bill Grif- 
fith — they deserve enormous credit.... 

In the fall of 1968, after the Vigil but before 
the [ 1969] occupation of the Allen Building, 
I said to my wife one night, I'm feeling a lot 
better and there's still so much to do and I 
think I can stick it out for a while. She is a 
very strong person, very inner- directed, and 
she is not a woman who cries. But I remember 
looking over at her — she was hanging her 
dress up in the closet — and tears were run- 
ning down her face. And I said to myself, you 
can't do this to these people who are your 
family. I knew at that moment that I had to 
find a decent way out. Later, during the occu- 
pation of the Allen Building, things were real- 
ly bad; there was violence in the air. The 
KKK and boys in pick-up trucks with gun 
racks were on the edge of campus waiting for 
dark. For a time, our son stayed overnight at 
a friend's house; we were that worried about 
his safety. Quite apart from the pressure put 
on me by the board, I realized this had to stop 
because it was tearing everybody up. It was 
disintegrating my family. That's the sort of 

thing students didn't have the maturity to 

It was quite an experience to find that I'd 
been exiled from the community where I'd 
made my whole life — I'm referring to the uni- 
versity community. It was so destructive in 
the short term. I had to become someone else 
or I would be destroyed. I couldn't retire. I 
couldn't afford it financially and I couldn't do 
it psychologically. I was never at odds in my 
heart with the things we were trying to do in 
the university, although I was certainly neu- 
tralized quite often. In the long view of histo- 
ry, I'm glad I had the chance to do the right 
thing. But I had never planned on destroying 
my career, because that's what happened. 

Margaret Small '68, known vs 

"Bunny" \s an undergraduate, arrived 
at duke \s a conservative "x avy 
BRAT" who planned to major in chem- 
istry. A sophomore-year modern world 
history class changed all that; she 
became active in the civil rig1 i 
ment, voter registr \tio\, and the ecu- 
menical christ] \n studen1 movement. 
During the Vigil, she was one of the 
main student leaders a 
to negotiate with knight at eiis house. 
She now lives in Chicago, where she 
works with high school math teach- 
ers in public sch 

In the spring of 
my junior year, 
ran for president 
of Panhel. My 
platform was that 
sororities as they 
were constituted 
on campus were 
social clubs that 
offered no rea 
contribution. It 
was a waste of re- 
sources, and we 
should be in- 
volved in trying to 
improve things. 
And I won. That 

summer I went on Dedicated optimist: Small, center, recalls that she and her peers 
a trip throughout "\, e [ ieve i t ^ t t f we u , orfce( j together we mu \ d change things . 
Southeast Asia we fcfo> t ^^ ; t was not p oss n,i e ," 
for a seminar 

sponsored by the University Christian move- 
ment, and it had a profound influence on my 
sense of necessity to act. When I got back, I 
decided that the whole idea of sororities was 
morally untenable and not something you 
could reform. It was premised on selectivity, 
which found its meaning in harming other 
people by making distinctions about who was 
or wasn't valid. Any social system based on 

acceptance and popularity that involved 
ranking and then eliminating people was 
destructive and bad. So I resigned as Panhel 
president, which really stirred up the pot! 

By this time, I was already working with 
people in Durham and the local union. After 
Dr. King was assassinated, those of us who 
were activists met with Oliver Harvey (a jan- 
itor who was the first organizer of the union 
movement at Duke). We decided on a can- 
dlelight march. The whole development of 
what happened came from a circle of people 
who were involved out of religious affilia- 
tions — the University Christian movement, 
the YWCA — so there was a shared frame- 
work.... We didn't see ourselves as radical. We 
weren't destroying property or burning cities; 
we were a moderate voice of reason. We 
weren't challenging the university's power; 
we were challenging the university to play the 
role universities in liberal societies are sup- 
posed to play. 

There was a struggle over whether to leave 
Knight's house. Some people didn't think he 
was really sick and wanted to keep occupying 
the house. Most of us thought we'd lose sup- 
port if we did that. We never really knew the 
status of his health, but whatever illness he 
may have had was precipitated by the stress of 
facing that situation.... 

The women's movement was just beginning 
to emerge across the country. We had not 
consciously taken on the issue of why guys 
assumed they 
should be in 
charge, and per- 
sonally I never 
felt that way, so I 
felt comfortable 
being one of the 
negotiators [at 
Knight's house]. 
It was a sign of 
the times that no 
one who was sup- 
porting the is- 
|sues thought I 
i shouldn't do it. 
| And in fact the 
1 women formed 
;the backbone of 
the Vigil because 
they played an 
important role in 
organizing how 
food was acquired and distributed. In a way, 
the Vigil was a classic case of middle-class 
college kids using the skills they have to orga- 
nize something. There were teams and row 
captains, infinite divisions of labor, and every- 
one had tasks and responsibilities. There was 
also a lot of education going on — speeches, 
history lessons, different professors talking, 

March -April 1998 

After graduation, I had to choose between 
getting my Ph.D. in women's studies or get- 
ting a trade, so I decided to get a trade, and I 
became a machinist. I worked in the Cali- 
fornia shipyards for eight years, came back to 
Chicago and worked with unions and labor 
movements and as a machinist until Reagan 
got elected and all the industrial jobs went 
overseas. I always thought I was too radical to 
be a public school teacher and I didn't think 
anyone would want me teaching history the 
way I saw it. Since there was a shortage of 
math teachers, I got certified to teach math.... 

It's worth mentioning that the Vigil was a 
time of fermentation for a lot of people. Peo- 
ple involved went in a variety of different 
directions, but it has been wonderful to see 
that a vast majority still have the same moral 
convictions. They are still concerned about 
the fundamental changes our society needs. 
In many ways, American society is much 
more cynical today; it recognizes corruption 
and patronage in politics. It's much harder for 
people to believe in their own actions; they 
get discouraged before they even try. But we 
had an optimism in that we believed if we 
worked together we could change things; we 
didn't think it was not possible. And I still 
believe that, because I'm working with inner- 
city schools trying to figure out ways to sup- 
port people who have nothing. 

David Henderson '68, ■ i >f 
the central student leaders during 
the Vigil, kept a journal i if the event, 


He lives 
Tyler. Ti vs. 

I was politi- 
cized at the age 
of six or seven by 
Tennessee Ernie 
Ford. It was about 
that time that "16 
Tons" was a ma- 
jor hit. It was my 
favorite song for 
years and made 
me a lifelong 
friend of mine- 
workers. I knew 

there was no jus- H enderson: "Tfo is Sue was Duke and what kind of place 
tice in any worker ^ was gomg w fe . 

bilize and politicize a lot of people. The lead- 
ership committee spent a lot of time talking 
contingency and principle. What did we want 
to achieve? What would we do if confronted 
with State Power? Would we adhere to non- 
violence? A lot of the discussion was about 
what we would do if we did not get our de- 

Escalation in revolutionary tactics is a sci- 
ence and an art that I was concerned about 
because I did not want to die in the revolu- 
tion. Nor did I want to go to jail. Unlike the 
adherents of non-violence, I viewed going to 
jail as voluntary political suicide. I was, after 
all, a political science major.... 

I was surprised by the number who showed 
up for the original march to Dr. Knight's 
house. By this time there had been numerous 
civil rights and anti-war demonstrations on 
and off campus where there were only a hand- 
ful of us. When I saw how many we were, I 
knew we had seized a moment in history 
because of the underlying issues. Our num- 
bers grew for two reasons. First and most sim- 
ply, Martin had spoken in Page Auditorium a 
few years earlier on his way to Stockholm to 
receive the Nobel Peace Prize. Many of us who 
heard him there knew we were in the pres- 
ence of a Godly man. We were touched by his 
life and his death. 

But there was a more determining issue. 
All of us in the strike had not become "cheer- 
leaders for justice" and fewer still had or 
retained any loyalty to the working class. The 
issue was Duke and what kind of place Duke 
was going to be. Prior to the spring of 1968, 
Duke was still 
Methodist Flats, 
a Southern insti- 
tution content to 
be a Southern in- 
stitution, with its 
attendant provin- 
cialism and insti- 
tutionalized ra- 
cism. By and large 
the student body 
was beyond Sou- 
thern identity and 
social mores. We 
knew that Duke 
could and there- 
fore should pro- 
vide national and 

owing his or her 

soul to the company store.... 

My conversations during the strike tended 
to be tactical and strategic. I was a nonde- 
script socialist revolutionary, committed to 
furthering whatever it was that was going to 
be the revolution in the United States. I saw 
the unfolding events as an opportunity to mo- 

leadership. That's 
what motivated us 
and made the strike successful: confidence in 

Spurred on by our successful strike, over 
the course of the next ten years I became the 
Reddest of the Red Guards. Fighting against 
the Vietnam War and working in factories 
in and around Durham, I worked to organize 

and revitalize labor unions. I organized a local 
Marxist-Leninist organization and then be- 
came the area leader of a revolutionary com- 
munist party. We had open clubs in most of 
the major factories in Durham, including 
General Electric and the two cigarette facto- 
ries. I was singled out by the FBI's COIN- 
TELPRO offensive and fired from several jobs 
I loved as a machinist for being a communist. 
By 1978 the war was over, there was not going 
to be a revolution, I was burned out, and 
moved to New York City. The next chapter of 
my life could be called "driven mad by Denin." 
I'm still organizing after all these years. 
Now I'm organizing business conferences in 
the area of distressed debt and corporate re- 
organization. Lenin is dead, but capitalism is 
always in a crisis somewhere. Yesterday it was 
Mexico. Today the crisis is spreading over 
Asia. Marx lives on. There is a large and 
growing market of people who capitalize on 
the crises. This is affectionately called on Wall 
Street the "vulture market." I'm in the thick 
of it, organizing the vultures, lawyers, and ac- 
countants who cater to them. I'm sure Marx 
is proud of me still. 

Mary D.B.T. Semans 


Known for her devote 

1' ti GING F! IM ■■ ICE AND 


organizing, semans was a university 
from 1961 to 1981 (and is 
-tee emerita), chairs the 
board of trustees of the duke 
Endowment, and is vice chair of the 
Mary Duke Biddle Foundation. She 

The Vigil was a special chapter in the life of 
Duke. It was a collaboration of students and 
faculty acting for the betterment of the total 
university. The administration realized that the 
students' motives were sincere and serious, 
and talks were started between the administra- 
tion and the representatives of the nonaca- 
demic employees. 

The demonstration arose from a sincere 
motive, I believe. I have always felt, however, 
that the occupation of President Knight's house 
was in error and took away from the "purity" 
of the cause. It was a violation of his rights. 
When he was kind enough to invite them in, 
they should have entered and chatted but 
then should have left. Nothing was accom- 
plished by occupying Dr. Knight's house, and 
it became a senseless gathering showing bad 
manners. I know I speak truthfully because I 
have talked with a former student who says 


that they had a sort of telephone station in 
the house. I have never understood the stu- 
dents' feelings about the president. This whole 
incident exacerbated his illness and I shall 
never forget the night when he said "farewell" 
to the Duke campus and the students were 
gathered in Page Auditorium with long faces. 
One young woman queried: "What did we do 
to him?" 

This to me was an impetuous, uncontrolled 
part of the Vigil and became the target of crit- 
icism, whereas the Silent Vigil on the quad 
was purposeful and amazingly impressive, non- 
violent and constructive. It was the first time, 
I believe, that real attention had been paid to 
these employees who kept the campus going. 

Much credit should go to Charles (Chuck) 
Huestis [then vice president for business and 
finance] for continued talks with the head of 
the non-academic employees while, at the same 
time, the trustees talked. The champion of in- 
telligent dialogue on the board of trustees was 
Charles Wade, who had the savoir faire one 
assigns to the "Southern gentleman" — always 
courteous, wonderful to students, and a great 
compromiser for good causes. I have always 
felt the trustees wanted to do the right thing. 

The period represented a crossroads in 
Duke's life. The institution had started with 
employees who wanted to work at the "new" 
institution in the Thirties. In the hospital, for 
example, many people wanted to work with 
new people, the doctors and their associates. 
For these reasons the salaries could be low and 
they never kept pace with rising costs of living 
and pay scales elsewhere. Duke was nervous 
about unions and collective bargaining and 
there was much apprehension about them 
during the Vigil period. 

Despite unpleasantness, hurt feelings, etc., 
there were golden moments, a new maturity, 
elements of unselfishness on the part of stu- 
dents, and a new respect for non-academic 
employees who had gained decent wages as a 
result. Many faculty members had been sup- 
portive and the administration plus trustees 
had listened and acted. 

John Strange '60 was an assistant 



NC Fund, an innovative anti-poverty 
organization. there was some specu- 
lation that his high visibility during 

th1 \ i. iil thwarted his bid for tenure, 
a theory he dismisses. he is now a 

at the University of South 
Alabama's Center for Technology 
AND lives in Daphne, Alabama. 

My sophomore year at Duke, the person 
who cleaned my room was Oliver Harvey. I 
had some textbooks on race issues and histo- 
ry and he asked to borrow them. We got to 

talking about those books, and about the lives 
of the maids and janitors at Duke and how 
they were treated and mistreated. He wanted 
me to do an article about it for The Chronicle 
and I said sure, but I couldn't get any of the 
blacks to participate. About a month later, 
Oliver asked me 
to try again, and ~%_ i_ 
this time I had no 

Strange: "There was no way any 
I accepted an happened. It was serendipitous.. 
offer to come back 

to Duke in 1966 but ended up working virtu- 
ally full-time at the NC Fund while teaching 
classes. I was engaged in issues of race, poli- 
tics, and voting rights, and was in daily con- 
tact with civil rights leaders and advocates. 
When King was assassinated, those of us at 
the Fund were extremely concerned what the 
reaction would be in the black community. At 
the same time, a number of my students 
became upset and mapped out a series of 
plans to do some really wild and woolly 
things — chaining themselves to dining room 
tables, for example — and we became con- 
cerned that these types of activities might be 
a lighted fuse. So I got the students to invite 
me to a series of meetings and we came up 
with a strategy which didn't involve any vio- 
lence, destruction of property, or lawbreaking. 
We spent many hours drafting a list of very 
specific demands. . .. 

I really didn't have much to do with the 
Vigil other than being a faculty member who 
was trusted by those students and who helped 
shape the course of what we did initially. When 
we decided to sit in [at Knight's house], it was 
a decision I participated in quite fully. I was 
an advocate of moving to the quad because 
everyone saw the potential of a positive re- 
sponse, based on the numbers we got at the 
house. But there was no way any of us could 
have predicted what happened. It was seren- 
dipitous; as it evolved it was magic, it was 
beyond any one of us. People who took part 
were really moved and touched.... 

My leaving Duke had nothing to do with 
my ability to stay on the tenure track. I have 
no doubt that I'd be tenured at Duke today if 

I'd decided to stay. But I had a great opportu- 
nity to continue the work we had been doing 
at the Fund.... 

Looking back on sixty years of life, I can 
point to a dozen things that have made a dif- 
ference. I've always been involved in change- 
type activities, 
whether that's 
helping start a 
college that takes 
personal life ex- 
periences into ac- 
count or trying to 
provide access to 
technology to peo- 
ple who don't have 
access. Sometimes 
I've been less suc- 
cessful than I 
I would have liked, 
I but every once in 
i awhile you get 
I lucky and set into 

| motion something 

fuscouldhave predicted what that does brin 8 
it was beyond any one of us." about real changes. 

Charles Huestis 

of the y; . president for 

business Cited as a 

voice of moderation during the 
negotiation process, he was among 
the administrators credited with 

servative trustees to kl.i onsider 
their attitudes toward the st 
and the non-academic employees. 
now a senior vi( e president emeriti s, 

Hi ESTIS LI\ l. - I'-. Dl RHAM. 

When Wright Tisdale flew in, his first an- 
nouncement was that he was going to close 
the university down. That really got us tied up 
in knots. That debate went on for the greater 
part of twenty-four hours. Finally, after trying 
to explain what the students were trying to 
say to us, and emphasizing the fact that it was 
a peaceful demonstration and not out of con- 
trol, Tisdale said he'd heard enough and was 
going to close down the university. I remember 
saying, "Wright, you don't have the authority 
to close this university. At a minimum, you've 
got to take it to the executive committee." 

So that's what we did. We arranged for the 
executive committee to come to town and 
meet at Mary Semans' house because we 
didn't want them on campus. The astonishing 
thing was that when we met, Bill [Griffith] 
and I hardly had to say a word. Wright ex- 
plained what the students were trying to say 
to us, emphasizing that these were our best 
and brightest students. He did a beautiful job 
explaining it. Here was a man I'd been fight- 
ing for forty-eight hours. 

March -April 1998 

It was agreed that Wright would go in front 
of the crowd to read a statement from the 
committee and someone mentioned that there 
would probably be no response at all, followed 
by the crowd singing "We Shall Overcome." 
When it was suggested that it would mean a 
lot to the students if he joined in, Wright gave 
a long, level, cold stare and said, "I'm not sure 
I can do that." But when they started to sing 
the song, I was suddenly aware that here was 
Wright, booming out the song in his baritone 
voice, and he knew the words! He got caught 
up in the emotion of the moment. 

At one of the football games some years 
ago, Bill Griffith and I and one of the fellows 
who was active on campus were talking about 
the "old days" and how quiet the campus is 
now compared to back then. And I said, you 
know, it was hell going through those days but 
they were really great. 

Boyd Tisdale '68, m.a.t. 70, j.d. 

'75 is the son of Wright Tisdale, who 
died in 1975. He is an attorney lining 
in Jacksonville, North Carolina. 

I was in John Strange's seminar on black 
politics and there were some class members 
who actively participated in the Vigil. I recall 
clearly having a conversation with Dad after 
he got to Durham in which he wanted to 
know basically what was going on. And I tried 
to express to him what I had gleaned as a 
student, what the concerns were, and I think 
that gave him a perspective that otherwise he 
wouldn't have had. 

In 1968 there were only a handful of black 
professors at Duke, one of whom, Samuel Cook, 
I had for class my first semester senior year. It 
was one of the best classes I ever took at 
Duke. He was the most articulate teacher; it 
was tempting to just listen to his voice and 
not even take notes. He and I had a number 
of conversations before the Vigil and I later 
heard that someone in the administration 
had expressed reservations about Sam being 
there on a permanent basis. And if my recol- 
lection is correct, when the issue came up at 
a trustee gathering, my dad — who knew who 
my professors were — made clear to the trus- 
tees that his son happened to have that per- 
son as a professor and thought he was pretty 

At the time of the Vigil there was a curfew 
in Durham and there were some nights when 
I was on campus, but I wasn't really active in 
it. I didn't stay out there the whole time. But 
the Vigil was a remarkable event. Students 
went from taking over the president's house 
to a peaceful demonstration for issues that 
were in part uniquely important to Duke but 
also reflected the broader community. 

Samuel DuBois Cook 

the university's first black faculty 
member and an associate professor 
of political science at the time of the 
Vigil. Popular among his students. 
Cook delivered a poignant speech on 
April 10 following his return from 
Kini i's i i neral in Atlanta. "I do not 
know if you fully realize the ultimate 
significance of what you are doing," 
he told the hundreds assembled. "you 
would, of course. expect the victims 
of oppression to sacrifice, to take the 
hot sun, to take the rain, to sleep at 
night in the open and cold air, to 
expose their health, to do everything 
possible to remove the yoke of oppres- 
sion and injustice. but you do not 
expect people born of privilege to 
undergo this harsh treatment. this 
is one of the things i think will help 
to redeem this country and help to 
create the beloved community... you 
are making profound history." cook, 
who was a university trustee from 
1981 to 1993 and is now trustee 
emeritus, is president emeritus of 
Dillard University. 

My own view is that the Silent Vigil was a 
noble event and a sacred or divine experi- 
ence — historical, institutional, symbolic, exis- 
tential, and personal. It was one of those 
supreme and unforgettable mountaintop 
experiences in which the "Word was made 
flesh." I have profoundly and intensely cher- 
ished the event and the experience for thirty 
years. I shall continue to cherish the event 
and the experience, deeply and poignantly 
until I die. Instantly and intuitively, I knew 
that the Silent Vigil was a transcendent mo- 
ment and indelible memory. 

Because M.L. (Dr. King — we always called 
him M.L.) was my dear college classmate and 
precious friend, and because of my own 
involvement in and commitment to the civil 
rights movement and American Dream, his 
assassination was a most wrenching and chill- 
ing personal experience and encounter. My 
immediate reaction to it was revelatory of my 
closest brush with bitterness and unmitigated 
anger. "Every racist," I said at the time, "had 
his finger on the trigger of the gun that killed 
Dr. King." Incidentally, the Silent Vigil, which 
was a creative and redemptive moment, 
helped me to cope with the tragedy and avoid 
the terrible peril of bitterness, anger, and de- 

The participants were, inevitably, over- 
whelmingly white. In the very nature of the 
case, black participants were a very, very small 
minority, which was natural and inevitable in 
view of the tiny black enrollment at Duke at 
the time. The number, quality, and leadership 

of white participants was the most amazing 
part of the story. They came from all over the 
country, but I was especially impressed by the 
white student participants from the small, 
rural towns and hamlets of the Deep South. I 
was also impressed by the determination and 
"staying power" of the movement. Instead of 
being on the quad for a day or so and aban- 
doning the movement, the longer the Silent 
Vigil, the greater the number of participants. 
One of my students told me that his fellow 
students had to "justify" to themselves their 
non-participation. How interesting and sig- 
nificant! An atmosphere of decency, morality, 
civility, and social, racial, and economic jus- 
tice permeated the campus. A great and proud 
moment in Duke history, ranking with the 
Bassett Affair. 

Honestly, painfully, unfortunately, and 
regretfully, the response of the administration 
was, from my frail angle of vision, weak, my- 
opic, institutionally unimaginative, ethically 
insensitive, humanistically blind, extremely 
disappointing, and quite unworthy not only of 
Duke, but also of its own great potential. I 
could not escape or hide the feeling that the 
administration was terribly on the wrong side 
of a great moral issue and missed, so sadly, a 
great and unique opportunity. I must say, how- 
ever, that Dean William "Bill" Griffith made a 
tremendous contribution to the success of the 
Silent Vigil. He had the confidence of stu- 
dents and others. In terms of logistical and 
moral support, he was a godsend. He also 
helped to ensure that the bond between the 
administration and the participants was not 
broken. He largely kept the lines of commu- 
nication open. Dr. R. Taylor Cole was also 
a key player. Thankfully, Duke's remarkable 
sense of community stayed intact. 

There is, of course, another side to the ad- 
ministration's stance, but "the other side" 
must speak for itself. I do not, for a moment, 
question the good will, motives, honor, or 
decency of the administration, or impugn its 

To be sure, life has taught me to recognize 
and appreciate the ambiguities and complex- 
ities of human encounters, conflicts, and 
struggles, and to avoid identifying my per- 
spective with finality or with "The Truth." We 
are all men and women with all our human 
frailties and limitations. We are not God. 
Thus I suppose and hope that I am today a bit 
wiser and more tolerant and understanding of 
detractors and opponents than in the glorious 
days of the Silent Vigil. 

Sarah Harkrader Brau 68, 


D.C., since 1969. She has worked in 
the Commerce Department and the 
X \Th >nal Institutes of Health, and 


now volunteers at the white house. 
Although she did not actively 
participate in the vlgil, she says it 
shaped her life in profound ways. 

I came to Duke from Mount Airy, North 
Carolina, the proverbial Mayberry of Andy 
Griffith fame — hardly a breeding ground for 
radicals or campus activists. In fact, this 
daughter of a conservative Republican father 
and a loyal Democratic mother was taught to 
value stability and har- 
mony above discord; 
civilized discourse 
above disagreement; re- 
spect for elders above 
youthful independence; 
and to accord educa- 
tional institutions the 
reverence my parents 
accorded their beloved 

The events in the 
civil rights movement 
touched me little at 
all; I attended segre- 
gated public schools, 
segregated churches, 
swimming pools, and 
community centers. I 
watched the Klan 
march down the main 
street of our town on a 
Saturday afternoon and 
tried to figure out who 
was who from their Spirited start: Hi 
shoes, a favorite game.... present a list of demands 

I finally saw Martin 
Luther King, just after he had won the Nobel 
Prize. I went out of curiosity and some reluc- 
tant admiration. By then I was a Duke under- 
graduate and the tides of the Vietnam draft, 
the student activism, and the civil rights 
movement were beginning to converge. I was 
about to be swept up in the forces that would 
affect me the rest of my life.... 

I didn't participate in the Vigil, mainly be- 
cause I thought classes were sacred and edu- 
cation would set us all free to change the 
world. I hung around the fringes, marching to 
Doug Knight's house in the dark of night to 
protest his membership in the Hope Valley 
Country Club and his lack of response to the 
frustration of the students over matters both 
academic and racial. I remember thinking 
mainly what my parents would say about my 
daring to challenge the president of this or 
any college, in their experience a person of 
unquestioned integrity. 

I watched as I walked the quad from 
sparsely attended classes as friends sat in the 
rain and mud, protesting. I watched as the 
trustees joined hands and sang, however un- 
willingly, the theme of the movement. 1 am 

not proud that I watched, and perhaps that 
more than anything has led me to where I am 
today. I feel guilty that the men in my class 
fought the Vietnam War while I did not; I feel 
guilty that others fought the early civil rights 
battles while I did not. The only battle I 
fought was to extinguish the blaze set in the 
small frame house on Swift Avenue next to 
my apartment during the dark nights of cur- 
few following the King riots — a calling card 
left by the forces of darkness to intimidate 

of students and faculty marched to President Knights house in Duke Forest to 

both the students and the black residents of 
the house. The fire department could not come, 
so we students fought the blaze with garden 
hose and bucket. I will never forget the fear 
on the faces of those residents, and their grat- 
itude for our help. . .. 

As thirty years bring ironies on top of 
ironies, it is hard to sort out the cause and 
effect. A Vigil, a protest, years of silence fol- 
lowed by quiet action in quiet corridors. A 
childhood in the South, a university in the 
South, brushes with international experience 
with Vietnam leading to a career as an inter- 
national spouse, a yearning to right some old 
wrongs finally after remaining silent too long 
leads to serving in the White House under 
the Democrats, even at a lowly level — life 
lurches somewhat messily ahead and under- 
neath it all, underpinning it all, I still hear the 
song "We Shall Overcome." 

Bertie Howard 76 came to duke 

in 1965. Written accounts of the 
Vigil portray her as doubtful that 
the energy and zeal that was present 

at Doug Knight's house could be suc- 
cessfully maintained, and that there 
WAS a danger that the student 
protest would devolve into a party 
atmosphere. She now works for 
Africa News Service in Durham. 

You must remember these events have 
taken on a completely different significance 
now than they had in 1968, at least for me. 
But then I'm a child of the sttuggles of the 
civil rights era — like 
many others in Duke's 
"chosen few," a mon- 
iker coined by some 
community folk for 
Duke's African-Ameri- 
can students. We spent 
much of our early life 
involved in protest. 
Many days my grade 
school was interrupted 
as we stood and ap- 
plauded students from 
a local historically 
black college as they 
marched downtown to 
picket local stores that 
would not hire African- 
Americans. My sopho- 
imore homecoming 
i football game did not 
\ happen because most 
I of the team was in jail 
| for boycotting segrega- 
tion. For several years, 
I did not shop in my 
hometown because of a 
boycott. Back then black folks didn't think a 
lot about being active; you had to fight for 
your rightful place in society. 

Coming to Duke did not change any of 
that. In addition to the normal acclimation to 
college life, you had to learn to deal in a hos- 
tile environment. For black students some of 
our community work was a response to find 
acceptance. So we caught the Durham bus to 
go to [the] Hayti [community] to eat and play 
where we could be at home, and we made 
friends with students at North Carolina Col- 
lege, where there was a comfort zone. 

My best white friends at Duke were ac- 
tivists and most were involved in a number of 
Durham community projects. The campus Y 
was a hotbed of community work. Students 
were living in the Edgemont community and 
doing community organizing for class credit. 
Many supported the Duke workers' union. 
Registering people to vote was a regular Sat- 
urday activity. And the war in Vietnam was 
just starting to escalate. There was no short- 
age of important issues to keep you busy — 
and relevant.... 

Continued on page 49 

March -April 1998 

A L L E R Y 

Monica Carlson 



Garden of Native Plants in the Sarah R Duke 


WORK SCHEDULE Monday, 1-4:30 p.m.; 
Tuesday, 12:30-4:30 p.m.; Wednesday, 1-3 p.m. 


JOB.' I like working outside and am thinking of 
concentrating in botany within my major. Mainly, 
this just seemed like something I would love to do. 

Distinguishing between weeds and flowers. If you 
make a mistake, you just might, in a matter of 
seconds, uproot some rare plant that took several 
years to reach its current state of beauty, or some- 
thing to that disastrous effect. 

LEARNED ON THE JOB/ To ask questions if I 
don't understand a task before doing it. Fortu- 
nately, I have not yet made any major mistakes that 
I'm aware of. 



"Wow, that sounds cool. Do they have any more 

ABOUT WHAT YOU DO IS... Some people 
might find weeding, potting, and raking boring, but 
when you're surrounded by the beauty of the gar- 
dens, nearly every task is enjoyable. 

CAREER PLANS As of now, I am majoring in 
biology and planning to go to grad school to study 
botany (you can't major in botany as an undergrad- 
uate at Duke). I would like to have a career either 
as a field biologist or botanist, or work — maybe a 
little higher up in the ranks — at a place very simi- 
lar to where I work now. 


STUDENT LABORERS Campus jobs — the mundane 

and the marvelous alike — are a commitment for 

undergraduates who are otherwise devoting hours to 

the library, lab, and classroom. For work- study students, 

these regular paid hours help defray tuition costs and 

living expenses. For others, unpaid assignments 

provide opportunities to explore personal or professional 

interests. Whether compensated financially or not, the 

students we contacted all claim to have reaped singular 

rewards from their extracurricular endeavors. 


David A. Ahern 

CLASS YEAR AND MAJOR Junior, physics 

JOB DESCRIPTION Peer Minister for the Lutheran 
Campus Ministry 


• Sunday 5-7:30 p.m.: planning and weekly Sunday 

• Tuesday lla.m.-12 noon: discussion and training 
with Lutheran Campus Pastor 

• Thursday 8-9 p.m.: lead and participate in Bible Study 

• Friday 5:30-6:30 p.m.: participate in Communion 

Also, I spend an additional two hours per week of 
one-on-one meeting, counseling, and ministering 
with students 



Even though I don't see it as a "job" per se, this job 
allows me to interact with other students on a spiritual 
level. And it gives me an opportunity to be a leader in 
a church setting, as well as enabling me to work one-on- 
one with students who are in need of a good listener. 



Learning to reach out to students 
whom I do not know. In these days of quick e-mail 
communication, there is a tendency to want to com- 
municate via a computer monitor. 
However, when trying to interact on a personal level, 
this is the worst way to communicate. I need to force 
myself to pick up a phone, or walk over to someone's 

room instead of typing a message. With no experi- 
ence with ministerial work, it has taken a lot to build 
enough confidence to call up someone I do not know 
and, for instance, say,"So-and-so told me you're 
having a hard time lately and could use someone to 
talk to. Would you like to go grab a cup of coffee?" 

LEARNED ON THE JOB.' How many techniques 
there are for having a conversation with someone 
who is in a time of need; I've learned quite a bit 
about how to make someone feel comfortable and 
to trust in my role as a listener. 

most of my friends are Christian, a major response I 
get is one of admiration, almost. They feel the job is 
very worthwhile and are happy that I get to have 
such a fulfilling job. 

AB( )UT WHAT YOU DO IS... That my job is to 
drag as many people to church as possible. While I 
would certainly love to see many more people go to 
church, my role as a peer minister is to minister to 
people, and counsel them in their times of need. 

CAREER PLANS I plan to attend graduate school 
in pursuit of a Ph.D. in physics. I would then like 
to work in academe or in industry. I also plan on 
taking an active role in my church, wherever that 
may be, as a lay member. 

Nikki Husat 



) EAR AND MAJOR Junior, biology 

^ ^ 


IOB DESCR1PTU >N Daily maintenance of 
mosquito fish and helping to set up and run preda- 
tion experiments. 



WORK SCHEDULE Maintenance is about an 

flgK 4^B 


hour a day, more if we are running an experiment. 

JWr ^^" 



^r MBi 

The opportunity to get hands-on lab experience in 
marine ecology, which is the field that I am looking 
to go into. 


Raoul, the resident cockroach, who likes to make 
surprise appearances in and around the fish tanks. 

RNEDONTHEJOB? That fish can jump out 
of their tanks; it isn't too fun to try and catch them 
after they have escaped. 



think it's interesting that I have the chance to work 
on an experiment that is already in progress. 

C 'ARLER PLANS I do not have any specific plans 
at this point, but I am definitely looking for some- 
g thing in the field of marine ecology. 




March-April 1998 11 

Melanie Shirley 

CLASS YEAR AND XI A|OR Sophomore, political counselor in my hometown first sparked my interest 
science in the university, but a campus tour made me crazy 

i iPTION Admissions office tour guide 

about it! All the tour guides love the chance to make 
an impact on others by talking about what makes 

WORK SCHEDULE One hour-long tour a week Duke so unique and exciting. 


Sometimes there is a person who has a million 

Craig Parker 

CLASS YEAR AND MAJOR Junior, religion and 

JOB DESCRIPTION Duke Chapel tower elevator 
operator (a.k.a. "Elevator Guy," "Vertical Transpor- 
tation Engineer," or "Lord of the Lift") 

WORK SCHEDULE Tuesday, Thursday, and 
Friday, 1-4 p.m. 


JOB.' The hours fit in well with my class schedule, 
I enjoy meeting a variety of people, and I have 
instant access to the best view of the campus. 

Nothing comes to mind except for the occasional 
individual with bad breath (the elevator is circular 
with a diameter of approximately three feet, so the 
quarters are pretty tight). 

LEARNED ON THE JOB.' That operating an 
elevator is a lot like life: You have to deal with 
people up close and personal if you are going to 
make it through the ups and downs. 

Could I bring a date up to the top after hours? 
(By the way, such things are not allowed.) Nobody 
has tried to bribe me, but I should try to find out 
how high they would be willing to go. 

ABOUT WHAT YOU DO IS... There aren't 
many misconceptions (the job is very simple), but 
many people do not know that one can go all the 
way to the top of the chapel. 

CAREER PLANS My career plans are not set right 
now. I do feel a calling in my life to enter the ministry 
of the Christian church in some capacity, but such 
a calling can include a great number of possibilities. 
I simply do not know whether the future will in- 
volve teaching or ministry or missions or something 
else. Due to the fact that my career plans do not 
include operating elevators, I can't say that this job 
has had a direct influence on my future. Indirectly, 
however, I think operating an elevator and the per- 
sonal interaction that comes with the job has, as it 

§ always will, given me a deep love and appreciation 

sj for the rich tapestry of humanity. 

I could not pass up the opportunity to share Duke questions and doeslVt waM ^ ^ ^ tQ answ£r 

with anyone who is interested. Hearing an admissions anyon£ ^ ft h alr£ady g cM[enge tQ d£VQt£ | 


Noah Borun 

\R AND MAJOR Junior, public policy 
and economics 

JOB DESCRIPTION America Reads tutor. I work 
at Forest View Elementary School with four children; 
English is a second language for three of them, and 
one needs extra help with reading. The technique 
we use is called Reading Recovery, and was taught to 
us by the school's program coordinator, Susan Ketch, 
who is a veritable Yoda of the reading world. 

WORK SCHEDULE Tuesday and Thursday, 12-3 p.m. 


JOB.' The chance to work with children, and to 
affect their lives positively. This is something I 

would do (and have done) for free, so the idea of 
getting paid for it was too good to pass up. 




can be difficult and frustrating for both of us when 
we hit a serious language barrier. Some of the 
children read English better than they speak it, so 
it can be difficult to know if they're getting anything 
out of what they read. 

LEARNED ON THE JOB: Children have an amaz- 
ing ability to learn. They take in and employ new 
concepts faster than I think most Duke students do. 
It's incredible what a difference a little personal 
attention can bring about! 

1SE IS... How did 


you get paid to do THAT? 

ABOUTWHATYOU DO IS... That I'm a student 
teacher or teaching assistant. The program directors 
hate that; we're reading specialists, they say, and we 
serve a specific purpose for these kids. 

CAREER PLANS I wish I knew. I'm fairly sure law 
school is in my future sometime not too long after 
graduation. I'm very interested in international 
affairs, and possibly environmental law. One thing I 
know after an experience like this one is that it'll 
have to be something I can feel good about — sorry, 
Merrill Lynch. 

equal attention to everyone in a large 
really important to make sure that e' 
chance to ask questions. 

LEARNED ON THE JOB.' I love to talk and was 
pleasantly surprised to realize how being a tour guide 
improves public speaking skills. The interaction 
makes it less intimidating than addressing an audi- 
ence, but I can practice the same skills. Fot example, 
I try to appeal to a wide age group in order to make 

you give a tour? What would you do if I came on your 
tour and asked how many trees are in the Duke 
Forest? Or how many bricks it took to build Randolph 
[residence hall] ?" 

ABOUTWHATYOU DO IS... People think that 

:e soun 
perfect. We may think Duke is the best university, 
but it will have some problems like any other place 
and it would be worse if we denied it. 

CAREER PLANS Law school. 

March -April 1998 




Psychologist David Rubin uses sophisticated machines, immobilizing masks, 
and modest children's rhymes to explore how we store the memories of our lives. 

Looking like a horror-movie prop, the 
white mesh mask envelopes the young 
man's face, clamping his head immobile 
in the cavity of the great thumping machine. 
Periodically, a puff of air enters his nose, smel- 
ling of coconut, salami, strawberry... or some- 
times nothing at all. 

"Suntan lotion," he says to the researcher 
after the coconut smell. "I remember putting 
on suntan lotion when we went to the beach." 
Duke experimental psychologist David Ru- 
bin carefully records the young man's remi- 
niscence, as he will for those sparked by some 
three dozen other odors over two hours. Once 
the young man is extricated 
from the machine, Rubin 
will have more data points 
to inform his explorations 
of the nature of memory. 
He and his colleagues use 
Duke Medical Center's 
functional Magnetic Res- 
onance Imaging (fMRI) ma- 
chine to try to eavesdrop on 
the brain as it undergoes the 
mysterious process of re- 
membering. Rubin hopes 
that the fMRI images — 
which light up where the 

brain shows increased blood flow that pre- 
sumably reflects increased activity — will 
yield "movies" showing how remembering pro- 
gresses across the brainscape. 

But Rubin is not interested merely in the 
bare neural machinery of recall, as it func- 
tions in rote exercises at recalling lists of 
words. Rather, he is fascinated by the rich 
process of "autobiographical memory" by 
which we seem to relive the ghost-memories 
of our lives, the very fabric of our identity 
woven over decades of living. In his explo- 
rations, Rubin and his colleagues employ not 
only the latest technology, but the most ven- 



ithout turning the page to look at the drawings of the real 
drawing the images on the "head" side of a penny, 
and quarter. Psychologist David Rubin is betting you can'l 
and in fact will make some standard mistakes. 

erable tool of human ingenuity. Over the 
years, Rubin and a cadre of undergraduate 
and graduate students have conducted a mul- 
titude of clever experiments to tease out new 
insights into the nature of memory. They have 
tested how people remember images on coins, 
Academy Award-winning movies, and even 
the modest children's counting rhyme "Eenie, 
Meenie, Miney, Mo." 

The very sophisticated analysis of these 
seemingly simple experiments has revealed im- 
portant, often startling insights into how our 
memories work. Rubin has quantified the strik- 
ing phenomenon of the "memory bump," in 
which we remember most 
vividly those events that hap- 
pened between the ages of 
ten and thirty. Such studies 
go to the heart of many pro- 
foundly important human 
questions, he says. "For one 
thing, memory is something 
that people lose in many dis- 
eases, including Alzheimer's 
disease, amnesia, and head 
injuries. It's deeply upsetting 
to them, and the hope is that 
the understanding we can de- § 

corns, try your 
nickel, dime, 
get them right, 

velop might eventually help 





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...CAN YOU? 

alleviate such problems." 

"But more broadly, memo- 
ry is people's lives," he says. 
"It's what people tell you 
about themselves. When peo- 
ple sit around and talk, they 
tell stories from their lives. 
The natural human way that 
people present themselves 
socially is through their mem- 
ories, and they often base 
their behavior on what they 
remember." Thus, says Rubin, 
his studies seek insights 
that help people understand 
themselves, as well as 
advance scientific under- 
standing about cognitive 
function. "It's a way of taking 
hard-nosed, quantitative 
laboratory research and 
applying it in an area that 
people can understand." 

Like his fellow cognitive 
scientists, Rubin understands 
that he is chipping away at a 
massive, profound mystery. "There's really no 
coherent theory of memory," he says. "Even 
though researchers have located many mem- 
ory functions in the brain, that is a far cry 
from figuring out the memory process itself. 
It's a standard error to believe that if you 
locate something in the brain and name it, 
you control and understand it. We've done 
that with memory." 

The popular concept that human memory 
is like computer data storage reveals most 
dramatically how woefully inadequate the un- 
derstanding of memory is, says Rubin. "This 
theory implies that when a piece of informa- 
tion is stored in long-term memory, it's right, 
it's accurate, and it never changes by itself. 
But that's not the way biological systems 
work. Some nerve cells may die, for example, 
changing a memory a little bit. The computer 
theory also holds that all information is the 
same, that imagery isn't distinct from narra- 
tive." But memories are actually woven from 
all kinds of different sensory experiences, each 
with a different neural circuit. These kinds of 
experiences include narrative, imagery, rhythm, 
and motor movement, all of which integrate 
to provide a unified memory. "As a baby you 
put things in your mouth and ran your tongue 
around them and built images of them that 
became memories. Or, if I put you in a room 
with a blindfold on, after a while you'd still 
develop a mind's-eye image of the room, as 
you would if you could see it. So, memory has 
a multi-modal, spatial aspect, too. 

"Memory is really what happens when the 
whole brain works together. When you have 
a vivid memory of the high school prom or 
when you remember a song or a poem, the 


Here are images of real U.S. coins and a set representing what people typically 
draw using recall. If you're like most people, you drew all the coins similar 
to an idealized coin with properties no coins really have. For example, you 
might have inscribed a value on the "head" side of the coin, or faced Lincoln the same 
way as the other figures, or drawn "In God We Trust" across the top of each coin. So, 
Rubin asks, if you can't remember the coins you see every day, what about the really 
important stuff? 

memory sort of takes over and moves you 
from where you are back into a state of recall. 
A memory has a bigger effect than some sort 
of a computer access. It really involves the 
whole body in a reconstructive, emotional, and 
sensory experience, not just data retrieval." 

Such rich biological concepts of memory, 
even though more accurate, can be profound- 
ly disquieting for people who depend on the 
computer theory, says Rubin. "Lawyers really 
don't want memory to be a reconstruction of 
subjective experiences by a changing biologi- 
cal system. They want memories to be accu- 
rate because the legal system depends on it. 
But memory of a visual scene, for instance, is 
a process in which photons hit the eye, some- 
thing happens in the brain, and months later 
when somebody asks you what you saw, you 
reconstruct it using a biological system. We 
know the photons didn't just go up little tubes 
and get stored, or that people don't have a 
videotape player in their head." 

The fMRI studies, supported by the Olfac- 
tory Research Fund, represent at least a geo- 
graphical approach to understanding how 
memories are evoked, says Rubin. "First, we're 
hoping that the onset of the odor stimulus 
makes olfactory areas become active. Then, 
for those vivid memories, we'd like to see visu- 
al areas become active, because when people 
have a sense of reliving a memory, it often 
means an accompanying image." Other re- 
searchers have found a ten-second lag between 
a stimulus like an odor and a vivid autobio- 
graphical memory. Rubin's aim is to learn more 
about the search process that apparently goes 
on during this lag. "We're asking subjects how 
arduous the search process was. Did they 



really feel they were going 
after something? And where 
does that go on in the 

Rubin and his colleagues 
recognize that geography 
doesn't necessarily reveal 
mechanism. "If we see the 
brain lighting up in one 
place, it could be a center of 
activity or it could be an in- 
hibitory center, or it could 
merely be a way station in 
processing. And maybe a 
small undetected bit of ac- 
tivity could represent a crit- 
ically important processing 
step. But at least we're be- 
ginning to break up the big 
black box of memory into 
small black boxes." 

The psychologist and his 
students have also tested 
undergraduates in experi- 
ments, exploting the quirks 
and fallibility of normal 
paper titled "A Schema for 
Common Cents," Rubin and then-undergrad- 
uate Theda Kontis '82 described how they 
asked 125 students to draw from memory a 
penny, nickel, dime, and quarter. The analysis 
showed that they could recall little of the 
coins they used every day. The finding offered 
an inttiguing insight into the spotty nature of 
memory, says Rubin. And, it offers a telling 
lesson for the designers of coins, such as the 
ill-fated Susan B. Anthony dollar, which for 
recognition relied mainly on the images on 
the coin, rather than size or color. 

"People don't learn things they see over and 
over again," says Rubin. "They learn things 
enough to deal with the world." Similarly, few 
people could tell where the letters and num- 
bers are on telephone buttons, he notes. Nor 
can most people describe where the moles or 
hairs are on the back of their hand, he says, 
despite the popular expression "I know it like 
the back of my hand." 

Perhaps Rubin's most intriguing finding has 
been the phenomenon of the "memory bump," 
in which people remember most vividly those 
events that happened to them between ages 
ten and thirty. In numerous studies, Rubin and 
his students tested older people's recall of events 
such as Academy Award-winning movies, 
World Series-winning baseball teams, top news 
stories, presidential campaigns, or important 
events from their own lives. The studies re- 
vealed that the ages between ten and thirty 
provided the tichest trove of memories. 

"Everybody seemed to know about this 
phenomenon," says Rubin, "but nobody both- 
ered to quantify it." The explanations tor the 
bump are likely complex and intertwined, he 

March -April 1998 



Eenie, Meenie, Miney, Mo, 
Catch a tiger by the toe. 
If he hollers let him go. 
Eenie, Meenie, Miney, Mo. 

This modest little rhyme 
has survived for centuries 
basically unchanged. Why? 
Because of its "multiple con- 
straints" that combine to limit 
choices and to cue memory — a 
key feature of other oral ballads 
and rhymes, say David Rubin, 
an experimental psychologist at 
Duke, and his colleagues. 

Here's the explanation, from 
a recent paper by Rubin, Violeta 
Ciobany of Bucharest University, 
and William Langston of Deni- 
son University: 

"Most of the words contain 
a repeated sound pattern, usually 
word repetition, rhyme, or allit- 
eration, and all the words not 

involved in the meaning are 
involved in one of these poetic 

"Consider the first line.which 
has remained stable without any 
deep structure. The first word, 
eenie, is part of the second 
word, meenie. Meenie, miney, 
and mo alliterate. Eenie, meenie, 
and miney rhyme with a sound 
that repeats as the first vowel of 
eenie and meenie. Mo rhymes 
with toe and go. The first lines 
also contain a progression of 
front-to-back middle vowels — 
e, i, o — as in the fee, fie, fo of 
fee, fie, fo, fum, or the ee, eye, ee, 
eye, oh of 'Old McDonald Had 
a Farm.' Therefore, meenie, 
miney, mo sounds better than 
miney, meenie, mo, and the order 
is unlikely to change. 

"The remaining sound 'n' re- 
peats in the same location in 

three words. The whole line 
repeats as the last line, where 
the single syllable word mo 
coincides with the person who 
is chosen. The change from the 
two-syllable pattern adds to 
the closure of the piece.... 
Thus, there is not a phoneme 
or even a distinctive feature in 
the first line that can change 
without breaking some pattern. 
The middle two lines offer 
more flexibility and do change 
more over time and over 

(A historical note: The pre- 
tiger victim of the toe-catching 
is a term now considered a racial 
epithet, but was not so when 
the rhyme originated. Rather, 
the word referred to the River 
Niger, and was a neutral term 
for a person from that region.) 

theorizes. One possible explanation for the 
bump is that the novelty of experiences dur- 
ing these early adult years leads to deeper 
memory encoding, he says. Or a young adult's 
self-definition of identity that happens during 
those years may better crystallize memories. 
Also, young people may just have sharper 
mental faculties — perhaps to increase their 
fitness at choosing a mate — which would 
contribute to the more vivid memory forma- 
tion. Whatever the explanation, the idea of a 
memory bump could prove clinically useful, 
says Rubin. "For example, if we knew what 
caused this phenomenon in healthy people, it 
would help explain why patients with Alz- 
heimer's disease experience the kind of mem- 
ory degradation they do. A standard anecdote 
you get about Alzheimer's patients is that 
they remember the old things, but not the new 
things. And eventually as they get near the end, 

they jump generations. So, their daughter comes 
to visit them and they see her as their sister." 

In one set of experiments, Rubin and re- 
search associate Matthew Schulkind and a 
team of undergraduates are playing big-band 
music to groups of volunteer senior citizens to 
try to understand the bump phenomenon. "We 
play them old songs and ask them how the 
songs make them feel, and whether they can 
complete the words," says Rubin. "The music 
may work because it resonates with memory 
that involves large parts of the brain, including 
motor movements and emotions." According 
to Rubin, some music therapists already use 
the golden-oldies technique with nursing home 
residents who suffer Alzheimer's and other 
dementias, to enliven them and get them to 
socialize more. 

Of all Rubin's studies, though, the most 
prodigious has been his exploration of the 

psychology of epic poems, North Carolina 
ballads, and counting-out rhymes. His inte- 
gration of the folklore and history of these 
oral recitations with cognitive science result- 
ed in his award-winning 1996 book Memory in 
Oral Traditions, which Contemporary Psychol- 
ogy called "a landmark contribution for both 
scientists and scholars." 

In the book, Rubin sought to explain how 
such ballads, and even the seemingly trivial 
rhymes that children chant to choose, have 
survived almost unchanged for centuries. In 
his studies, he found a wealth of insight, even 
in the simple "Eenie, Meenie, Miney, Mo" and 
its fellow rhymes. "No psychologists studying 
memory had really explored these oral ballads 
and rhymes," says Rubin, "even though recit- 
ing them is a remarkable mental skill, involv- 
ing remembering a lot of knowledge in a way 
that doesn't change because of the structure 
of the ballad." In his ballad studies Rubin ex- 
plored how the rhythm, the words, the 
images, and the story intertwined to make it 
possible for balladeers to recall accurately 
even hours of song verse. "For example, these 
oral traditions are high imagery, with many 
changes in location. In ballads, the character 
goes from location to location, with the ballad 
never spending more than three verses with- 
out changing place. And in ballads, people 
don't just sit around and mope. They jump off 
bridges, they get buried in shallow graves, 
they cut off people's heads — it's all high 

Rubin also explored how the oral ballads 
and rhymes were carefully crafted with multi- 
ple constraints in form and subject, like an 
intricate puzzle that fits together in only one 
way. Such constraints make the recitations 
smooth progressions of verse that lead a per- 
former almost unavoidably from one element 
to the next. Each stanza, Rubin points out, is 
a rhythmic, musical unit that must contain a 
complete idea, must follow the rhyme scheme, 
and must avoid words larger than one or two 
syllables. Rubin has interwoven his ballad and 
rhyme studies with his research on autobio- 
graphical memory, just as our memories are 
interwoven with our lives. "I find it fascinat- 
ing studying these things that people do all the 
time, doing careful quantitative work to un- 
derstand them in a scientific sense. And then 
contributing that understanding to society." 

In Rubin's view, the next decade of science 
will no doubt witness an enormous leap in 
understanding how genes build brains and 
how tiny splashes of brain chemicals play 
among the labyrinth of brain cells to create 
memories. However, he emphasizes, that same 
decade will also see a forging of even richer 
partnerships among biologists, psychologists, 
and humanists to apply that knowledge to 
medical treatment and to our everyday lives. 
The effect will certainly be memorable. ■ 


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President, Duke University 

In June 1996, Dean Rex Adams wel- 
comed thirty-nine students from 
eleven countries as the first stu- 
dents in the Global Executive 
M.B.A. program at the Fuqua 
School. He called GEMBA "the 
most significant innovation in man- 
agement education in fifty years." 
Back then, of course, there were plenty of 
doubters — here at Duke and elsewhere in 
the academic community, and possibly among 
our students' families, friends, and colleagues 
as well. 

Last December, our first global M.B.A.s re- 
assembled here on campus to complete what 
they describe as one of the most intensive, chal- 
lenging, and gratifying experiences in their 
lives. It also has been a deeply gratifying expe- 
rience for Fuqua and Duke because, thanks 
to their nineteen months of hard work, 
GEMBA's students have confirmed the dean's 
statement, dismissing all doubts. 

GEMBA has captured the attention of the 
academic world, the corporate community, 
Business Week, and other leading print and 
electronic media here and abroad. We have a 
hit on our hands, and one that has left us with 
at least two important questions: "What have 
we learned from GEMBA?" and "What do we 
do with it?" How do we take the knowledge 
and insights from GEMBA and apply them to 
enhance teaching and learning in other areas 
of the university? What does GEMBA mean 
for our medical school? For Law? For 
Divinity? What does it mean for our under- 
graduates in engineering and the humanities? 
Most immediately, what does GEMBA mean 
for Fuqua itself? 

Through GEMBA, we have learned some 
very important lessons about globalizing edu- 
cation, about using technology, and about 
building community in a non- traditional en- 
vironment. And if there is a grand answer, it 
must be that all three goals may be achieved, 
given the right program and people. 

First and foremost, we have seen that tech- 
nology-based instruction does not have to 
lead to diminished academic quality. The first 

class posted an outstanding level of perfor- 
mance and our faculty successfully — and 
resourcefully — adapted their own individual, 
proven instructional methods to this new for- 
mat. I understand that faculty also developed 
a keen awareness of time zones worldwide 
and learned a whole new meaning to "office 
hours." So it is, after all, possible to deliver a 
degree program with the rigor and richness of 
Fuqua's other programs to students conti- 
nents apart. 

We also confirmed what we believed to be 
true — that it is crucial to retain face-to-face 
instruction as an integral part of the sort of 
distance-learning process Duke values. In 
GEMBA, it is the combination of face-to-face 
contact with distance learning that yields en- 
hanced results over standard technology- 
based education. This is a crucial difference be- 
tween the GEMBA model and other courses 
that rely solely on technology. 

GEMBA has taught us something else: that 
it is possible to engender a true sense of team- 
work, camaraderie, and school spirit within a 
program that involves a significant amount of 
communications technology, geographical 
distance, and marked cultural differences among 
its students. The students forged strong per- 
sonal ties with one another and their profes- 
sors. They tell me that, in many ways, they 
share the same sense of "connectedness" to the 
university that our campus-based students ex- 
perience. It certainly seemed so the night they 
joined the Cameron Crazies in cheering Duke 
on to victory. 

GEMBA has reinforced our desire to build 

a class that is internationally diverse. The 
eighty students in the first two GEMBA 
classes represent twenty-three different coun- 
tries, which introduces an extraordinary 
range of cross-cultural perspectives to the 
classroom. Our goal must be to reflect the 
diversity of region, culture, gender, and pro- 
fessional background that are part of the 
global workforce itself. 

Finally, GEMBA is helping Duke explore 
new and effective ways to address growing 
pressures on educational access. Today in the 
United States, reduced government and pub- 
lic support has created new barriers to higher 
education, while at the same time the de- 
mand for higher education is growing rapidly. 
This increased demand is far outstripping tra- 
ditional "on-campus" facilities and resources. 

At the same time, education is becoming — 
more than ever — both a lifelong pursuit and 
an economic necessity. Much of this need is 
driven by advances in information technol- 
ogy — advances that demand that managers 
must work harder and smarter if they want to 
stay on top of the latest developments in their 
fields. A 1995 IBM study estimated that man- 
agers in the Information Age will need to 
spend at least 20 percent of their time en- 
gaged in learning. As with the first GEMBA 
class, mature, experienced professionals are 
seeking to enhance their knowledge and skills 
to compete in the global economic arena. Fu- 
qua and other business schools are attempting 
to meet this demand, through executive de- 
gree programs as well as non-degree courses. 

For an ever-larger number of students, com- 
puters and networks will be essential compo- 
nents in the educational environment. I do not 
believe that distance-education technology can 
or should take the place of the traditional, 
campus-based experience for eighteen-to-twen- 
ty-two-year-old undergraduate students, al- 
though it surely can enhance that experience 
in many important ways. But, as GEMBA de- 
monstrates, technology can help individuals, 
companies, universities, and societies address 
the issue of access to the highest-quality edu- 
cation in ways that traditional education sim- 
ply cannot. 

Earlier this fall, in my annual address to the 
Duke faculty, I cited GEMBA as one of the 
growth enterprises of this university. I believe 
that GEMBA represents a bold new venture 
in education, building on traditional strengths 
Continued on page 55 





post-theater reception, sponsored by the Duke 
gala office. For more than a decade, theater 
galas have helped raise funds for Duke's per- 
formance arts endowment funds and for the 
drama program. Past galas have been held for 
most of the Duke Pre -Broadway series in Dur- 
ham; for the touring company of Phantom of 
the Opera, with Kevin Gray '80 as the phan- 
tom, at the Kennedy Center in Washington, 
D.C.; for Sunset Boulevard in Chicago; and for 
Ragtime on Broadway in February, its tenth in 
the New York series. 

The Duke University Metropolitan Alumni 
Association (DUMAA) gives priority to its 
dues-paying members for tickets to the latest 
Neil Simon play, Proposals, produced by 
Manny Azenberg, former visiting instructor 
in Duke's drama program. Julie Ehlers '85 was 
the contact. In May, the club is sponsoring 
a block of tickets for Cirque du Soleil's 
Quidan, the latest show from the European 
circus of acrobats and performers. Amy Rey- 
del '91 is the contact; DUMAA's president is 
Susan Callahan '86. 

The Duke Club of Washington offered an 
evening at the opera in March with a pre-per- 

formance cocktail reception for the East Coast 
premiere of Dangerous Liaisons at the Kennedy 
Center Opera House. Laura Weatherly '93 was 
the contact for the event. The DCW president 
is Nelson Jackson '53. 

The Duke Club of Miami is taking advan- 
tage of the popularity ot the Broadway show 
Rait when its touring company comes to town 
May 2 with a pre -performance reception. In- 
formation about tickets will be forthcoming for 
regional alumni. The Miami club's president 
is Jonathan E. Perlman '85. 

For special offerings in your area, or for when 
you happen to be in another city, check the cal- 
endar of club events at the Duke Alumni Asso- 
ciation website: 
/homepage/events. html. 

M^ "Southern" musical premiere, pre- 
M^k theater receptions, blocks of tickets, 
^^^A and post-theater galas for a good cause 
highlight the new year in club programming. 
From Broadway to Durham, the performing 
arts were a popular item on club calendars. 

With slightly more than 10,000 members, 
the Duke Club of the Triangle is the largest, and 
producers were counting on them to turn out 
in force for the world premiere of Kudzu, the 
Southern Musical. Based on the comic strip by 
North Carolinian Doug Marlette, the musical 
Kudzu features Broadway veterans and local 
performers the Red Clay Ramblers. It opened 

tries Theater in the Bryan Center. (Another 
club event, a block of tickets for the touring 
company of Phantom of the Opera in Raleigh 


in May, is already sold out.) The club's presi- 
dent is Charles H. Wilson '51. 

Triangle club members were invited to the 
Washington Duke Inn for an opening night, 

M^ pril 1999 will be a historic occasion 
M^k for reunions: Classes scheduled to 
^^ reunite — 1949, 1954, 1959, 1964, 

March -April 1998 21 

1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994, and the 
Half Century Club — will come back to cam- 
pus for one major spring reunion weekend, 
instead of the three separate fall gatherings 
that conclude with Reunions 1998. Reunions 
were shifted in 1986 from one weekend in June 
to individual reunion weekends in the fall. 

"Fall tends to be frenetic," says Lisa Dilts '83, 
Alumni Affairs' director of reunions. "Vaca- 
tions are over, school has started, and coming 
back to campus for a reunion can get lost in 
the shuffle. Also, since Duke no longer has con- 
trol of the football schedule, we can't guaran- 
tee a home game for each reunion weekend. 

"We determined that the best way to 
highlight reunions is to bring classes back to 
campus all at one time. By placing reunion 
weekend front and center, we can engage the 
entire Duke community — faculty, adminis- 
trators, and students — and make reunions 
less peripheral to campus life." 

Dilts, currently in the midst of reunion- 
planning committee meetings for Reunions 
'98, is juggling the logistics of organizing the 



Get connected to a wealth of information: 

Reunion schedules 

Member benefits 

Career services 

Lifelong learning and travel opportunities 

Club events calendar and local club contacts 

Duke merchandise 

Duke Magazine 



Alumni events around the world 



Duke News Service press releases 

Campus news and sports 


The man, the program, the answers 


Selected features and departments 

coming fall reunion weekends while looking 
ahead to 1999's major opus. Tentative plans 
for the new spring reunion call for each class 
to have its own headquarters tent, where reg- 
istration and class-specific events will take 
place, on East or West Campus. 

The popular Duke Directions, an academic 
component of reunions that allows alumni to 
"enroll" in a selection of classes taught by top 
Duke professors, will continue with half-day and 
full- day options. Friday evening will feature 
an event for all classes: a dance at Cameron 
Indoor Stadium, with a variety of bands ap- 
pearing at different times. There'll be "gastro- 
nomic grazing at its best," as one alumnus put 
it, at food stations all over the complex. 

Saturday morning is allotted for open hous- 
es and get-togethers. Various academic pro- 
grams and schools will have the chance to 
schedule social events for their alumni, as will 
affinity groups, such as sororities, fraternities, 
and athletics teams. And reunion classes have 
the option of hosting class-specific breakfasts 
or brunches. 

President Nannerl O. Keohane will hold 
her annual "conversation" with alumni, pre- 
ceding the Alumni Association Luncheon for 
all classes. A major speaker will address alum- 
ni later in the afternoon in Cameron, leaving 
the evening open for class-specific reunion 
parties under headquarters tents. On Sunday 
morning, all alumni will be entertained by the 
Duke Wind Symphony or some other Duke 
musical group in Duke Gardens at a cham- 
pagne brunch. 

"We are hoping to provide a healthy mix of 
interests, class-specific and general, intellectual 
and social," says Ruth Wade Ross '68, who chairs 
the Duke Alumni Association's Lifelong Re- 
lationships Committee. Historically, Ross' com- 
mittee and the reunions staff have gathered 
data from surveys of peer institutions and 
from post-reunion alumni evaluations. "We re- 
searched what people want to do, how they 
want to spend their time — and their money," 
says Ross. 

The committee learned that alumni can't 
afford the luxury of three-day reunions; pro- 
gramming has to be precise, entertaining, and 
have an educational component. Also, there 
are not as many couples who attend, and more 
and more people go to events alone, which 
changes the social component. 

The concept of bringing more than 3,000 
alumni and family members to Duke for one 
"grand and glorious" April weekend, as Ross 
envisions it, was well received by the univer- 
sity's academic and service communities. 
Faculty would not have to fragment their in- 
volvement over three weekends, space could 
be more easily managed, university service 
components-transportation, food, security — 
could function efficiently in a more concen- 
trated effort. 

"There was a need for Duke to establish a 
stronger identity on campus for its returning 
alumni," says Ross. "Our reorganized fall 
Homecoming programming brought young 
alumni back in droves, even without an offi- 
cial reunion. They now know it's the time and 
place to be. We want our spring reunion event 
to have that same feeling, to encourage peo- 
ple to come back for every reunion." 


Getting into college isn't as simple as 
getting out of high school. And it's 
more than good grades and a good 
essay; it's a process. To help both potential 
college students and their equally anxious 
parents understand the intricacies, the Duke 
Alumni Association is sponsoring a day-long 
Alumni Admissions Forum Friday, June 26. 

"This is our seventh forum," says Edith 
Sprunt Toms '62, assistant director of Alumni 
Affairs and director of the alumni admissions 
program. "Because past forums were so help- 
ful for their older children, many alumni are 
signing up to return with the younger siblings. 
Some call nine months ahead to find out the 
date so that family summer vacation plans 
can be made to include this day at Duke." The 
cost is $95 per family. 

This year's forum offers everything one could 
want to know about the application process, 
from where to apply to how, when, and, most 
importantly, why. All information is not spe- 
cific to Duke. A panel of experts includes 
Philip Clinton, director of college counseling 
at the Woodberry Forest School in Virginia; 
Marcia Hunt, director of college counseling 
at the Pinecrest School in Fort Lauderdale, 
Florida; and Marybeth Kravets, college con- 
sultant for Deerfield High School in Illinois. 

There will also be a dual session: one for 
parents on financial aspects, led by Duke's di- 
rector of financial aid, James Belvin; and one 
for students, featuring a Duke student panel, 
moderated by Susan Wasiolek '76, M.H.A. 
'78, LL.M. '93, assistant vice president for stu- 
dent affairs. 

A mailing list is compiled from the alumni 
records of parents who have provided the 
birth dates of their children. Rising ninth, 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students 
on file will be invited. 

Toms stresses that participation in the Alum- 
ni Admissions Forum will have no effect upon 
a student's candidacy for admission to Duke. 
She encourages all alumni to submit the 
names and birth dates of their children in or- 
der to get on future forum mailing lists by 
notifying Alumni Records, Duke University, 
Box 90613, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. 



WRITE: Class Notes Editor, Duke Magazine, 
614 Chapel Dr., Durham, N.C. 27708-0570 
FAX: (919) 684-6022 (typed only, please) 
CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Alumni Records, 
614 Chapel Dr. Annex, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. 
Please include mailing label. Or e-mail address 
changes to: 

NOTICE: Because of the volume of class 
note material we receive and the long 
lead time required for typesetting, 
design, and printing, your submission 
may not appear for two to three issues. 
> urged to include spouses' 
narriage and birth announce 
do not record engagements. 

20s, 30s & 40s 

Genevieve Myers Rogers longtime 

Durham resident, is now living at the Springnux 
Retirement Center in Raleigh. 

Universitv in Conway, S.( He retired after 38 years of 
practicing internal medicine and established a tree medi- 
cal clinic Ehat he directs for the indigent on Pawley's 
Island. In 199b, he received the Duke Medical Alumni 
Association Humanitarian Award. He and hi^ wife, 
Nancy Arthur Smith '39, In e at Murrell's Inlet, S.C. 

Guillermo Moscosco LIB. '41, a retired lawyer- 
executive living in San Juan, is the author of Puerto 
Rico's Relations with the United States. A political ana- 
lyst and columnist, he is also honorary consul general 
of the principality of Monaco in Puerto Rico and the 
U.S. Virgin Islands. 

David Willis Jr. 44. a retired United Methodist 
minister, is the author of Children of the Promise 
Prophecy jor Children.Youth. ami Adults, published by 
Impact Christian Books. He lives in Staunton, Va. 

50s & 60s 

Elinor Divine Benedict 53 was first prize co- 
winner in the international Sandberg-Livesay Award 
for her poem "Paper Flowers," published in the anthol- 
ogy Doors of the Morning. She has published several 
chaphooks of poetry, including The Tree Between Us 
and Cfiinai'ision. She lives in Rapid River, Mich. 

Kenneth M. Johnson M.Div. '55, a retired 
United Methodist minister living in Lake Junaluska, 
N.C, is the author of The Johnson Family Singers: We 
Sang for Our Supper, published by the University Press 
of Mississippi. The book comes with a compact disc of 
performances. The Johnson Family Singers, whose 
career spanned 1938 to 1951, included the eldest son, 
Kenneth, and his mother, father, sister (the pop singer 
Betty Johnson), and twin brothers. 

'60 writes that he speed-walked, tor 
the first time, the 1997 New York Marathon in 6:22:04, 
"snatching 29,424th place." He is senior editor for 
development tot The New York Times and a member of 
Duke Magazine's Editorial Advisory Board. He and his 
wife, Jane, live in Scarsdale, N.Y. 

Fred Chappell '61, A.M. '64 was selected by Gov. 

Jim Hunt as poet laureate, North Carolina's highest 
literary honor. The professor ot English at UNC- 
Greensboro is the author of a dozen books of verse, 
two volumes of stories, and seven novels. He and his 
wife, Susan, live in Greensboro. 

'.S.C.E. '61 was appointed president 
of the USX Realty Development division of U.S. Steel 
Group, where he has worked for 36 years, and as direc- 
tor, raw materials, since 1994. He is a member of 
Duke's Alumni Admissions Advisory Committee in his 
region. He and his wire, Dana, have three children and 
live in Upper St. Clair, Pa. 

Creighton D. Wright '61, M.D. '65 represented Duke 
in November at the inauguration of the ptesident of 
Northern Kentucky University in Highland Heights. 

Rebecca Trent Kirkland '64, M.D. '68 represented 
Duke in November at the inauguration ot the president 

Kenneth M. Gammill '65 joined the Greenwich, 

Conn., office of the law firm Robinson & Cole in July. 

Andrew T. Graham '67 is a co-recipient of the 
1997 Michigan Research & Development Scientists 
Award, presented by Dow Chemical Co., for contribu- 
tions to the development of the technology and com- 
mercial success oi Drytech superabsorbent polymer, a 
key component or highly absorbent diapers. He joined 
Dow in 1974. He lives in Midland, Mich. 

Robert W. Jordan '67, a trial lawyer and partner in 
the firm Baker e* Botts, is president-elect of the Dallas 
Bar Association. He and his wife, Ann Turner 
Jordan 68, have three children, including Peter 
Jordan '01 

Rose Redding Mersky '67 is president of the 
International Society for the Psychoanalytic Study ot 
Organizations. She lives in Port Chester, N.Y. 
David W. Carstetter ID. '68, who was appointed 
a federal administrative law judge in August, is serving 
in the Office of Hearings and Appeals, Social Security 
Administration, in Fresno, Calif. 

John C. Browne Ph.D. '69, an internationally rec- 
ognized expert in basic and applied neuron science, 
was named director ot the Los Alamos National 
Laboratory in New Mexico. He joined the laboratory 
in 1979 after nine years at the Lawrence Livermore 
National Laboratory in California. 
Harry R. Diz '69, who earned his Ph.D. in civil engi- 
neering at Virginia Tech, is now an instructor there. 
He lives in Blacksburg. 

Marc R. Hillson'69 is an administrative law judge 
for the Social Security Administration's Office of 
Hearings and Appeals in Wichita, Kan. He had worked 
for the E.RA. for 20 years in Washington, DC. He 
and his wife, Barbara, and their daughter live in Wichita. 

Kathleen M. Mills j.D. '69, deputy general counsel 
at Bethlehem Steel Corp., was inducted into the 
Academy of Women Achievers of the YWCA of New 
York City. She and her family live in Hanover, Pa. 

BIRTHS: Second child and first daughte 

Lisk Wyckoff Jr. '55 and Elizabeth Wyckoff on 

Oct. 8. Named Elizabeth Hannah Longstreet. 

A. Pitt '71 is vice president and founding 
director of the Bay Architecture Lab at Bay Networks 

3te IBufee 

in pour 


Traditionally, bequests have been 

a significant source of Duke's 

financial support. Your bequest to 

Duke will help to ensure Duke's 

continued strength and 

academic excellence. 

High federal estate tax rates 

significantly lower the cost of 

making a bequest to Duke. 

Join more than 1,500 other Duke 
alumni and friends as a member 
of the Heritage Society, an honor- 
ary circle of University alumni and 
friends who have planned an 
estate gift to Duke. 


Please contact: 

Michael C. Sholtz. J.D., Director 

Office of Planned Giving 

Duke University 

3100 Tower Blvd. 

Suite 205 

Durham, NC 27707 

(919) 419-5070 

(919) 684-2123 

March -April 1998 23 

Inc., with facilities in Santa Clara, Boston, and 
Research Triangle Park. His company is assisting 
Duke's Fuqua School of Business in upgrading its 
infrastructure, network services, and information tech- 
nology organizations. He and his family live in Palo 
Alto, Calif. 

Peter K. Senechal 71, a physician, retired as a 
colonel from the Air Force after 25 years, most recent- 
ly as program director for the family practice residency 
at Elgin Air Force Base. He is now a physician at a 
family practice clinic in Ft. Walton Beach, Fla. He and 
his wife, Diana Daffin Senechal 71, have two 
children, and live in Niceville. 

Paul R. Lambert 72, M.D. 76 is professor and vice 
chairman of the department of otolaryngology, head 
and neck surgery, at the University of Virginia Medical 
Center, where he is also director of otology-neurotology. 
Ed Niehaus B.S.E. 72 is president of the public 
relations agency Niehaus Ryan Group, Inc. He and his 
wife, Carol Munch, and their three children live in 
San Francisco. 

I D. Kiser73 is senior pastor at First 
United Methodist Church of Corpus Christi, Texas. He 
and his wife, Stacy, and their son live in Corpus Christi. 

William W. Baxter 75, CEO of Holston Gases, 
was appointed commissioner of economic and commu- 
nity development by Tenn. Gov. Don Sundquist. He 
was finance chairman for the campaigns of U.S. Sen. 
Fred Thompson. He lives in Knoxville. 

L. Goldstein M.H.A. 75, chief adminis- 
trative officer for Browne-McHardy Clinic in Metairie, 
La., received the 1997 Administrator of the Year 
Award from the American College of Medical Practice 

Jon Reynolds A.M. 75, Ph.D. '80, president of 
Raytheon Co. in China, was awarded an alumni cita- 
tion by his alma mater, Trinity College of Hartford, 
Conn., at a special Century of Engineering Convoca- 
tion. He and his wife, Emilee, who have two children, 
live in Beijing. 

Joseph J. Smallhoover 75 was elected a member 
of the credentials committee, one of the three standing 
committees of the Democratic National Committee. 
He is vice chair of Democrats Abroad and lives in Paris. 
Rebecca M. Wolfe M.A.T 75, who earned her 
Ph.D. in educational leadership at Gonzaga University, 
is teaching in Istanbul, Turkey. 

William Robert Bell 76, M.Div. 79 was appointed 
Mecklenburg County Superior Court judge by N.C. 
Gov. Jim Hunt. He was an assistant district attorney 
for the county for more than a decade. 

Barbara Kiehne Younger 76 had her book of 
children's prayers, A Moment With God for Children, 
published by Dimensions for Living. She lives in 
Hillsborough, N.C. 

Henry David Blinder 77 is city attorney for the 
city of Durham. He and his wife, Janice, live in Durham. 
Robert B. Krakow 78, J.D. '81 is a partner in the 
Dallas office of Gibson, Dunn &. Crutcher, where he 
specializes in commercial litigation and bankruptcy 
law. He and his wife, Leslie, and their son live in Dallas. 

Lisa Edelmann McLaughlin 78, who earned 
her law degree at Vanderbilt in 1981, is a senior vice 
president at NationsBank, where she is team manager 
for trust consulting and wealth management services 
in its private client group in St. Louis. She and her 
husband, Robert W. McLaughlin 79, have two 
children and live in St. Louis. 

Paul Collins 79 is an optometrist and contact lens 
specialist in Newburgh, N.Y. He and his wife, Sherry, 
and their triplets live in Wallkill, N.Y. 

Davin 79 is chief operating officer of 
Taco Bell and a founding partner of Tricon Global 
Restaurants, the $10-billion restaurant enterprise that 
became a public company as a spin-off of PepsiCo. He 
and his wife, Molly, and their two daughters live in 
Newport Beach, Calif. 

Jan Larsson M.H.A. 79, vice president and chief 
operating officer ofVersa Products Co., a pneumatic 
valve manufacturer, was honored by her alma mater, 
Trinity College in Hartford, Conn., with an alumni 
citation for outstanding professional achievement in 
engineering. She lives in Franklin Hills, N.J. 

Evan H. Zucker J.D. 79 is president of Totality 
Software, Inc., which publishes legal and astronomy 
software. His company's flagship "Totality" program 
manages collection accounts for law firms and collec- 
tion agencies. He and his wife, Paula, and their two 
children live in San Diego. 

MARRIAGES: Robin A. Ferracone'75 to 

Stewart R. Smith on May 31. Residence: Los Angeles. 
BIRTHS: First child and son to Raymond D. 
Kiser 73 and Stacy Kiser on Jan. 27, 1997. Named 
Raymond Christopher... First daughters, twins, and 
second and third children to Robert A. Wason 73 
and Candace Johnson Wason B.S.N. 76 on 
Nov. 13. Named Kathryn Louise and Laura Elizabeth... 
First child and son to Robert B. Krakow 78, J.D. 
'81 and Leslie Philipson Krakow on Sept. 23. Named 
Benjamin Philip... A daughter to James C. Savage 

78 and Ann Savage on Sept. 26. Named Caroline 
Elizabeth... First children, triplets, to Paul Collins 

79 and Sherry Collins on June 15. Named Daniel 
Austin, Jake William, and Megan Rose. ..Second 
daughter to Thomas E. Davin 79 and Molly 
Davin on June 24. Named Caroline Elizabeth. . .A son 
to Jay Murray Hill II 79, M.B.A. '80 and Latane 
Hill on Nov. 14. Named Gray Murray. . .Second child 
to Evan H. Zucker J.D. 79 and Paula Eisenhart 
on June 10. Named Alexander. 

is a full professor in the chem- 
istry department at the University of Pittsburgh. 
After completing graduate and postdoctoral studies, 
he worked at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 
Pasadena, Calif., for five years before coming to Pitt in 
1992. He and his wife, Kathi, a geology professor, live 
in Pittsburgh. 

M. Carroll '80 is an associate professor 
in the psychiatry department at Yale University's medi- 
cal school. She and her husband, Matthew Chivian, 
and their daughter live in Boston. 
Frederick L. Conrad Jr. '80 earned the designa- 
tion Creditors' Rights Specialist, awarded by the 
Commercial Law League of America's Academy of 
Commercial and Bankruptcy Law Specialists. He is an 
attorney at Ambrose, Wilson, Grimm & Durand in 
Knoxville, Tenn. 

Nanette Thompson Kellog Garrison '80 is 
a senior consultant at Campbell & Co.'s western 
regional office, where she will initially manage a $10- 
million endowment campaign for the Pacific 
Northwest Ballet in Seattle. 

professor of urolo- 
gy and health services at UCLA, was awarded a $1- 
million grant for a five-year study of prostate diseases. 
He earned his M.D. at Emory University and a master's 
in public health at UCLA. He lives in Santa Monica. 
Tim M. Slevin '81 is managing the investment 
banking group Parker/Hunter Inc. His wife, Karen 

'82, is directot of foundation relations 

and major gifts for Carnegie Mellon University's grad- 
uate business school. They have three children and 
live in Pittsburgh. 

Paul Hughes Trotter B.S.E. '81 is president of the 
William Trotter Co. He and his wife, Kathy Jane 
Rust M.S.N. '96, a nurse practitioner, live in Charlotte. 

Alan Kaplan '83 is an assistant professor in the de- 
partment of Computer Sciences at Clemson University. 

Sandy Jones Stewart '83 is on a leave of absence 
from her veterinary career to join her husband, Larry, 
in his international travels. They recently visited 
Auckland, New Zealand, on a two-month extended 
business trip. The couple and their daughter live in 

Laura Chandler Ellis '84 is public relations 
coordinator for the corporate headquarters of Service 
Merchandise Co., a 350-store national specialty 
retailer based in Nashville, Tenn. She chaired Duke's 
Nashville Alumni Admissions Advisory Committee for 
the last eight years before stepping down last summer. 

Doug H. Kramp '84 was named executive vice 
president of strategic business units at PageMart Wire- 
less, Inc., a Dallas-based company that uses direct- 
broadcast satellite technology to provide messaging 
services to North America, Puerto Rico, the U.S. 
Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and parts of Mexico and 
Central America. 

Frank H. Myers '84, a lieutenant commander in 
the Naval Reserves, earned his master's at George 
Washington University in 1996. He works for the 
Undersecretary of Defense, acquisition and technolo- 
gy. He and his wife, Kelly, live in Arlington, Va. 

James J. Roe M.E '84 was promoted to manage- 
ment forester for Gulf States Paper Corp.'s Demopolis, 
Ala., timber management district. 

Daniel J. Clark A.M. '85, Ph.D. '89 is teaching 
American history as a visiting assistant professor at 
Albion College, his alma mater. He is also a special 
lecturer at Oakland University and a research associ- 
ate with Wayne State University's United Auto 
Workers' oral history project. 

John D. Dolan '85 is a director in commercial real 
estate at Tfammell Crow Co. in Atlanta. He and his 
wife, Lisa, and their son live in Marietta, Ga. 

Laura Kottler Egerter '85 returned with her hus- 
band, Dean, and their three children to the United 
States after living in London for three years. They now 
live in Chicago. 

H. Koch B.S.C.E. '85 is of counsel with 
Downey, Brand, Seymour & Rohwer in Sacramento. 
He and his wife, Laurie, and their son live in Fairfield, 

Kenneth G. Mattern J.D. '85, an Air Force 
lieutenant colonel, participated, along with 19,000 
others, in the annual 26.2-mile Marine Corps 
Marathon, the fourth largest marathon in the U.S., in 
Washington, DC. 

Kathleen Costello Proulx M.H.A. '85 is 
regional vice president, corporate development, for 
HealthSouth in Lowell, Mass. She and her husband, 
David, and their son live in Haverhill. 

Jeff Wertheim '85 is a securities analyst at Bay 
Harbour Management in New York City. His wife, 
Lauren Levy Wertheim '86, is a training and per- 
formance improvement consultant. The couple and 
their son live in Greenwich, Conn. 

Paula Y. Paradis '86 is a pediatrician for the 
Navajo, working in the Indian Health Service. She 
and her husband, physician Daniel Reuland, and their 
daughter live in Chinle, Ariz. 



People under fifty 
may not recog- 
nize his name, 
but for avid readers of 
the previous genera- 
tion, Frank V. Slaugh- 
ter '26 was a house- 
hold name. Author of 
sixty-five books, plays, 
and short stories, 
Slaughter is still going 
strong at age ninety. 
He's revising a play he 
wrote some thirty 
years ago, midway 
through his career as a 
writer that began when 
Duke was still known 
as Trinity College. 

He was born in 1908 
on a tobacco farm west 
of Oxford, North Caro- 
lina. His mother tu- 
tored him at home until 
he was eight years old, 
when he entered school 
as a sixth-grader. He 
graduated as class vale- 
dictorian at age four 
teen and entered Trin- 
ity College that same 
year. At Trinity, the un- 
dersized and underaged 
Slaughter was accepted 
into Delta Sigma Phi — 
a renowned "jock" fra- 
ternity — in part be- 
cause he could write 
love letters for the 
football players. 

"I charged five cents 
each for love notes," he 

Although skilled as a 
writer, Slaughter set 
bis sights on practicing 
medicine. He was ac- 
cepted into the Johns 
Hopkins School of 
Medicine at age eigh- 
teen; he graduated in 
1930. While performing 
a residency at Jefferson 
Hospital in Roanoke, 
Virginia, he says he met 
a stunning operating- 
room nurse named 
Jane Monday. They fell 
madly in love and mar- 

Slaughter: still writing at the age of ninety 

ried two years later — a 
romance that he was to 
relive many times in 
his stories. 

"I wrote my first 
novel, That None 
Should Die, in 1938," 
Slaughter says. "It was 
a largely autobiograph- 
ical tale about a young 
doctor and bis loves. It 
also talks about the 
doctor's troubles with 
socialized medicine, 
which the government 
was threatening to 
impose at that time. 
The atmosphere was 
very similar to what 
we have today — doc- 
tors were strongly 
opposed to the idea, 
while the public was 
fascinated by it. At the 
end of the book, I 
spelled out my plan for 
what I thought the 
health-care system 

should look like, and 
by and large, that is 
what we have today." 

Slaughter entered 
the Army in 1942, 
serving as a command- 
ing officer on the Emily 
H.M. Weder, a hospital 
ship based in the 
Philippines. Later, he 
served as chief of sur- 
gical services at the 
Los Angeles Port of 
Embarkation Hospital. 
At war's end, he 
rejoined his wife and 
two sons in Roanoke, 
then moved to Florida 
to practice surgery. 

All the while, the 
writing bug stayed 
with him. He wrote 
four books on medical 
subjects, the most pop- 
ular addressing the sub- 
ject of psychosomatic 
illness. The New Way to 
Mental and Physical 


Health was published 
in 1951 in hardback and 
reprinted as a paper- 
back under the title 
Your Mind and Your 
Body. "The theme of 
the book," Slaughter 
says, "is that we strive 
to be healthy in order 
to stay happy, when we 
should strive to be 
happy in order to be 

In the 1950s, 
Slaughter abandoned 
his surgical practice 
altogether to devote 
full time to writing. He 
produced one novel 
after another, most of 
them with medical 
themes, but some set 
in biblical times. (He is 
a student of the Bible 
as well as of medicine.) 
He is known for his 
devilish sense of hu- 
mor, and has an eye 
for the bizarre as well 
as the beautiful. His 
last book, Transplant, 
deals with a pair of 
twins (male and fe- 
male) who decide to 
have their genitalia 
surgically exchanged, 
and the effect that 
operation has on their 

Semi-retired and liv- 
ing in Jacksonville, 
Slaughter is dictating 
his autobiography and 
working on a play 
titled Ladies in Hades. 
As he explains the 
plot: "The main char- 
acter is putting the 
moves on his girlfriend 
and says, 'They could 
send us to Hell for 
this.' She says, 'I wish 
they would.' There's a 
clap of thunder, and 
the next thing they 

— John Manuel 

! '86 is a copywriter for Mintz and 
Hoke Advertising and Public Relations. He and his 
wife, Lisa, and their son live in Simshury, Conn. 

Dinah Lee Swain '86, who earned her master's in 
journalism at N.Y.U. in 1993, is a news anchor on the 
national 24-hour All News Channel, on satellite TV. 
Her husband, Slade H. Schuster M.B.A. '91, does 
strategic planning for West Group. They live in St. 
Paul, Minn. 

Simpson Thacher & Bartlett in New York. He and his 
wife, Lynne Cohen Wolitzer'87, and their three 
children live in Rye, N.Y. 

Michael Wolitzer 

i a partner in the law firm 

C. Bader '87, executive director of the 
N.C. Student Rural Health Coalition, received a Z. 
Smith Reynolds Foundation Sabbatical Program award, 
one of five recipients from the state. He and his wife, 
Jodi Hall, and their daughter live in Durham. 

Thomas W. Dellinger B.S.E. '87, who earned his 

master's in medical phyMcs at bast Carolina University 

in 1995, is a radiological medical physicist for Mission- 
St. Joseph Health System in Asheville, N.C. He and 
his wife, Kimberly, and their daughter live in Morganton. 

Sam S. Hewitt '87 is chief technical analyst for Van 
Eck Global in New York City. 

Craig B. Richardson '87, M.B.A. '92 is director of 
business development for the sports agent company 
Leigh Steinberg, which represents more than 100 ath- 
letes, including Troy Aikman, Steve Young, and Drew 
Bledsoe. He lives in Newport Beach, Calif. 

Elizabeth R. Campell '88 is an account executive 
with the public relations firm Rountree Group Inc. in 
Atlanta. She and her husband, Kevin Gosnell, live in 
Dunwoody, Ga. 

Branan W. Cooper '88 is senior vice president of 
MBNA America Bank in Newark, Del, working as 
manager of consumer finance marketing. He and his 
wife, Desiree, and their son live in Landenberg, Pa. 

Staige Davis Hodges '88 writes that she is "a full- 
time mom and freelance writer." She and her husband, 
Eric, and their daughter have relocated toTigard, Ore. 
Lynn Levy Jahncke '88, who completed flight 

training, is a commercial pilot and a flight instructor. 
She and her two daughters live in Milwaukee. 

Monica Corston-Oliver '89, M.A.T '91 is a graduate 
student of linguistics at the University of California- 
Berkeley. She and her husband, Simon Corston- 
Oliver, live in Berkeley. 

James B. Dolan Jr. '89 is a litigation associate at 
Cozen & O'Connor in New York City. He and his wife, 
Amy Nobles Dolan '89, and their son live in 
Brooklyn Heights. 

George Fox Jr. B.S.E. '89, who graduated in June 

from the J.L. Kellogg School of Management, is a 
financial analyst at Ford Motor Co. He and his wife, 
Karolyn, have two children and live in Livonia, Mich. 

Wendy Sartory Link J.D. '89, managing partner of 
the West Palm Beach law firm Ackerman Link &. 
Sartory, was awarded the Up and Comers Award by 
the South Florida Business Journal. Her involvement in 
community service includes chairing the John I. 
Leonard High School Advisory Council. 

Julie M. Mackie '89, who earned her master's 
at Columbia University's Teachers College in 1994, 
is a sixth grade mathematics teacher at St. Mary's 
Episcopal School. She and her husband, Michael S. 
Reeves M.B.A. '95, a vice president at NewSouth 
Capital Management, live in Memphis. 

Parrish McCormack '89, an attorney and an asso- 
ciate at Hunton & Williams in Charlotte, was elected 
to the board of directors of the German- American 
Chamber of Commerce of the southern United States 
and has been named its corporate secretary. Co- 
founder and co-chair of its South Carolina chapter, 
he is also North and South Carolina's counsel to the 
Swiss consulate in Atlanta. He lives in Charlotte. 
Mark Kenneth Roche B.S.E. '89 is marketing 
director for Emerson Electric Co. in Pittsbutgh. He 
and his wife, Katherine, live in Pittsburgh. 

Robin Lee Rosenberg J.D. '89, A.M. '89 is a 
partner in the West Palm Beach office of the law firm 
Holland & Knight. She was an assistant city attorney 
for the city of West Palm Beach. She is president of 
the Center for Children in Crisis and co-chair of the 
"Arthur's Jam" Committee of the Cystic Fybrosis 

Suzanne E. "Suzie" Rubin '89, who graduated 
from the J.L. Kellogg Gtaduate School of Management 
in 1994, is marketing manager for nonmalignant pain 
for Medtronic. She and her husband, Steve Kahl, live 
in Minneapolis. 

March -April 

Brian L. Schwalb '89 is a trial attorney with the 
U.S. Department of Justice's tax division. He and his 
wife, Mickie Simon, and their daughter live in 
Washington, D.C. 

* and her hushand, Dave, 
of Alliance Capital Management, were awarded the 
Polish Order of Merit, Cavalier of the Grand Cross of 
Poland, First Class by Polish President Alexander 
Kwaniewski. The honor was for Alliance Capital's 
contributing "in a major way to the Polish financial 
economy by forming a joint venture with the Bank 
Kepao." She serves on the board of directors of 
Alliance Capital, of which her husband is chairman 
and chief executive officer. 

MARRIAGES: Daniel Smith Levinson '80 to 

Meryl Ivy Poster on Oct. 19. Residence: Los Angeles... 
Brooke Kirlin Wilson 'S3 to David Joseph 
Sheldon on Sept. 27. Residence: Cambridge, Mass.... 
Frank H. Myers '84 to Kelly Lynn Pulsifer on Dec. 
28, 1996. Residence: Arlington, Va.... Kathleen 
Frances Costello M.H.A. '85 to David Norman 
Proulx on June 20. Residence: Haverhill, Mass. . . .Ann 
Maria Riposanu J.D. '85 to Joannes ter Haar on 
Oct. 11. Residence: New York ( i Roberta L. 
Gonzalez B.S.E. '86 to Victor L. Parker on Nov. 30, 
1996. Residence: Marietta, Ga.... Dinah Lee Swain 
'86 to Slade H. Schuster M.B.A. '91 on Sept. 6. 
Residence: St. Paul, Minn. . ..Jeff Blumenfeld '87 
to Mardene Miller on Sept. 7. Residence: New York 
City....Kalpana K. Gowda '87 to Lingaiah 
Chandrashekar in December 1997. Residence: Shreve- 
port, La. . ..Jennifer Kolb Lees '87 to John Floyd 
Warren on June 21. Residence: Miami. ..Elizabeth 
R. Campell '88 to Kevin Gosnell on June 21. 
Residence: Dunwoody, Ga. ... Hazel Adele Land- 
wehr '88, J.D. '94 to Gregory Scot Porter on June 14. 
Residence: Dallas... Ashok S. Reddy '88, M.D. '92 
to Kimberly Anne Ackourey 89 on Oct. 11. 
Residence: Redondo Beach, Calif. . .Suzanne 
Winitsky B.S.E. '88 to Russell Zukowski on Sept. 6. 
Residence: Roswell, Ga. Tara Dunion '89 to Gary 
Guggolz on Aug. 30. Residence: Singapore.. .Sara L. 
Friedl '89 to Dale Putnam on Aug. 31. Residence: 
Decorah, Iowa... Kelly Lea tine Jackson '89 to 
David H. Schnabel on Sept. 20 in Duke Chapel. 
Residence: New York City... Andrew James 
Landis '89 to Hilary Jill Smith on Sept. 27. Residence: 
Freedonia, NY. ..Julie M. Mackie'89 to Michael 
S. Reeves M.B.A. '95 on July 12. Residence: Mem- 
1 li Monica Jane Oliver '89, M.A.T. '91 to 
Simon Corston on Dec. 5. Residence: Berkeley, Calif.. . . 
Mark Kenneth Roche B.S.E. '89 to Katherine 
Graham in August 1996. Residence: Pittsburgh... 
Suzanne Elizabeth Rubin '89 to Steve Kahl 
on May 3, 1997. Residence: Minneapoli; 
M. Turner '89 to F. Franklin Amanat on Oct. 5. 
Residence: New York City. 

BIRTHS: First child and daughter to Kathleen M. 
Carroll '80 and Matthew Chivian on May 20. Named 
Catherine Sydney "Kate" Chivian... A daughter to 
Kurt A. Haberyan '80, Ph.D. '88 and April Haber- 
yan on Oct. 1. Named Brianna Reese. . .Third child 
and first daughter to Timothy M. Slevin '81 and 
Karen Sartin Slevin '82 on Sept. 3. Named 
Margaret "Mamie" Dynes... Second child and first son 

Bradley Thomason on May 20, 1996. Named Evan 
Bradley. . .Third child and first daughter to Sheri 
Levine Cole '82 and Brent Cole on July 7. Named 
Lauren Mackenzie.. .A son to Elaine Ritter 
Schaffer B.S.N. '82 and Stanley Schaffer on Sept. 
13. Named Jacob. . .First child and daughter to Farley 
William Bolwell B.S.E. '83 and Kathleen Elisabeth 
Bolwell on May 17. Named Olivia Therese. . .First sons, 
twins, to Margaret Kemp Carlson '83, M.B.A. 
'89 and Rob Carlson on May 19. Named Clayton 



alk into any 
of the clas- 
sic govern- 
ment buildings in 
Washington, D.C— 
the original Smith- 
sonian, the National 
Portrait Gallery, the 
Old Post Office, the 
Library of Congress — 
and you will witness 
the handiwork of 
James V.Walsh '74 or 
his father, or both. It 
may not be evident to 
the visitor, but every 
one of these buildings 
has undergone major 
renovation, thanks to 
William V.Walsh 
Construction Com- 
pany, of which he is 
president. The remod- 
eling of these national 
treasures has required 
an uncommon degree 
of craftsmanship and 
care. And having 
worked for the compa- 
ny since the age of 
fourteen, Walsh has 
many a tale to tell. 

"We were renovat- 
ing the White House 
during the Cuban 
Missile Crisis and our 
workers had to be 
locked into a basement 
vault for three days 
because [President] 
Kennedy was afraid 
nuclear war might 
break out," Walsh says. 
"Then there was the 
time we had to build a 
war room for the 

Pentagon in one week. 
I've been in a lot of 
places only a handful 
of other people have 
ever seen, and even 
built a few of them." 

Walsh Construction 
was founded in 1955 
by Jim's father, William, 
who moved to Wash- 
ington to attend Catho- 
lic University after 
serving as an Army 
aviation engineer in 
World War II. William 
gravitated toward ren- 
ovation work; he soon 
found himself in 
demand for restoring 
many of the capital's 
aging buildings. 

"At the time, most 
people in the construc- 
tion industry thought 
of renovation work as 
unglamorous," Walsh 
says. "My dad thought 
differently. And he 
turned out to be right. 
We've worked with 
some of the greatest 
architects of all time 
on some of the most 
spectacular buildings." 

Young Jim worked 
summers for the com- 
pany, starting in junior 
high and continuing 
through his years at 
Duke. He reveled in 
the physical access to 
the halls of power and 
in the friendship of a 
small workforce that 
was fiercely loyal to his 
father. Did he ever 

envision doing any- 
thing besides working 
for the family business? 
"I considered going 
pre-med at Duke, but 
flunked organic chem- 
istry," he says. "That 
pretty much settled it 
for me." After leaving 
Duke, he took some 
civil engineering at the 
University of Maryland 
and went to work full- 
time for the company. 

Over the years, 
Walsh honed his skills 
as a project manager 
and estimator. He took 
on an increasing lead- 
ership role as his father 
neared retirement. In 
1996, he was officially 
named president. 

There are any num- 
ber of projects in the 
nation's capital that 
Walsh can brag about, 
but the one he is most 
proud of is the Frank- 
lin D. Roosevelt Me- 
morial, which opened 
in May 1997. Designed 
by architect Lawrence 
Halpirin, the FDR 

and-one-half acres 
along Washington's 
Tidal Basin. It consists 
of a progression of 
four outdoor rooms 
conveying the great 
themes of FDR's presi- 
dency. The walls are 
composed of 4,000 
blocks of granite inter- 
spersed with waterfalls, 

gardens, and statuary. 

Three months into 
the job, he discovered 
that, among the 700 
pages of architectural 
drawings, there was 
nothing showing how 
the above-ground fea- 
tures tied into the 
foundation. "The struc- 
ture was meant to sit 
on a concrete substruc- 
ture supported by 
1,000 steel pilings. 
But the interface 
between the cement 
pad and the walls had 
only been drawn in 
schematic. There was 
no detail on the thou- 
sands of connections 
for the piping running 
to the fountains, for 
the electrical system, 
or the steel to support 
the walls. We lost a 
whole summer doing 
those drawings, putting 
the trades people 
together, and coordi- 
nating the scheduling. 
Then when we started 
work, we faced the 
worst construction 
weather in 100 years in 
Washington. With thir- 
teen months left on the 
job, we were eight 
months behind sched- 

"But we brought the 
job in on time. That is 
a story that's never 
been told." 

— John Manuel 


Robert and Charles John. . .First child and son to 
Ronald Scott Graham 'S3 and Bonnie Lebre 
Graham on June 22. Named Lucas Robert... Second 
child and first daughter to Dorothy Kathryn 
Holmes '83 and Christopher Damon Howard 
'83 on Oct. 26. Named Julia Holmes Howard... A 
daughter to Sandy Jones Stewart '83 and Larry 
Stewart on Feb. 25, 1997. Named Stephanie Alexandra. . . 
Third child and second daughter to Cynthia 

iman B.S.N. '84 and J. Richard 
i III '84 on May 29. Named Hollis "Bailey". . . 
Second child and daughter to Allan L. Peck '84 
and Terry Peck on Nov. 23. Named Amanda Elise. . . 
Second child and first son to Gordon Bernard 
Berger '85 and Rhonda Karol Berger on Sept. 3. 
Named William Meyer... First child and son to John 
D. Dolan '85 and Lisa Dolan on March 21, 1997. 
Named Joshua Daniel. . .Second child and son to Kip 

A. Frey J.D. '85 and Meredith Frey on Nov. 4. 
Named Sam. . . A son to William H. Koch '85 and 
Laurie Koch on March 10, 1997. Named John 
Andrew... First child and son to Jeff Wertheim 
'85 and Lauren Levy Wertheim '86 on March 8, 
1997. Named Samuel Lewis... Third son to John 
DeMatteo BSE. '86 and Kristine Gonzalez 
DeMatteo '87 on May 5. Named Gregory Hill. . . 
Second child and first son to Amy Hefferman 
Glenney '86 and Jeffrey Welter Glenney '86 
on Aug. 26. Named Benjamin Weller... Fourth child 
and third daughter to Brian Stefanowicz '86 and 
Mary Elizabeth Stefanowicz on April 26, 1996. Named 
Millicent Colleen.... Third child and first son to 
Michael Wolitzer'86 and Lynne Cohen 
Wolitzer'87 on Oct. 6. Named Ryan Samuel... First 
child and daughter to Michael W. Yen '86 and 
Deanna Lee Yen '89 on Nov. 6. Named Rachel 
Caroline... A son to Stephen C. Bader'87 and 
Jodi Hall on May 7. Named Elijah Harold. . .A son to 
Christopher B. CatO '87 and Alison Cato on 
March 5, 1997. Named Kyle Michael... First child and 
daughter to Thomas W. Bellinger B.S.E. '87 and 

Kimberly Dellinger on Aug. 5, 1996. Named Reagan 

Anne... Third son to Kristine Gonzalez DeMat- 
teo '87 and John DeMatteo B.S.E. '86 on May 5, 
1997. Named Gregory Hill. . .Son to Angie Fuller 

'87 and Mark Fuller on Sept. 20. Named Benjamin 
Eli.. Third child and first son to Ellen von der 
Heyden Gillespie '87 and James Gillespie on Oct. 
23. Named Thomas James. . .Second child and son to 
Suma Ramaiah Jones '87, A.M. '95 and Evan 
L. Jones '87 on Dec. 4. Named Morgan Rowlands 
Ramaiah... Second child and tirst daughter to Erika 
Chilman Roach J.D. '87 and Neal R. Roach on 
Aug. 25. Named Sydney Ellen... Second child and first 
daughter to Daniel James Wolfe B.S.E. '87 and 
Wendy Janisch Wolfe '88 on Aug. 2. Named 
Sabrina Delaney. . .Third child and son to Lynne 
Cohen Wolitzer 87 and Michael Wolitzer'86 
on Oct. 6. Named Ryan Samuel. . .First child and son 
to Branan W. Cooper '88 and Desiree Cooper on 
Oct. 11. Named SeanWooten... Second child and son 
to Robyn Raynes Myers '88 and Michael Myers 
on Oct. 7. Named Daryl Joseph... A daughter to 
David B. Petty '88 and Kata Lovejoy Petty on Nov. 
25. Named Elizabeth Anne "Annie"... Second child 
and first daughter to Wendy Janisch Wolfe '88 
and Daniel James Wolfe B.S.E. '87 on Aug. 2. 
Named Sabrina Delaney... Second child and daughter 
to Dawn Taylor Biegelsen '89 and David 
Biegelsen on Aug. 15. Named Emily Claire. . .First child 
and son to Amy Nobles Dolan '89 and James 

B. Dolan Jr. '89 on July 11. Named James Barry 
III... Second child and daughter to George Fox Jr. 
B.S.E. '89 and Karolyn Fox on March 4, 1997. Named 
Jillian Taylor... First child and son to Elizabeth A. 
Michael J.D. '89 and Russell Armstrong 
M.B.A. '90 on Aug. 7. Named Benjamin Michael 
Armstrong. . .Second child and daughte 

and James Murphy on 
April 29, 1997. Named Claire Montgomery. . .A son to 
Katharine Huth Parker '89 and Bret Parker on 
Nov. 7. Named Matthew Edward. . .A daughter to 
Brian L. Schwalb '89 and Mickie Simon on Sept. 
17. Named Jessica Lindsev Schwalb... First child and 
son to Pamela C. Seamans '89, M.RE '94 and 
Benjamin D. Feldman '90, M.B.A. '94 on Jan. 18. 
Named Maxwell Richard Feldman... Suzanne 
Marie Turner '89 to Farzin Franklin Amanat on 
Oct. 5... First child and daughter to Deanna Lee 
Yen '89 and Michael W. Yen '86 on Nov. 6. Named 
Rachel Caroline. 

Carolyn Karr Charnock '90 is director of com- 
munications for the mayor of Charleston, S.C. She and 
her husband, John Patrick, live in Charleston. 

Alfred W. Mordecai B.S.E. '90, who earned his 
M.B.A. at Harvard in 1995, is a financial analyst at 
Primecap Management Co. He and his wife, Victoria 
"Tori" Stover Mordecai '91, and their son live in 

Pasadena, Calif. 

I '90 has joined the Ail. una Children's 
Clinical Center, where he practices pediatric and 
adolescent medicine. 

Gene W. Stuart '90 is completing a medical resi- 
dency at the University of Florida at Jacksonville and 
will begin a fellowship in gastroenterology this summer 
at UNC-Chapel Hill. He and his wife, Kathryn, and 
their daughter live in Jacksonville. 

Talitha Robinson D'ltalia '91 earned her O.D. at 
the Pennsylvania College of" Optometry, where she was 
inducted into the Beta Sigma Kappa and Gold Key 
Optometnc honor societies. She is an optometrist for 
two private practices in Delaware County, Pa. She and 
her husband, Jeffrey, live in West Chester. 

Cindy Cohen Karlan '91 is teaching in Foxboro, 

Mass., at a school for gifted students. She lives in 


Adam A. Milani J.D. '91 is an assistant professor of 

legal writing and analysis at Mercer University's law 
school in Macon, Ga. His article, "Can 1 Play.': The 
Dilemma of the Disabled Athlete in Interscholastic 
Sports," appears this yeat in the Alabama Law Review. 

James S. Rowe J.D. '91 is a partner at the law 
firm Kirkland and Ellis, where he specializes in mergers 
and acquisitions, securities, leveraged buyouts, and 
venture capital transactions. He and his wite, Cynthia, 
live in Chicago. 

Slade H. Schuster M.B.A. '91 does strategic plan- 
ning for West Group. His wife, Dinah Lee Swain 

'86, is a satellite-TV news anchor on AH News Channel. 
They live in St. Paul, Minn. 

Kirsten Thayer '91 is business development man- 
ager for Protein Technologies International, a sub- 
sidiary of Ralston Purina, responsible tor developing 
strategy and sales in new markets in Russia. She lives 
near Frankfurt, Germany. 

Susan Hatch Corry '92 is director of publications 
and public relations at The Madeira School, an inde- 
pendent boarding and day school lor girls in grades 9- 
12. She and her husband, Chris, live in McLean, Va. 

'92 is a human resources manag- 
er at Parker-Hannifin Corp. His wife, Shannon 
Smith Keating '92, recently separated from the Air 
Force to care for their daughter at home. They live in 
Dayton, Ohio. 

Mark P. PalliS '92, an Army captain, participated, 

along with 19,000 others, in the annual 26.2-mile 
Marine Corps Marathon, the fourth largest marathon 
in the U.S., in Washington, DC. 

Phyllis J. Proffer M.B.A. '92 was named vice 
president, strategic planning and investor relations, for 
ShopKo Stotes, Inc., a retail chain and health-care 
benefit and information technology company in Green 
Bay, Wis. 

Bryan L. "Chip" Esterly M.B.A. '93 is director 
of finance for Clarke American, security printers, in 
San Antonio. 

Stacy Nicole Kleiner Humphries 93, who 

earned her law degree at Harvard University, is an 
associate at Vinson & Elkins in Houston. She and her 
husband, Scott, an attorney, live in Houston. 

Gustavo J. Vergara '93, a Navy lieutenant, par- 
ticipated in Exercise Bright Star '^7 while on a six- 
month deployment to the Mediterranean aboard the 
aircraft carrier USS George Washington. 

Craig S. Arneson '94, a Navy lieutenant j.g„ com- 
pleted a six-month deployment to the Mediterranean 
Sea aboard the aircraft carrier USS John E Kennedy. 

John P. Cleveland M.TS. '94 presented his award- 
winning essay, "History and the Sense of Tragedy: 
Nietzsche's Psychological Contribution," at the Florida 
Philosophical Association's annual conference. He is 
pursuing his master's in philosophy at the University 
of South Florida in Tampa, where he is also a graduate 
teaching assistant. 

Brian F. Kowal '94, a Navy lieutenant j.g., took 
pari in Exercise Bright Stat '97 while on a six-month 
deployment to the Mediterranean aboard the aircraft 
carrier USS George Washington. 

Jennifer Santos Madriaga '94 is an intern at 
Duke in the student affairs office while pursuing her 
master's in liberal studies. She and her husband, 
Joshua Lee Hardison '95, a medical student at 
UNC, live in Durham. 

A. SmaiT'94, who earned Ills master's in 

public policy at Harvard in June, is the director of tax 
incentive programs at the New York City Department 
of Housing Preservation and Development. He lives in 
New York City. 

Marvin Lee Barnes Jr. M.B.A. '95 works for 
M.M. Fowler Inc. in Durham. He and his wife, 
Christina, live in Durham. 

Kathryn Summers Bean '95 is a first-year stu- 
dent at Atlanta's Columbia Theological Seminary, 
attending on a full, merit-based Columbia Scholarship. 
She and her husband, Christophet, live in Atlanta. 

Joshua Lee Hardison '95, who is completing his 
M.D. at UNC-Chapel Hill, is planning a residency in 
obstetrics/gynecology. He and his wife, Jennifer 

iaga '94, a master's candidate at Duke, 
in Durham. 

pageorgiou M.B.A. '95 is a research 
analyst for Cowen and Co. He lives in Boston. 

Michael S. Reeves M.B.A. '95 is vice president 
and portfolio managet at NewSouth Capital Manage- 
ment. He and his wife, Julie M. Mackie '89, a 
sixth-grade mathematics teacher, live in Memphis. 

Molly Hale Reid '95 works in the stewardship 
office, a division of development, at Notre Dame. She 
and her husband, Joseph, a law student, live in South 
Bend, Ind. 
Stephanie Roth-Evans '95 is pursuing her M.Div. 

at Emory University's Candler School of Theology, 
where she received the Bishop Eugene and Wilma 
Frank Scholarship. She and her husband, William, an 
environmental engineer, live in Prairie Village, Kan. 

March-April 1998 27 

Gardens Past & Present: 

The Legacy of Ellen Biddle Shipman 

MARCH 27 - 29 

Sarah P. Duke Gardens, Durham, NC 

$145 - $270 per person 

Come ana experience the legacy or Ellen 
Shipman, the landscape architect who 
designed the heart and soul of the Duke 
Gardens. Hear from garden experts and 
tour examples or her work. 

Healthy Mind, Healthy Body 
The Mind-Body-Spirit 

May 1 -3, Duke University 
$275 per person 

The shortest path to healing the hody 
may he through the mind. Duke physi- 
cians will update you on the latest research 
and techniques for making the mind an 
ally in healing. 

19th Annual Duke Writers' Workshop 


An intensive week of writing, reading, 
and manuscript development offering 
heginning and advanced instruction in fic- 
tion, poetry, and non-fiction, led hy 
acclaimed authors. 

Duke Technical Writers' Workshop 

July 31 - August 3. Salter Path, NC 



ters and editors from a range 
of fields are invited to push their writing 
to a new level as we concentrate on the 
quality and clarity oi language and syntax. 

ur Creativity: 
A Workshop and Retreat for 

August 4-7. Salter Path, nc 
approx. $495 per person 

Learn to evoke and celehrate your cre- 
ative spirit in this supportive, structured 
workshop for women. 

Creative Writing Workshop 

August 25 - 28, Salter Path, NC 


In the ancient tradition of physician poets, 
hegin to access and express the insights 
that make the healing arts a wellspring of 
human experience. Daily workshops will 
cover poetry, essay, fiction and memoir. 

Dolphins & Our Changing Environment Alumni College of Tuscany 

Duke Marine lab Alumni College 
June 4-7, Beaufort, North Carolina 
$325 per person 

Come explore the heautiful coast of 
North Carolina and learn first-hand 
ahout the fascinating world of dolphins 

Cortona, Italy 

May 6 - 1 4 AND 20 - 28 

$2,195 PER PERSON 

Immerse yourself in the 
culture of a typical Tuscan 
village, with seminars on 
Italian life and culture and 
excursions to significant sites 

The World of the Vikings and the 
Horsemen: A Family Adventure 

June 25- July lO 


Scandinavia and the Baltic offer an 
enchanting destination for families, 
capturing the rich pageantry and lore of 
Vikings, czars, ana kings. 

Alumni College in Burgundy j 

Tournus, France 

July 1 - 9 

$2,295 per person 

Step hack in time and immerse yourself 
in the culture of a typical small French 
town in the heart of the medieval and his- 
torical land called Burgundy. 

The Oxford Experience 

The University of Oxford, England 
September 6-19 
$3,150 PER PERSON 

Immerse yourself in centuries-old tradi- 
tions of learning and community. Study 
in small groups with Oxford faculty and 
explore the English countryside. 
Rediscover what it is to he a student again. 

Alumni College of Ireland I 

County Clare, Ireland 
September 23 - October 1 
$2,095 per person 

From awesome seaside vistas to Celtic 
history, this pleasant mix of seminars 
and excursions will expose you to the his- 
tory and culture of the Emerald Isle. 


September 18 and November 6 
Durham, NC 

IT) ediscover the true "Duke experience" — 
llLthe classroom experience! Return to 
Duke for a day of stimulating classes design 
for alumni and taught hy top Duke faculty. 

Summer Youth Camps 

March, June - August 
Durham and Salter Path, NC 

Camps in art, writing, drama, ana sci- 
ence are offered tor youth in grades 5- 
11. Weekend workshops are offered in cre- 
ative writing and writing the college essay. 

Wines of the World 

April 23 - May 3 

approx. $3,995 per person 

Spend seven days in Bordeaux visiting 
famous wineries accompanied by a 
noted oenologist. Explore the Basque 
region and the coastal city of Biarritz . 

Wings Over the Kalahari 

MAY 8 -21 


A 14-day safari to South Africa, Namibia, 
Zimbabwe, and Botswana , with a two- 
night stay at Chobe National Park Then fly 
to Cape Town for three nights. 

Cruise the Face of Europe 

JUNE 1 - 17 



For 17 days we sail the Rhine, the Main 
Danube Canal, and the Danube itself. 
From Budapest to Amsterdam. 

Northern Lights Cruise 

JUNE 20 -JULY 3 
$4,995 PER PERSON 

Discover the legendary beauty of 
Europe's northerly latitudes to 
Denmark and Norway. Visit the Shetland 
Islands and Scotland. 



ad St. 

as well as some 


lesser known jewels — 
Calvi, Bonifacio, Costa 
Smeralda, and Porto- 
ferraio. Seven nights 
on the Star Flyer. 

JULY 19-31 
$2,995 PER PERSON 

An Inside Passage cruise aboard the 
four-star deluxe Crown Majesty and the 
Midnight Sun Express. Two days in 
Denafi, with calls at Juneau, Skagi 
Sitka, and Ketchikan. 


Waterways of Russia 

AUGUST 18-30 

$3,795 PER ( 

Spend two nights in Moscow, visit the 
Kremlin and Red Square before 
embarking on a cruise to charming village 
and the magnificent city of St. Petersburg 

Danube to the Black Sea 

$3,590 PER PERSON 

Our 14-day classic itinerary from the 
Danube to the Black Sea takes you froi 
Austria to Hungary Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, 
Romania, and Turkey. Then to Istanbul for 
two nights. Vienna is a two-night option. 

Spiritual Siam: 
The Traditions 
of Thailand 

$3,795 PER PERSON 

Spend four nights 
in Bankok, then 
to Chiang Mai for 
three nights. See the Golden Triangle, 
where the borders of Laos, Myanmar 
(Burma), and Thailand meet. 

to the Sea of Ulysses 

$4,695 PER PERSON 

A cruise of Turkey and the Greek Isles and 
stays in Istanbul and Athens. The center- 
piece is a seven-night cruise aboard Radisson 

Seven Seas Cr 

' Song of Flou 

Cotes du Rhone Passage 

OCTOBER 14-27 



Paris, the "City of Light," the TGV 
(world's fastest passenger train), Cannes, 
Provence, and Burgundy. 

Heritage of Northern Italy 

$3,900 PER PERSON 

We are pleased to offer a journey 
through Northern Italy. See Venice 
and Lake Como, as well as visits to 
Bergamo, Verona, Mantua, Vicenza, 
Bassano del Grappa, Padua, and Parma. 

Around the World by Supersonic 

Our ultimate 24-day Around the World 
journey: two nights in Kona, Hawaii; 
three nights in Queenstown, New Zealand; 
in Sydney, Australia; in the Masai Mara, 
Kenya; and in London, England. 

Old World Christmas Markets 
December 7-14 
$2,495 PER person 

Surround yourself in the winter wonder- 
land of the Bavarian Alps. Three nights 
in Bad Reichenhall and the musical city of 
Salzburg, Austria. 

Duke Great Teachers Video Series 


itstanding faculty. 


For detaded brochures on these programs 
listed below, please return this form, 
appropriately marked, to : 
Duke Educational Adventures 
614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 27708 
or fax to: (919)684-6022 

Alumni Colleges 

□ Gardens Past and Present 

Q Healthy Mind, Healthy Body 

□ Dolphins and Our Environment 
Summer Academy 

□ Duke Writers' Workshop 
Q Technical Writers' Workshop 
Q Accessing Your Creativity 

□ Creative Writing for Healthcare 

Alumni Colleges Abroad 

□ Alumni College of Tuscany 

□ The World of the Vikings and the 

□ Alumni College in Burgundy 
Q The Oxford Experience 

□ Alumni College of Ireland 
Otner Programs 

□ Duke Directions 

Q Summer Youth Camps & Weekend 

Duke Travel 

□ Wines of the World 

LI Wings Over the Kalahari 

□ Cruise the Face of Europe 

□ Northern Lights Cruise 

□ Mediterranean Adventure 

Q Alaskan Wilderness: Voyage of the 

Q Waterways of Russia 

□ Danube to the Black Sea 

□ Spiritual Siam: The Traditions of 

Q From the Bosphorus to the Sea of 

□ Cotes du Rhone Passage 
Q Heritage of Northern Italy 

Q Around the World by Supersonic 

Q Yuletide in Bavaria: Old World 

Christmas Markets 

□ Duke Great Teachers 

Shankar V. Swamy '95, Navy lieutenant j.g., was 
designated a Naval Aviator while serving with Training 
Squadron 86, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. 

Julia Jackson Chitester '96 is director of 

development at Hope Haven, a drug and alcohol 
rehahilitation center in Charlotte. Her husband, 
Todd H. Chitester B.S.E. '96, is a staff consultant 
at Metasys Corp., a software development company. 
They live in Charlotte. 

Clifford Scott Hofman BSE. '96 is a design engi- 
neer at Data Communications Technologies in 
Research Triangle Park. He and his wife, attorney 
Connie Diane Cole, live in Raleigh. 

Kathy Jane Rust M.S.N. '96 is an adult and 
geriatric nurse practitioner at Presbyterian Healthcare 
Associates. She and her husband, Paul Hughes 
Trotter B.S.E. '81, president of the William Trotter 
Co., live in Charlotte. 

Robin Dearth Soran '96 is an analyst for 
Andersen Consulting in Chicago. Her husband, 
David Soran '96, is a second-year medical student 
at the University of Chicago. 

Tracy L. Dearth '97 works for AmeriCorps in 
Denver, Colo., and with literacy programs for elemen- 
tary school children. 

MARRIAGES: Christina Lynn Goshaw V to 

David J. Hinkle on Sept. 27. Residence: Chapel Hill... 
Laura Felice Jacobs '90 to Robert M. Girvin IV 
on Sept. 27. Residence: San Francisco... Caroline 
Karr'90 to John Patrick Charnock in October 1995. 
Residence: Charleston, S.C.... Amanda Jennifer 
Mink '90 to David Graftlin Murray on Sept. 20... 
Curt F. Brockelman Jr. '91 to Alisa Ann 
Sacerdote on Sept. 20. Residence: New York City... 
Laura Michele Carter '91 to Bruce Marshall 
Robinson on May lO.Talitha Robinson '91 to 
Jeffrey D'ltalia on Sept. 27. Residence: West Chester, 
I Slade H. Schuster MBA. '91 to Dinah 
Lee Swain '86 on Sept. 6. Residence: St. Paul, 
Minn. ...Danielle Teresa Stevens '91 to David 
W Sanders on Oct. 18. Residence: Cuyahoga Falls, 
Ohio. . Aimee A. Vincent '91 to Jeremiah S. 
Jamison on Oct. 11. Residence: Philadelphia... 
Sandra J. Galvis J.D. '92 to David K. Park 
J.D. '92, A.M. '92 on Oct. 25. Residence: Washington, 
DC... .Rachel Ellen Gilbert '92 to Shannon 
William Davis on May 24. Residence: Santa Barbara, 
Calif... .Lynn Marie Gordon M.H.S. '92 to 
Christopher G. Eckert on May 3. Residence: Durham- 
Susan Hatch '92 to Christopher Corry on Oct. 4. 
Residence: McLean, Va... Namrata Pai'92 to 
Brian D. Wheeler '94 on June 28 in Duke Chapel 
and the Hindu Bhavan Temple. Residence: Chapel 
Hill.. .Christopher B. Parton '92 to Suzanne 
Archambault on Nov. 8. Residence: Monmouth Beach, 

I Ashley Wilkes Warren '92 to Hendrick 
Frederik Jordaan on Aug. 16.. .William Thomas 
Auchincloss '93 to Megan Elizabeth Mingey 
'94 on Aug. 23. Residence: Bethesda, Md....Reed 
Nicholas Fountain '93 to Susan Leigh Twiddy on 
Oct. 4. Residence: Raleigh.. ..Gregory Wilhelm 
Holcombe '93 to Laura Lynne Rogers. Residence: 
San Francisco... Stacy Nicole Kleiner '93 to Scott 
Anthony Humphries on Nov. 1. Residence: Houston... 
Shelby Haas Snyder '93 to Allen Morris Hammer 
on July 27. Residence: Northport, Ala....Scott F. 
Akers M.B.A. '94 to Pauline D. Purcellon on Oct 18. 
Residence: New York City... Ted Galanthy III '94 
to Linda Margaret Fairbanks on Sept. 20. Residence: 
Chicago... Joshua Lee Hardison'94 to Jennifer 
Santos Madriaga '95 on Nov. 8. Residence: 
Durham... Julie E. Keaton B.S.E. '94 to Mark P 
Marzano on Oct. 25. Residence: Ellettsville, Ind.... 
Jennifer Kim Licker B.S.E. '94 to Eric Marshall 
Larner on Aug. 31. Residence: New York City... David 

M. Love '94 to Valerie Lynn Marx B.S.E. '94 on 
Nov. 8. Residence: Atlanta.. 

'93 on Aug. 23. Residence: Bethesda, Md. 
M. Parizeau A.M. '94 to Lisa Domingo on Oct. 11. 
Residence: Westfield, N.J . . . . Brian D. Wheeler '94 
to Namrata Pai '92 on June 28 in Duke Chapel and 
the Hindu Bhavan Temple. Residence: Chapel Hill... 
Valerie L. Yoder J D 94 to Mark R. Busch J.D. 
'95 on May 24. Residence: Charlotte... Broadus 
Zane Atkins M.D. '95 to Kimberly Lea Powell on 
Aug. 9 in Duke Chapel. Residence: Cary, N.C.... 
Marvin Lee Barnes Jr. M.B.A. '95 to Christina 
Lynn Atwell on Nov. 8. Residence: Durham. Mark 
R. Busch J.D. '95 to Valerie L. Yoder J.D. '94 on 
May 24. Residence: Charlotte... Laura Abney 
Hagan '95 to Larry Jay Sauls on June 22. Residence: 
Hollywood, Fla. . ..Molly Hale '95 to Joseph P Reid 
on July 12. Residence: South Bend, Ind. . Maya 
Haroutunian 95 to William K. Packard 95 on 
May 25, 1997 in Duke Chapel. Residence: Chapel 
Hill. . Jennifer Santos Madriaga '95 to Joshua 
Lee Hardison '94 on Nov. 8. Residence: Durham... 
Michael S. Reeves MBA 95 to Julie M. 
Mackie '89 on July 12. Residence: Memphis... 
Stephanie A. Roth '95 to William B. Evans on 
May 31. Residence: Prairie Village, Kan.... Todd H. 
Chitester BSE. '96 to Julia D. Jackson '96 on 
Nov. 1. Residence: Charlotte... Robin Dearth '96 to 
David Soran '96 on Aug. 30. Residence: Chicago... 
Shannon M. Haszard '96 to Joshua H. 
Sherfey'96 on Oct. 4. Residence: Winston-Salem... 
Clifford Scott Hofman B.S.E. '96 to Connie 
Diane Cole on Nov. 15. Residence: Raleigh... Kathy 
Jane Rust M.S.N. '96 to Paul Hughes Trotter 
B.S.E. '81 on June 21. Residence: Charlotte. . Bret 
Alan Rogers B.S.E. '97 to Julie Michelle 
Walden '97 on June 21. Residence: Philadelphia. 

BIRTHS: First child and son to Russell Armstrong 
M.B.A. '90 and Elizabeth A. Michael J.D. '89 on 

Aug. 7. Named Rum. mint Michael Armstrong. ..First 

child and son to Benjamin D. Feldman '90, 
M.B.A. '94 and Pamela C. Seamans '89, M.PP 
'94 on Jan. 18. Named Maxwell Richard Feldman... 
First child and son to Katie O'Donovan Hanusik 

'90 and Tom Hanusik J.D. '90 on Oct. 22. Named 
Matthew Crossan. . .First child and daughter to Julie 
Potts Hoffmann M.H.A. '90 and Russell Hoffmann 
on Sept. 1. Named Sarah Elizabeth. . .A son to Alfred 

I.S.E. '90 and Victoria "Tori" 

'91 on Nov. 18. Named Alfred 
Winbome "Win" Jr. .. .A son to Heather Affleck 
Ortega M.B.A. '90 and Miguel Ortega on Nov. 5. 
Named Evan Miguel... A daughter to Gene W. 
Stuart '90 and Kathryn Stuart on April 2, 1997. 
Named Sara Kathryn. . . A son to Timothy F. Tate 
'90, M.Div. '95 and Teresa D. Tate on Nov. 4. Named 
Caleb Franklin... A daughter to Ernest H. "Bud" 
Zuberer'90 and Elizabeth Anne Zuberer on Sept. 9. 
Named Taylor Anne. . .A son to Victoria "Tori" 
Stover Mordecai '91 and Alfred W. Mordecai 
B.S.E. '90 on Nov. 18. Named Alfred Winbome "Win" 
Jr.... Second child and first daughter to Allen B. 
Parker B.S.E. '91 and Rhonda Riggins Parker 
'91 on Jan. 3, 1997. Named Emily Lytle. . . A son to 
William A. Silva 91 and Krisanta Lasko Silva 
'92 on Nov. 9. Named Jonah Kai. . .Second child and 
daughter to John Albert Burroughs '92 and 
Amy Quinn Burroughs '93 on Sept. 19. Named 
Erin Siobhan... First child and daughter to David E. 
Keating '92 and Shannon Smith Keating '92 
on Oct. 15. Named Abigail Margaret.. .A son to 
Jacqulynn Broughton J.D. '93 and Byron Hugee 
on Oct. 12. Named Tyson Amir Hugee... Second child 
and daughter to Amy Quinn Burroughs '93 and 
John Albert Burroughs '92 on Sept. 19. Named 

Erin Siobhan... First child and daughter to Traci 

Stroupe Kyes '93 and Allyn Kyes on April 25, 1997. 
Named Rachel Lauren. 


ten '23 of Sugar Land, 
Texas, on Dec. 21. At then-Trinity College, she was a 
member of Phi Beta Kappa and the first woman to be 
class president. She chaired the board of Wesley United 
Methodist Church, lived at the Methodist Home for 
20 years, and established several scholarships at Wesley 
Seminary. In 1964, she was named Mother of the Year 
in Washington, D.C. She is survived by a son; two 

daughters, including Ursula Aiken Mason '48; 14 
grandchildren, including Scott Aiken Mason '73, 
Randall S. Mason 74, and Jane Aiken Krot 

'88; and seven great-grandchildren. 

Lewis E. Spikes '24, M.Ed. '34 of Burlington, 
N.C., on Jan. 16, 1996. Superintendent of the 
Burlington City Schools from 1936 to 1963, he had 
earned a second master's at Columbia University in 
1939 and his Ph.D. at George Peabody College for 
Teachers in 1942. He served as education consultant 
to the U.S. secretary of the Army to advise Japanese 
educators in setting up a new democratic school sys- 
tem as Japan recovered from World War II. He was a 
former chair of the N.C. State Textbook Commission. 
He organized and was president of both Burlington's 
first recreation commission and its first Community 
Council. He was also a past president of the Kiwanis 
Club and the Burlington Executive Club. In 1960, he 
was named Alamance County's Citizen of the Year. In 
1961, he was awarded an honorary degree by Elon 
College. He is survived by two daughters, three grand- 
children, and three great-grandchildren. 

B. Hatch '25 of Mt. Olive, N.C, on Aug. 8. 

Charles H. Pegram '26 of Charleston, S.C., on 
March 10, 1997. He is survived by a son, Charles Jr. 

Florence Lewis Rose '27 of Lake Junaluska, N.C. 
Robert G. Gilfillan Jr. '31 of Swarthmore, Pa., on 
July 14. He is survived by his wife, Elizabeth. 
Alden P. Honeycutt 1 of Raleigh, on Aug. 15. He 
is survived by his wife, Ruth Ball Honeycutt A.M. 
'34; two sons; a sister; and four grandchildren. 

Hubert L. Kanipe '31 of Asheviile, N.C, on Sept. 

14, 1996. 

Mildred Guthrie Mann Beales '32 on Jan. 3, 

1995. She is survived by a son. 
Benjamin F. Martin '32 of Winston-Salem, N.C, 
on July 26. He earned his M.D. at Jefferson Medical 
School and practiced internal medicine in Winston- 
Salem. He is survived by two sons and a brother, 
C. Martin Jr. '35. 

Lucy Guild Toberman A.M. '32 of Los Angeles, 


Martha Vance Hecht'33 of Sequim,Wash.,on 

July 4. At Duke, she was a member of Phi Beta Kappa. 

She taught history at Northwestern University until 

retiring in 1971. She is survived by a son, a daughter, 

two grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. 

E. Marvin Lemon '33 of Roanoke, Va., on April 21, 

Margaret King McAfee '33 of El Paso, Texas, in 
January 1997. 

Samuel Innis Barnes'34ofWarrenton,Va.,on 
June 14, of congestive heart failure. He left Duke to 
work for Southern Railway and then entered the 
Army during World War II, where he was promoted to 
Monel in the Transportation Corps. He 




There's no telling 
how our child- 
hood experiences 
will influence our ca- 
reer choices. Most of 
us follow our parents 
or parents' friends into 
traditional fields such 
as business, law, and 
medicine. Erika Rosen- 
berg '76 was drawn to 
her exotic pets — the 
mongoose, skunks, 
donkeys, and talking 
birds that filled her life 
growing up on the 
island of Saint Thomas 
in the Virgin Islands. 
Today, Rosenberg is a 
"fiber farmer" who 
raises exotic rabbits, 
sheep, and goats and 
harvests their fur to 
fashion into prized gar- 

Rosenberg graduat- 
ed from Duke with 
only vague notions of 
what to do with her 
life. After a sdnt as a 
restaurateur in St 
Thomas, she went to 
nursing school and 
found work at a 
hospital in San Diego. 
There she met and 
married John Reinke, 
a cardiologist, moving 
with him to practices 
in Louisiana, Oregon, 
and finally Alabama. 

While in California, 
Rosenberg fell in love 
with ultra-soft angora 
sweaters. She re- 
searched where the 
wool comes from and 
how it is processed, 
with the thought of 
one day making her 
own garments for sale. 
When she and John 
purchased a thirty-two- 
acre farm in St. 
Florian, Alabama, in 
1994, she finally had 
the space she needed 
to start her business. 

"I spent the first 
year fencing and build- 
ing chicken coops and 
haylofts," she says. 
"Then I set about 
buying the animals." 

Angora, Rosenberg 
explains, is derived 
from the Angora breed 
of rabbit. Angora wool 
is considered one of 
the softest and most 
sensuous natural fi- 
bers. When spun on 
a wheel and twisted 
on a skein winder, the 
fibers separate from 
the main twist of the 
yarn and form a halo. 
The fiber has no 
"memory," however, 
so Rosenberg prefers 
blending angora with 
other wool, especially 

Alpaca, derived from 
the llama-like animal 
of the same name. 

"Alpacas are camelids 
nadve to South Ameri- 
ca," she says. "They are 
my true passion. They 
are very tranquil ani- 
mals, and I absolutely 
love their fiber." 

At the outset, Ro- 
senberg had the inten- 
tion of doing every 
aspect of production. 
But she found that cer- 
tain steps, such as 
shearing and knitting, 
were best handled by 
specialists. So she ad- 
vertised for and found 
local Alabamians to 
do the shearing and 
knitting of yarn into 
sweaters, blankets, 
comforters, and hats. 
She concentrates on 
raising the animals 
and spinning processed 
fiber into yarn. 

How does she find 
her customers? 

"It's all word of 
mouth," she says. "I 
don't do any advertis- 
ing; I have no outlet. 
People hear about my 
products and come to 
me with orders. I'm 
already booked up for 

On top of t 

her own business, Ro- 
senberg is a full-time 
mom. She has four 
children: Christian, 
Jevon, Courtney, and 
Hannah. Their moth- 
er's example has in- 
spired them to start 
their own businesses. 
Christian, 14, raises 
rabbits for meat and 
works at a local feed 
store. Jevon, 13, mows 
lawns, pressure-washes 
decks, and blows leaves 
for a host of clients. 
Courtney, 10, gathers 
eggs from the farm's 
hens and sells them at 
school. Hannah, 8, rais- 
es red worms for sale at 
bait and garden stores. 

"The business has 
taught my kids how to 
be financially indepen- 
dent and has given 
them a lot of self-confi- 
dence," Rosenberg 
says. "And it gives me 
a tremendous sense of 
satisfaction. I wake up 
in the morning to the 
sound of a rooster. I 
walk out and gather 
my own eggs for break- 
fast. And 1 see the ani- 
mals in the pasture 
that provide me with 
the clothes I wear." 

— John Manuel 

returned to Southern Railway to become district 
manager, passenger sales, in Chattanooga before retinng 
in 1967. He then bought and managed the Read House 
Travel Bureau, conducting tours all over the world until 
selling the business in 1974. He teturned to Duke and 
finished his degree in 1979. He is survived by a sister. 

Walter G. Canipe ' 54 of Charlotte, on July 21. 
He retired from Caratistar Industries after 30 years. 
A past chairman of the board of St. Mark's United 
Methodist Church and Providence United Methodist 
Church, he was a past president of the Western North 
Carolina Conference of Methodist Men. He was a 
member of Duke Divinm School's board of visitots. 
He is survived by his wife, Virginia; a son, W. Kent 
Canipe '69; a daughter; a sister; a brother; and three 

Kermit Lee Grogan A.M. '34 of Welch, W.Va., on 

June 14. 

Susan Sheppard McGillicuddy '34 of Fort 

Myers, Fla., on Aug. 4. She was the daughter of long- 
term U.S. Sen. Morris Sheppard ofTexas and the 
mother of U.S. Sen. Connie Mack. She is survived by 
seven children, 14 grandchildren, eight great-grand- 
children, and a sister. 

Helen Cox Snead '34 of Rockingham, N.C. 

Carlos Weil '34 ofWest Chester, Pa., on Jan. 11, 
1997. He was a dentist until retiring in 1985. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Olive, a son, a daughter a sister, and 
six grandsons. 

Mary Taggart Jackson '35 of Durham, on June 
9. She was a member of the Junior League of Durham 
and Orange County and the Halcyon Literary Club. 
She is survived by her husband, David K. Jackson 

'29; a son; a daughtet; and two grandsons. 

Jack Greenfield M.D '36 of Mint Hill, N.C, on 

March 20, 1997. 

D. Hedden B.D. '36 of Wilmington, N.C, 
on June 24. In 1952, he became superintendent for the 
Methodist Home for Children in Raleigh. He went to 
work for the board of Global Ministeries in its finance 
and field service office, where he became executive 
secretary. He retired in 1970 and served as a minister 
for nearly a decade before being named minister emer- 
itus at Pine Valley United Methodist Church. He is 
survived by his wife, Jean, a daughter, three sons, four 
grandchildren, and three sisters. 

L. Sneed High '36 of Fayetteville, N.C, on May 12. 
He was a legislatot in the N.C. House and a former 
state revenue commissioner. 

A. Pell Jr. '37 of Pilot Mountain, N.C, on 
Aug. 3. From 1977 to 1984, he was senior assistant and 
chief of staff for N.C. Gov. Jim Hunt. He was chair- 
man of the boatd of Pellcare Corp., which operates 
nursing homes in Winston- Salem and Hickory, and 
president of Growers Warehouse Co. and Growers 
Tobacco Storage Corp. in Winston-Salem. Democtatic 
chaitman tot Surry County, he worked in Terry 
Sanford's gubernatorial campaign in 1960. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Man', a daughter, a son, five grand- 
children, a sister, and two brothers. 

Hilliard Frances Hardin '39, A.M. '49, Ph.D. '53 
of Little Rock, Ark., on Jan. 17, 1997, of a heart attack. 
She was a Navy veteran of World War II. Before earn- 
ing her Ph.D., she was sent to Japan by the Atomic 
Bomb Casualty Commission to study the after-effects 
of the bombings. She worked at Duke Medical Center 
before going to the Centers for Disease Control in 
Atlanta as chief of its mycology training unit. In 1968, 
she became director of clinical microbiology at the 
McClellan VA. Hospital in Little Rock. A past ptesi- 
dent of her American Business Women's Association 
(ABWA) chapter, she was elected the 1988 Arkansas 
Woman of the Year by her chapter and named one of 

March -April 1998 31 

Hit pap£ to 
intiesft tn 

Put your trust in Duke 
University by establishing a 
charitable remainder trust 
which benefits both you and 
Duke. For a minimum of 
$100,000, you can: 

* Earn 5 to 7-1/2 percent 
income on your gift 

Receive an income for life for 
you and your spouse 

* Receive a charitable income 
tax deduction this year 

* Transfer appreciated 
securities to your trust and 
potentially avoid capital gains 

* Select a payment option that 
either pays you a fixed dollar 
amount or a fixed percentage of 
the trust assets revalued 

Support a University program 
that interests you or create a 
scholarship or other endowment 

If you want to learn how a 
charitable remainder trust can 
benefit both you and Duke 
University, call the Office of 
Planned Giving and we will 
send you a personal financial 

Please contact: 

Michael C. Sholtz, J.D., Director 

Office of Planned Giving 

Duke University 

3100 Tower Blvd. 

Suite 205 

Durham, NC 27707 

(919) 419-5070 

(919) 684-2123 

the top 10 businesswomen in the U.S. by the ABWA. 
She is survived by four nieces, including Barbara 
Proctor Smith '63 and Addria Proctor Capps 
'61; and a cousin, James C. Hardin B.S.M.E. '37. 

S. Heckman Ph.D. '39 of Albuquerque, 
N.M., on May 18. 

Charles W. Ramsey B.S.C.E. '39 of Charlotte, on 
July 30, of a heart attack. At Duke, he was president of 
the engineering student council and a member of Tau 
Beta Pi and Omicron Delta Kappa honorary fraternities. 
He is survived by his wife, Jane Hawkins Ram- 
sey '39, a daughter, Elizabeth R. "Betsy" Berry 
'66; two sons, including Charles W. Ramsey III 
A.M. 74: a sister, Ruth R. Fletcher B.S.N. '44; 
and three grandchildren. 

S. Wilson "Bill" Gillingham M.Ed. 40 of 
Kettering, Ohio, on Dec. 21, 1996. A retired project 
engineer at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, he served 
in the Navy during World War II and the Korean 
Conflict. He retired from the Naval Reserves as a 
lieutenant commander. He was a member of the 
Association of Former Intelligence Officers. He is 
survived by his wife, Marjorie, two daughters, two 
stepchildren, a sister, and a brother. 

Carl E. Heilman A.M. '40 of Mt. Joy, Pa., on June 
22. He was a senior program adviser in mathematics 
for the Pa. Department of Education for 22 years, 
retiring in 1980. Previously, he taught mathematics at 
Elizabethtown College for 15 years. He was a member 
of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum 
and received several presidential fitness awards while 
in his late seventies. He is survived by a son, a daugh- 
ter, three grandchildren, and two sisters. 

Thomas D. Reynolds '40, A.M. '42, Ph.D. '48 of 
Black Mountain, N.C., on June 5, of a stroke. He is 
survived by his wife, Lillian, and three daughters. 

Mary Martin Sherrill Roach '40 of Durham, on 
July 16. She was a member of the Durham-Orange 
Junior League. She is survived by her husband, Charles, 
a daughter, three sons, and nine grandchildren. 

White A.M. '40 of Harrisburg, Pa., 
on June 5. He is survived by his wife, Virginia 
Duehring White '37, A.M. 39. 

John Louis Dupree A.M. '41 of Windsor, N.C., on 
Aug. 8. A Wake Forest graduate and star athlete, he 
coached high school football at Cannon High School 
in Kannapolis until 1938, when he was named principal. 
In 1946, he became superintendent of the Bertie County 
Schools. He retired in 1973. He is survived by a son, 
two grandchildren, a great-grandchild, and a sister. 

C. Stauffer M.D. '41 of Jackson, Term., o 
Jan. 6, 1997. He is survived by his wife, Shirley. 

J. Clyde Allen '42 of Charlotte on Aug. 9, in an 
automobile accident. At Duke, he was a basketball 
player and four-letter athlete, and a member of Sigma 
Chi fraternity. A Navy aviator in the Pacific during 
World War II, he was a captain for Aloha Airlines 
from its inception in 1946 to his retirement in 1978. 
He is survived by his wife, Emily Vaughan Allen 
'42; a son; a daughter; and three stepsons. 

White Creekmore '42 of Richmond, 
Va., on March 8, 1997, of colon cancer. He is survived 
by his wife, Helen, and two sons, including I 
R. "Rob" Creekmore BSE. '80. 

Jean Hall 

on July 31. 

42 ot'WesIcvville, Pa-. 

John C. Hilbert B.D. '43 of Leonardtown, Md., 
on Dec. 6, 1996. He was a United Methodist minister 
who served more than a dozen churches in the 
Baltimore -Washington Conference before retiring in 
19S3. He is survived by a stepson. 

ED. '43 of Walkerville, 
Md., on Aug. 24, 1996. He was a United Methodist 
minister who served the Baltimore Washington Con- 
ference before retiring in 1984- He is survived by three 
sons, two daughters, and 10 grandchildren. 

David C. Black '47 of Durham on March 1997. 
He is survived by a brother, Robert W. Black Jr. 

'54, and two sisters. 

Mary James Deaver R.N. '47 of San Antonio, in 
October 1996. She is survived by a daughter. 

Jeanne Lentz Morris '47 of Albemarle, N.C., 
on Aug. 7. A school teacher, she had retired from 
Albemarle High School. She was a member and for- 
mer regent of the Yadkin River Patriots chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution. She is sur- 
vived by her husband, Dwight, two sons, a daughter, 
and six grandchildren. 

H. Barnes M.D. '48 of Scottsdale, Ariz., on 
June 21. He was a psychiatrist and author widely 
known for his pioneering work in the psychology of 
aging, pain control, and stress reduction. He also 
developed the first community mental-health centers 
in the U.S. He served on Duke's medical faculty, where 
he developed long-range studies in aging that resulted 
in the Duke Aging Center, one of the first such cen- 
ters in the nation. He served in various leadership 
positions at St. Luke's Hospital, where he developed its 
pain reduction center, and Willow Creek Hospital, 
where he directed its comprehensive eating disorder 
program; and was a consulting psychiatrist for busi- 
nesses and other organizations. He served on the fac- 
ulty at universities in Missouri and Texas. He pub- 
lished more than 50 articles on mental health issues. 
He is survived by his wife, Beverly, a son, a stepson, 
two grandchildren, and a sister. 

Mary Frances "Kitty" Cassells Daniel '48 

of Columbia, S.C., on June 11. She is survived by her 
husband, Reese, and two children. 

G. Aycock '49, M.D. '54 of Mebane, 
NC, on Aug. 8. A World War II Army veteran, he 
practiced medicine in Mebane for nearly 43 years. He 
was assistant professor of community medicine at Duke 
for more than 22 years and medical examiner for Ala- 
mance County for more than 18 years. He is survived 
by his wife, Susan, four daughters, six grandchildren, 
and a sister. " 

S. Kelly Jordan '49 of Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., on 
Aug. 26, of cancer. He spent most of his career with 
Sears Roebuck. He retired to Ft. Lauderdale, where he 
served as president of the chamber of commerce, chair- 
man of the United Way for Broward County, and on 
the boards of directors for the American Cancer Society, 
the Boys Club, and the S. Fla. Council of Boy Scouts. 
He is survived by his wife, Dorothy Dunson Jordan 
'48; a daughter, Nancy Jordan Ham '82; two sons; 
a granddaughter; and several nieces and nephews. 

William L. Richardson M.D. '50 of Fayetteville, 
N.C., on Aug. 29, 1995. He is survived by his wife, 
Betty Jean. 

Stanley C. Burgess M.Div. '51 of Richmond, Va., 
on April 3, 1997. He was a Baptist minister. 

George Terpenning '51 of Hawks Nest Beach, 
Conn., on June 27. He served with the Army in Japan 
in 1952 and worked for EW Woolworth in New York 
City as a buyer until 1982. He retired from Shogen 
Industries in 1986 to pursue fly fishing and bird watch- 
ing at his summer home in Hawks Nest Beach. He is 
survived by his wife, Nancy, a son, and a daughter. 

D. Brazis '52 of Hingham, Ma 

Raymond L. Klein D.Ed. '53 of Tu. 
Feb. 14, 1997. 



Donn McGiehan B.S.M.E. '53 ofVienna,Va.,on 
April 19, 1997. At Duke, he was a member of Pi Kappa 
Alpha. He served in the Navy, where he was awarded 
a National Service Defense Medal, and commissioned 
as a lieutenant j.g. in the Naval Reserves. He earned 
his law degree in 1968 at George Washington Univer- 
sity, where he was a member of the Delta Theta Phi 
law fraternity. He worked for the U.S. Patent Office 
before retiring to private practice in 1989. He is sur- 
vived by two sisters, Dayne M. Sousa '48 and 
Gail M. Miller '55; and two daughters. 

G. Blackard M.D. '57 of Richmond, Va., 
on June 28, 1996, of cancer. The nationally known 
diabetes expert chaired the endocrinology and metabo- 
lism division at the Medical College of Virginia at 
Virginia Commonwealth University before retiring in 
May 1996 due to illness. In 1990, he received VC.U.'s 
Distinguished Scholar Award. He served on the 
editorial boards of Diabetes and the Journal of Clinical 
Endocrinology and Metabolism. He was a member of 
Alpha Omega Alpha honorary medical fraternity and 
was a Markle Scholar in Academic Medicine and re- 
ceived the Sinsheimer Award while a visiting professor 
at the University of Geneva, Switzerland. He was a 
director of the American Diabetes Association and 
the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Review Board. 
He also chaired the National Institute of Health Me- 
tabolism study section and was ptesident of the Southern 
section of the American Federation of Clinical Re- 
search. His is survived by his wife, Attelia Shealy 
Blackard '60; a daughter; two sons; and a sister. 

J. Wayne Griffin '58 of Denver, N.C., on March 4, 
1997, of congestive heart failure. An interior decorator, 
he was the owner and operator of The Coiner Room, 
J. Wayne Griffin Interiors, for 32 years. He is survived 
by a sister. 

( A.M. '60, Ph.D. '62 of Carrolton, 
Ga., on March 10, 1997. He had retired after 27 years 
at West Georgia College, where he had been a history 
professor, assistant dean of graduate studies, and 
registrar. He is survived by his wife, Jane, two daughters, 
a granddaughter, and two sisters. 

Pryor R. Millner IV '60 of Mooresville, N.C., on 
May 20. 

David Michael Wood '60 of Raleigh, on Nov. 22, 
from complications following a bone marrow transplant. 
At Duke, he was a member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon 
fraternity. He worked tor IBM lor the past 35 years, 
retiring as director of networking and system manager, 
service and support, in 1996. In retirement, he devoted 
his efforts to the American Cancer Society. He is 
survived by his wife, Barbara "Bee" Rambin 

Wood '60; a son: two daughters, including Lisa 
Tuttle Wood '85; his mother; two brothers; and two 

David H. Culver M.A.T '61 of Eau Claire, Wis., on 
July 20. An Army veteran, he joined Winona Agency 
Inc. in 1969 as an agent and was vice president and 
secretary of the corporation and manager of its health 
and life department upon retiring. He is survived by 
his wife, Linda, a son, a daughter, and a sister. 

W. Ralph Aiken Jr. Ph.D. '62 of Sweet Briar, Va., 
on July 15. He was a professor of literature at Sweet 
Briar College. He is survived by two sons, two brothers, 
and a grandchild. 

Alex Beasley '65 of Aiken, S.C., on June 20, of 
cancer. He served in the Navy before earning his law 
degree at the University of South Carolina. He was a 
partner in an Aiken law firm. He is survived by his 
wife, Susan, and two daughters, including Sarah E. 

H. Ives M.A.T. '65 of Jacksonville, N.C., in 
February 1997. He is survived by his wife, Eleanor. 

William Jackson "Jack" Brown Ph.D. '66 of 
Carbondale, 111., on Aug. 16. He was a Navy veteran 
of the Korean War. He taught English at the Univer- 
sity of Colorado until 1968, when he joined the faculty 
at Southern Illinois University. He retired in 1996. He 
is survived by his wife, Kate, a son, three daughters, 
two brothers, two sisters, and three grandchildren. 

Ann Pickard Kalat '68 of Raleigh, of cancer. A 
physical therapist, she taught physical therapy assistants 
at Nash Community College. She is survived by her 
husband, James W. Kalat '68; three children; her 
father, John David Pickard '37; her mother, 
Sara Duckett Pickard '37; and a sister, Sallie 
Pickard Page 61 

Martha Allen Robinson M.Ed. '68 of Spartan- 
burg, S.C., on June 20, 1996. 

'Bill" Hamilton '76 of Hills- 
borough, N.C., on Aug. 22. He earned his law degret 
at N.C. Central University and was an attorney in 
Chapel Hill tor 14 years. He is survived by his wife, 
Susan Davis Hamilton A.H.C. '81; his parents; 

and a brother. 

Hardy M.D. '77 of Studio City, 
Calif, on Jan. 26, 1997. He was head of anesthesiology 
and medical director ot the out-patient surgery center 
at Valley Presbyterian Hospital in Van Nuys. 

J. Poirer A.M. '82 of Durham, on April 
23, 1997, of a heart attack. He earned his bachelor's in 
biology at M.I.T and was a specialist in computet- 
assisted design. He is survived bv his lather, Duke pro- 
fessor emeritus Jacques Poirier, a brother, and a sister. 

Silas B. Coley III '89 of Chapel Hill on June 16, of 
an accident in Germany. He is survived by his mother 
and a cot 

Biochemist, naturalist, and aviator Molly Christian 
Bernheim, one of the last surviving original members 
of Duke's medical school teaching faculty, died of 
heart failure November 19. She was 95. 

Born in Gloucester, England, she spent her early 
childhood in India, where her father was a doctor, 
before returning at age seven for schooling. She 
earned her bachelor's, master's, and Ph.D. at Cam- 
bridge University, where she met her husband, 
Frederick, an American biochemist studying there. 

During her graduate research, she discovered 
monoamine oxidase, a liver and brain enzyme that 
breaks down adrenaline. Later research by pharma- 
cologists determined that inhibitors of this enzyme 
produced euphoria, lending i<> the first drugs for treat- 
ing depression. 

She came to Duke in 1930 to join the medical 
school's original faculty. She began as a biochemistry 
instructor and later became a full professor. Her re- 
search into liver enzymes and nitrogen-containing com- 
pounds resulted in her publishing more than sixty 
papers; some were co-authored by her husband, Fred- 
erick, a pioneer in drug-enzyme interaction studies. 

She also taught nutrition courses at Duke, and was 
one of the first to warn the public against the dangers 
of dietary fats and fad diets. Although she retired in 
1973, she continued teaching nutrition to medical 
students and at the Duke Institute for Learning in 
Retirement. She and Frederick helped create the Eno 
River State Park with a gift of eighty-nine acres of 
land they owned on the Eno in 1970. In 1986, they 
donated another twenty-four acres. 

She became interested in flying in the late Forties 
after her husband became a pilot. She obtained both 
private and commercial pilot's licenses and later 
became a flight instructor. In 1959, her book A Sky of 
My Own was published. 

She is survived by a daughter, a son, three grand- 
sons, and three great-grandchildren. 














March -April 1998 33 



When I noted on the cover of your 
November- December 1997 issue that it con- 
tained an article on "how did Duke get hot so 
quickly?" I immediately resolved to send 
copies to the folks back home. Hey, maybe I'd 
regain some of the credibility I lost when I 
threw over a successful freelance business and 
returned, with three kids, to graduate school. 
Unfortunately, the writer himself immediately 
lost any credibility I might have gained with 
my Canadian family when he bragged on 
[Duke President] Keohane's sharing a plat- 
form in 1995 with "the presidents of Canada, 
Mexico, and the United States." 

I'm sure my prime minister now barely bats 
an eyelash when Americans pull this particu- 
lar blooper but, please, this kind of interna- 
tional ignorance is not "how Duke got hot." 
The wretched ignorance of Americans about 
their neighbor to the North is already leg- 
endary in that country. Let's not perpetuate 
the legend from our gothic halls, too. 

Chris R. Armstrong 
Durham, North Carolina 



This is prompted by your printing of ex- 
cerpts from statements by John Howard and 
Tallman Trask ["Quad Quotes"] on page 56 
of your fall issue. My wife is a Duke graduate 
(I am not). As such, she receives your publi- 
cation, which I usually read and for the most 
part enjoy. The paragraphs referred to are 
another matter. 

Mr. Howard's less-than-temperate statement 
is about what one could expect from one in 
this position. Organizations of this tvpe [Duke's 
Center for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Life] 
thrive on and strive for publicity, which all 
too many media outlets are all too ready to 
provide. This is to be regretted. If nothing else 
seems appropriate, such actions and reactions 
are best ignored. 

Mr. Trask's reaction, however, is a different 
matter. When I was in college, painting or 
otherwise "decorating" bridges, chimneys, 
and/or other prominent campus features was 
considered to be defacing school property and 
the perpetrators, if apprehended, were subject 
to at least school discipline, if not something 
more stringent. The authorities usually were 
more prompt in removing the graffiti, not to 
supress free speech but to restore the defaced 
object to something resembling its orginal 
condition. What's changed? 

Given today's standards and conditions, that 
question may be considered rhetorical if not 
stupid. However, when a supposedly responsible 
university official apologizes so humbly to such 
a blatandy offensive demand (I refer to style, not 
content), I feel that at least his competence 
should be questioned. I also think he should 
have had Mr. Howard and his followers out 
there with scrub brushes and detergent clean- 
ing up for free the damage they had done. 

Frank C. Gorham 
Springfield, Virginia 

Your question is not stupid, but merely based on 
your own experience at ariother school. The 
bridge between Duke's East and West campuses 
has always served as a bulletin board jor an- 
nouncements by student groups and, occasional- 
ly, comments by anyone with a paintbrush. The 
student group m question was merely following a 
tradition, not committing a disciplinary offense. 



With reference to the November-Decem- 
ber issue, allow me to state that I was very 
pleased to note the national recognition 
given to Duke regarding its position among 
universities. Surely, this position was not 
earned by trying to "go for the silver." 

While this "going for the silver" may be the 
normal thinking of the average liberal, left- 
leaning social scientist, it is far from the 
thinking that made Duke great. If Ben or 
Washington Duke had had that mindset, Duke 
University would not exist and its great boon 
to mankind would have gone unnoticed. 

It simply goes against the laws of nature to 

try not to win. If it is beneficial to aim for sec- 
ond, why not "go for the lead" (fifth place) or 
not try at all. 

If Ben or Washington Duke saw the fruits of 
their magnificent philanthropy so misunder- 
stood, and their inspiring examples so down- 
graded, they would have a perfect right to turn 
over in their graves in utter disgust that this 
form of thinking would emanate from their 
crowning accomplishments. 

The world and all o( us should be grateful 
for those who went "for the gold," and partic- 
ularly those who made it. 

Howard H. Schnure '34 
Largo, Florida 


I wonder if you could persuade [public pol- 
icy professor] Philip Cook to respond to a 
couple of questions about points made in the 
article "Going for the Silver" 

It occurred to me, reading the article, that 
all of the specific cases of excess cited were in 
businesses that have a strong one-to-many 
property. In entertainment, you record the song 
once and sell it to a million customers. In man- 
ufacturing, you design the product once and 
make it a million times. In software, you write 
the program once and sell a million copies of 
it. In engineering terms, these businesses have 
something resembling an amplifier built into 
them, and advances in technology are con- 
stantly turning up the gain of the amp. 

I am wondering if Mr. Cook has noticed and/ 
or quantified this factor and, if so, whether 
economic systems show any of the instabili- 
ties of over-gained electronic amplifiers. 

I would also like to question whether Mr. 
Cook actually believes that a more progres- 
sive tax system would repair the problem he 
has pointed out, or if he feels strongly that 
something must be done and that is the only 
thing he can think of. Personally, I am disin- 
clined to believe that a tax would have any 
positive result at all. Unless you are prepared 
to bar anyone from prospering beyond a cer- 
tain ratio to anyone else, payment can be 
manipulated to bypass any specialty tax you 
can devise. If, however, you are prepared to 
lock down the prosperity ratio, you will simply 
drive the one -to-many businesses (or at least 
their profits) out of the country. 

I find it distressing for Mr. Cook to catego- 
rize "Earners making over $100,000..." as 


being in the top of the income distribution, 
and therefore, I presume, in need of a more 
progressive tax structure. Most years, my fam- 
ily falls in that category, as would a large per- 
centage of Duke alumni. Our life is, however, 
rather ordinary, and it seems ridiculous for us 
to be lumped into a category with the stars of 
sports and entertainment. I hope this infer- 
ence is an accident of juxtaposition, but if it 
is, I would encourage the editors of the mag- 
azine to exercise a little more caution. You write 
to a terribly influential audience, and this is one 
suggestion I would not want to see placed in- 
to law. 

JohnW. Curtis B.S.E. 74 
Lament, Georgia 

Professor Philip Cook responds: 

I'm no electrical engineer, but Mr. Curtis' 
image of an amplifier seems to well capture one 
message of The Winner-Take -All Society (fry 
Robert H. Frank and me). We note that there are 
a variety of endeavors in which small differmces 
in individual ability translate into large differ- 
ences in value, and a "one-to-many" technology is 
one important source of such leverage. "Ampli- 
fication" also occurs in high-stakes contests; for 
example, buying the very best legal representation 
is only sensible when a firm finds itself in a bil- 
lion-dollar lawsuit, (almost) regardless of the fee. 
The same dynamic helps explain the run-away 
compensation for top corporate -management tal- 
ent. Our book explains this process and suggests 
how and why it is becoming both more pervasive 
and more intense. We did not, however, investigate 
the possibility that the system, like an "overgained 
amplifier, "is unstable in some sense. Our concent 
was with the increasing inequality in the overall 
distribution of earnings, a rather steady trend 
since the early 1970s. 

Mr. Curtis' observations with respect to 
progressive taxation are more challenging. First, 
there is the factual issue of what it means to be at 
"the top" of the earnings distribution. Our earnings 
data are now a bit out of date, but may noriethe- 
less surprise many readers: As of 1989, just I per- 
cent of full-time workers had earnings in excess of 
$120,000. Someone whose income was limited to 
earnings at that level, and had a family to sup- 
port, might well agree with Mr. Curtis that their 
standard of living was "rather ordinary" — cer- 
tainly so in comparison with the top "winners" in 
most professions. But by national standards, these 
"ordinary" earnings place the recipient in a rather 
exclusive club. 

Robert Frank and I do not claim that progres- 
sive taxation will fully "repair" the problem we 
have pointed out, but we do argue that a progres- 
sive tax is helpful in making the distribution of 
after-tax income somewhat fairer. (If the tax is 
limited to consumption, then it could have the 
added benefit of enhancing savings.) And we are 
not suggesting that the top rates should be confis- 

catory, as they were during the Eisenhower ad- 
ministration. Rather, a modest level of progress at 
the top levels is feasible and fair and, contrary to 
much of the rhetoric in this arena, does not nec- 
essarily undercut the incentives tliat help drive 
productivity increases. During a time when the 
flat taxers are dominating the national debate over 
reform, we are attempting to lean against the rhe- 
torical wind, providing a new argument for pre- 
serving the nation's long commitment to progress. 



While Ed and I appreciated the wonderful 
article on Charles A. Dukes Awards in the 
November-December issue, we were disap- 
pointed that you identified our home town as 
Boca Raton rather than Boca Grande, Florida. 
We actually live on a small island off the west 
coast of the state, with an entirely different 
lifestyle than that of Boca Raton residents. 

There are also a large number of "Dukies" 
on our island, and we have had a long history 
of Duke connections, as our local medical cli- 
nic has been staffed with Duke doctors and 
Duke professors since 1947. Please let out neigh- 
bors know that we are proud to be "Boca 

Nora Lea Reete '67 and 
Ed Reefe B.S.C.E. '68 
Boca Grande, Florida 



Not referencing any article, I beg for an ex- 
planation from someone who works in the ath- 
letics department. I enjoy Duke basketball as 
much as anyone, attending all but three home 
games in my four years at Duke, enduring the 
transitional dark years of Emma, England, 

Tell me it is not television revenue that mo- 
tivates scheduling a game in Michigan on De- 
cember 13, two days before finals week. Time 
spent preparing for, traveling to, and playing 
this game necessarily detracts from finals- 
related work. 

Phil Abisognio '83 
Herndon, Virginia 

Sports Information Director Mike Cragg replies: 
You will be happy to know that television alone 
does not dictate the day of games and, in this par- 
ticular case, did not at all. Our contract with the 
University of Michigan is a balance between both 

our institutions' exam schedules. Obviously, games 
are not played during the exam period that began 
Monday, December 15. 

With a relatively short period of time to fit in 
twenty-six regular season games, plus a tournament 
appearance, the available dates of competition are 
very limited; thus, the Michigan game on Decem- 
ber 13. Having traveled with the team to Michi- 
gan, I can repent tluit all of the players l\ad books in 
hand and were actively involved in their studies. 



I would like to point out a serious confu- 
sion of terms in the otherwise excellent arti- 
cle, "Preparing tor the Final Transition," in the 
November-December issue. Bridget Booher 
uses the terms "euthanasia" and "physician-as- 
sisted suicide" interchangeably, as if they meant 
the same thing. However, they are quite dif- 
ferent: Euthanasia refers to "mercy-killing" — 
killing someone else. Physician-assisted sui- 
cide refers to a physician helping someone kill 

I would be opposed to legalizing euthanasia, 
but I think it is important to legalize physi- 
cian-assisted suicide for terminal patients be- 
cause: it is already widely practiced; a large 
majority of Americans favor legalization; it re- 
duces waste of scarce medical resources; and 
the inalienable right of terminal patients to 
die when they want to. 

The confusion of suicide with euthanasia 
simply makes this difficult issue more prob- 
lematic. I hope this letter may clarify this con- 

Erdman Palmore Ph.D. '52 

Professor Emeritus of Medical Sociology 

Durham, North Carolina 



I was much moved by Bob Wilson's "War 
Without End" [November-December]. Having 
been a conscientious objector in World War 
II, I have since been trying, with very little 
results, to help maintain the Quaker testimo- 
ny against war. 

During the Vietnam time, over a consider- 
able period, I spent an hour twice a week in 
silent protest at the post office. While quietly 
passing out peace pamphlets — some read, 
some rejected, some taken, crushed, and thrown 
on the ground — what does one think about? 

Since my vigil was based on the Quaker 

March -April 1998 35 

peace testimony, which is a total rejection of 
the institution of war, I had been thinking 
about that for more than three decades. This 
vigil, however, in Quaker practice, was a time 
of quiet worship, and the mind irresistibly 
moved into that area beyond human social 
control, which we attempt to reach, one way 
or the other, by prayer. 

So, what do you pray for? To start locally, 
that the wife and family and valued friends 
"may be whole in spirit and in body (includ- 
ing mind)." Quakers have traditionally 
believed that there is that of God in every 
person, including the soldiers on each side of 
the Christian armies ravaging against Eng- 
land in the mid-1 600s and on each side of the 
Christian armies ravaging against the United 
States in the mid-1800s. Thus, I must pray 

that all our enemy soldiers and their allies 
may be whole in spirit and in body so that 
they may fulfill their spiritual capacities. 

In The Iliad, everyone who dies does so un- 
willingly and has parents, grandparents, and 
a home. In the Trojan War, everyone, good 
or bad, was worthy of specific mention and 
thought. Now, those engaged in war are, in 
general, statistics. 

In my World War II conscientious objector 
service, among other things, I worked for some 
time in a mental hospital, which was the most 
useful time of my life. It opened up to me the 
variety of human experience. For some time, 
I have been attending the Narcotics Anony- 
mous meetings once a week at my local 
Friends meetinghouse. Since I am not an ad- 
dict, I cannot advise them, but I can meet 

with them in family fellowship. They are ir- 
reparably wounded by their addiction, so that 
their lives are forever dominated by the strug- 
gle to get through the day clean. 

Yet their addiction, at its worst relapse, does 
not portend the end of the species, or cer- 
tainly of civilization, as does the final para- 
graph of Bob Wilson's account: "I am afraid," 
Parrish says softly, "I will discover that I am 
fascinated by war." 

There are other things that arouse my in- 
terest in this issue of Duke Magazine, but in over 
fifty years of practicing law (now retired), I have 
learned that in one letter the maximum num- 
ber of concerns that can be addressed is one. 

James Mattocks J.D. '41 
Trinity, North Carolina 



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recipients, please contact Fulbright Commission, 
Theaterplatz 1A, D-53177 Bonn, Germany; telephone: 

+49/228/93569-0; fax: +49/228/363130; e-mail:; 

Some years ago — in the Sixties or Seventies — this 
sonnet was slipped anonymously under my office 
door. I respected the writer's wish for privacy and 
so — unwisely — did not pursue the matter. At this 
late date, I should like to commend the author, and 
I should be grateful if she or he would identify her- 
self or himself and take credit for this fine poem 
addressed to Anne Hathaway Shakespeare (Mrs. 
William Shakespeare). 

— George W Williams 
Professor of English (emeritus) 
Sonnet: to A.H.S. 
Anne, he has left you, gone to make his fortune 
Dogging a cry of players at their heels, 
Left you with any widow's bitter portion, 
Dried sausage skins and empty orange peels. 
It was this recklessness that made him choose you, 
Youth, not yet man, who beggared at your door. 
With wild words at night he comes and woos you — 
Loving his tongue you fall, and make it sure. 
Centuries pity you, poor wife beguiled 
By the sweet poison poured into your ears; 
Older, no wiser, carrying his child 
In your white gown — but, waiting all those years, 
I think you knew. No matter what they said, 
You would have slept with him in any bed. 


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Two years ago, Business Week reported 
that the "office of the future" had ar- 
rived. "Work anywhere, anytime is the 
new paradigm. Your car, your home, your of- 
fice, even your client's office," said the maga- 
zine. "Work alone, coupled, teamed. Work in 
real space or in cyberspace. It amounts to a 
massive disaggregation of work, spinning out- 
side the walls and confines of the traditional 

If the virtual workplace has become almost 
a commonplace, the virtual classroom has been 
a bit slower to make its appearance. But edu- 
cation in cyberspace has found a constituency 
at Duke — the corporate executives who will 
be managing that massive disaggregation. In 
December, Duke's Fuqua School of Business 
graduated its first class from the Global Ex- 
ecutive M.B.A., or GEMBA program. Now 
GEMBA's students, faculty, and administrators 
are pondering the lessons learned — and the 
significance of those lessons for other spheres 
of the campus. 

And now Business Week is calling the pro- 
gram "the talk of [Fuqua's] B-school rivals." 
GEMBA is helping Fuqua — and Duke — earn 
the distinction of an educational innovator. 
"While most schools have incorporated the In- 
ternet and other technology into their educa- 
tional offerings, few come close to matching 
the arsenal of cutting-edge applications Duke 
provides," the magazine said. "If the Duke pro- 
gram succeeds, many elite universities — which 
have long linked the quality of their executive 
education to their ivy-covered campuses and 
personal time spent with professors — could 
be forced to rethink how they teach." 

Richard Staelin, past director for GEMBA 
and head of the faculty committee that de- 
signed the program, says the concept pro- 
ceeded on a remarkably fast track. "Like any 
change, the process had to be managed care- 
fully. The initial committee was very support- 
ive; we used them to 'sell' the program to the 
faculty at large before we took a faculty vote." 

The committee started its work in June of 
1994. It took six months to lay out the basic 
design and to do a preliminary analysis of the 
program's viability. It then took two months 
to get faculty endorsement, and another two 
months to get the final go-ahead from the dean. 
From that point, the school assembled a team 
to market the program directly to about a hun- 





-world classroom: DeSanctis off-line 

dred global firms; sent out some 10,000 bro- 
chures; ran ads in business publications like 
Business Week, Financial Times, and Tlie Econo- 
mist; and recruited the first class. According to 
Staelin, "The program was viewed to be the best 
way that Fuqua could make an impact on busi- 
ness education, and thus it was an easy sell." 

December's graduation culminated a con- 
centrated effort at studying, continuing on the 
job, and living some kind of personal life for 
the first group of thirty-nine graduates. They 
came from eleven countries: Belgium, Brazil, 
China, England, Japan, the Republic of Korea, 
Liechtenstein, Poland, Somalia, Switzerland, 
and the United States. Their affiliations in- 
cluded consulting groups, financial-services 
companies, the automobile giants General 
Motors and Ford, and UNICEE GEMBA ad- 
ministrators expect their students to have an 
average of fourteen years of professional work 
experience, and to be employed in a manage- 
rial position with "globally focused content." 

Will Davie brought a typical international 
orientation to GEMBA: Now oilfield services 
coordinator for Schlumberger Oilfield Services 
in London, he spent five months traveling 
around the world when he turned eighteen. 
He has worked for Schlumberger for fifteen 
years. Having started his career in Tunisia, he 
has had residential assignments in France, 
Algeria, Libya, South Africa, Mozambique, 
Kenya, Congo, Vietnam, and Malaysia. As com- 
panies "become more transnational and oper- 
ate in larger global markets rather than his- 
torical regional markets," he observes, their em- 
ployees will be working more regularly "across 
time and space." To the extent to which man- 
agers understand the capabilities of the Inter- 
net — the prime delivery device for GEMBA 
courses — they will have mastered "one vital 
constituent of the 'glue' to bind truly global 
organizations," he says. 

Students found the program appealing not 
just for its high-tech character and its inter- 
national emphasis, but also because it allows 
them to continue in their jobs. (With tuition 
charges of $82,500 — excluding travel costs — 
most students find it convenient to have their 
companies as their sponsors.) "It was critical 
that I did not have to give up two years of 
work experience and compensation in order to 
obtain my M.B.A. degree," says Doug Decker 
'95, who was an economics and Spanish 

March -April 1998 37 

major as a Duke undergraduate. "The oppor- 
tunity cost would have been too high to justi- 
fy returning to a full-time, day program. A 
weekend program that required me to be 
away from work every other Friday would 
have been too disruptive." 

(One student told his Fuqua professors how 
he signaled his "in school" time to himself and 
his four children: He would put on a Duke 
sweatshirt and cap, go into his living room, 
and sit at his computer, undisturbed, for sev- 
eral hours. When the sweatshirt and cap came 
off, school was over.) 

And how is this revolution going to change us 
as a business school? GEMBA was the answer 
to both questions. It addresses the impact of 
these technologies on business practice, and 
it creates a new paradigm to deliver the busi- 
ness program." 

For each new class, the program begins in 
May with time in Durham; it ends there nine- 
teen months later in December. In addition 
to initial lectures and orientation, students 
are given a fully loaded IBM laptop computer 
dubbed the "GEMBOX." GEMBA's faculty or- 
ganizers have, in fact, attached a wry label to 

Control in Global Organizations," and "Tech- 
nology, Globalization, and Competition." 

When they're out of the virtual world and 
stepping into the real world, students meet 
with business, academic, and civil leaders in a 
particular region. Those leaders range from 
the president of AT&T China to a Procter 6k 
Gamble vice president for Latin America. 
Doug Decker, who is a New York-based cor- 
porate bond trader with Morgan Stanley, 
Dean Witter, Discover 6k Co., says he reveled 
in listening to a Templeton Funds manager 
who is regarded as "one of the legends in my 

Decker: uses "Real Audio" fa 
when not in class 

Fuqua professor Robert Clemen calls the 
GEMBA students "different beasts entirely than 
the day timers. These are executives who are 
ensconced in some kind of job that requires 
them to make decisions all the time. The day- 
timers are mostly career changers; they're 
here to get an M.B.A. and go into a different 
field, and they're really looking for tools to 
help them accomplish that. The executives in 
GEMBA see things they can use right away." 
GEMBA students infuse classes not just with 
executive-tier perspectives; they are steeped 
in global organizations and are comfortable 
accommodating cross-cultural business prac- 
tices. And so a truly global student body spurs 
global thinking in the curriculum. 

According to John Gallagher, one of the 
original committee members, deliberations at 
first centered on distance -learning technology 
that would permit "global" enrollment; surveys 
of corporate leaders later helped define a cur- 
riculum that would have "global" content. Gal- 
lagher, director of computer mediated learning 
for Fuqua, says the committee considered two 
questions that came to be entwined: "What 
does the cyberspace revolution imply for what 
we should be teaching our business students? 

Davie: working "across time and spti. 

the program's learning-on-the-run empha- 
sis — "school in a box." Each of the five "mod- 
ules," or learning units, includes two weeks of 
face-to-face encounters. The students — and 
their instructors — assemble for residential 
classroom sessions in Salzburg and Prague, 
Shanghai and Hong Kong, and Sao Paulo and 
Buenos Aires. In the virtual and physical 
spheres alike, students are grouped into di- 
verse teams that change twice during the 
course of the program. Each team consists of 
five or six members from different national 
backgrounds and with different kinds of cor- 
porate affiliations. 

Classroom instruction features the usual 
arsenal of business-education formats — lec- 
tures, case studies, simulations, problem-solv- 
ing exercises, and company visits. The focus 
throughout, though, is decidedly internation- 
al. At the starting point in Durham, an orien- 
tation session feeds into an introduction to 
"Managerial Effectiveness for the Global Ex- 
ecutive." Later modules cover themes like 
"Interpersonal and Group Relationships in the 
Global Organization," "Marketing in a Global 
Environment," "Financial Management in a 
Global Economy," "Cost Management and 

i>i glubal business 

field of financial services." The talk took place 
when the group was in Hong Kong. He also 
mentions an "awe-inspiring" talk during the 
South American session by a corporate chief 
executive; the chief executive gave a step-by- 
step description of how he had turned around 
a money-losing oil business. 

It isn't this more conventional "network- 
ing" that gives the program its novelty. Using 
the Internet and local dial-up service pro- 
viders, students are able to connect from any- 
where in the world and communicate with 
faculty and classmates. The distance-education 
segments of GEMBA incorporate the World 
Wide Web, that vast and undisciplined elec- 
tronic storehouse-and a useful resource for 
business case studies; electronic bulletin boards, 
on which participants post and receive mes- 
sages as they see fit; chat rooms, or places for 
"real-time" conversations — including "office 
hour" discussions with instructors and online 
meetings of student teams; so-called File Trans- 
fer Protocol servers, through which instructors 
and students send files back and forth; Real 
Audio files, which transmit speech digitally; 
and customized CD-Roms with multimedia 
presentations. In molding a virtual communi- 


ty, GEMBA also employs experimental appli- 
cations; one example is ICQ ("I seek you"), a 
real-time Internet locator system that alerts 
users once it finds someone on their contacts 
list who is also online at that moment. 

As former GEMBA director Staelin de- 
scribes his ideal student, "It is very important for 
the person to have the right motivation. The 
program is a 'killer.' " For his part, Decker says 
on average he spent about twenty-five hours a 
week doing work for the program. But GEMBA 
demands more than a commitment of hours; 
it also demands a dependence on technology. 

"I spent the July 4th holiday in 1996 at a 
very remote beach resort," recalls Decker. 
"The only phones were rotary-dial models 
from the 1960s with strange wall plugs. And 
as you might imagine, there were no modem 
ports in the rooms. My GEMBA team had 
been assigned a project over this long week- 
end which required me to share files with my 
teammates. I discovered that the only touch- 
tone phone line — and the only normal tele- 
phone wall outlet — at the hotel was for the 
fax machine in the manager's office. For- 
tunately, I was able to convince the front- 
desk clerk to let me in the office several times 
over the weekend to connect to the Internet, 
and so to my team." 

Decker sees advantages to an M.B.A. pro- 
gram steeped in cyberspace. For one thing, it 
gave him experience in gathering and evalu- 
ating information on the World Wide Web. 
"The 'Emerging Markets' course required each 
team to gather information on several com- 
panies in emerging markets and on the macro- 
economic conditions in each of these market- 
places. My team was able to find a tremendous 
amount of information about Russian utility 
companies and the macro-economic conditions 
in Russia, all over the Web. Also, with the pro- 
fessor's help, we were able to e-mail several 
leading Russian company analysts, and these 
professionals e-mailed us their latest research 
reports, usually within one day of sending out 
our request." 

In Decker's view, the professors' lectures 
that were delivered online had several bene- 
fits over traditional classroom lectures. "The 
student could 'pause' the lecture, rewind if a 
point was missed, listen to the lecture at any 
time of the day or night, and replay the lec- 
ture at any point in the future for review." 

From his vantage point, Robert Clemen, 
who teaches decision modeling, finds that 
GEMBA's technology inspires him to rethink 
the art of teaching. "I was going to have this 
group here in an executive-education session 
for a couple of weeks, then interact with them 
over the Internet. So I would have to break 
out of the mindset geared to the constraints 
of class time." 

He separated out some core material — 
material that would normally form themes for 

class lectures — and developed an online pre- 
sentation for the students to study on their 
own. He devoted time on weekends to elec- 
tronic "office hours" through the GEMBA 
chat rooms. He experimented with powerful 
technology like the "screen-cam," which 
brings a video track and sound track to the 
computer screen. Committing himself to "an 
almost paper-less course," he trained himself 
to read student projects on the screen, and to 
insert his comments — along with the final 
grade — in the text. "My eyes get tired, but 
they get tired reading stuff on paper, too." 

And Clemen used a novel way to introduce 
the class to some of the practicing consul- 
tants who use the tools he teaches. "I usually 
call up a friend and invite him to come to 
class to give a guest lecture. It somehow oc- 
curred to me that we don't have to bring peo- 
ple in; we can give them access to news groups 
and have an online discussion." By visiting 
the news group, or chat room, three outside 
experts from Indianapolis, London, and Penn 
State University became presences in class. 
Students were introduced to the trio by 
Clemen's Web page; the page carried short 

March -April 1998 39 

biographies, photographs, and brief recorded 
phone interviews. The electronic presentation 
inspired a sort of electronic feedback — post- 
ings on the bulletin board that went on for a 
week. Says Clemen, "The experts asked pro- 
vocative questions, the students talked about 
what was going in their companies, and the 
experts came back and gave examples about 
how they worked on similar issues." 

All those possibilities weren't a sure thing 
at the birth of the program. As GEMBA got 
going in June of 1996, some technological 
hurdles were quick to emerge, says computing 
director Gallagher. "One of the critical hur- 
dles was the availability around the globe of 
reliable Internet service providers. If we had 
actually started the GEMBA program with 
the first class three months earlier than we 
launched it, 20 to 25 percent of our people 
would not have been able to connect." About 
a year into the initial run of GEMBA, global 
Internet providers like AT&T were spreading 
the Internet globally. 

The global spreading wasn't easy or even. 
Dutch-born Madeline Klinkhamer, a water- 
and sanitation-project officer for UNICEF, 
was GEMBAs one student from the nonprof- 
it sector — and the one student working out 
of a tent. She was based near Mogadishu, 
Somalia. "I was in probably one of the most 
difficult places in the world to do GEMBA," 
she says. And her list of obstacles to an In- 
ternet connection, as she recalls, is impres- 
sive: "mosquitoes, snakes, thieves and bandits, 
adapters, electric shocks, rain." A student in 
Shanghai had to make a long-distance call to 
Hong Kong for his course work, since there 
was no Internet provider in China. Another 
student, supervising work in the mango fields 
of Nicaragua, had to rig a digital satellite up- 
link system connected to his IBM Thinkpad. 
"For him, there was no telephone available, 
let alone an Internet service provider," Gal- 
lagher says. "We got our projections about 
service providers just about right, but we cut 
it a little close." 

Connectivity was an issue, though, in a dif- 
ferent, even deeper, sense. As Gallagher puts 
it: "Can you provide a quality instructional 
experience for people who are distributed in 
different places for twelve weeks at a time? 
Can you do that without losing people, with- 
out their feeling isolated and lonely? Would 
they in fact feel connected? Our model was 
not a correspondence school where you are 
connected only by a mail system. But it was 
really unknown what cultural environment 
we were creating." 

"The irony is that this is by far the closest 
group of student and faculty we have ever 
had in an M.B.A. program," says Gallagher. 
He points out that as its class gift, this first 
group donated $137,000 to improve connec- 
tivity for all alumni of the business school. 

"Their sense of community is very strong; 
they are very connected. Our teaching style 
depends on a strong degree of interaction 
among participants. This is not a correspon- 
dence school where the instructor tells it all. 
Participants bring a tremendous amount of 
perspective; they interpret and elaborate on 
what is being said." 

Gallagher notes that the electronic com- 
munity is particularly effective for foreign- 
speaking students. In fact, English is not the 
first language for most GEMBA participants. 
"One of the problems you find in the physical 
classroom environment when you have a mix 
of native- and non-native speakers is that the 










non-natives — because of language barriers or 
cultural conditioning — may not participate 
as actively. They may have difficulty process- 
ing the information coming at them; they 
may find it harder to keep pace and to com- 
pose their thinking. In the electronic environ- 
ment, they have time to read, time to think, 
time to compose. Even for native English 
speakers, there may be some personal charac- 
teristics that work against participation. Some- 
one may be less confrontational than his peers, 
less aggressive in putting across a point, less 
willing to offer a conflicting opinion. 

"So, the playing field is very much leveled 
out by the fact that discussion does not occur 
in a real-time classroom environment. The 
technology is not merely as good as the phys- 
ical classroom. As an approach to managing 
discussion, it is much better." 

Another member of the conceptualizing 
committee, Fuqua professor Gerardine De- 
Sanctis, says virtual dealings alone aren't likely 
to forge close ties. With that notion in mind, 
GEMBA planners decided that each learning 
module would feature some real-world to- 
getherness. "One of the conclusions from re- 
search on virtual teams is that people form 
stronger levels of trust if they have some very 

meaningful social interactions with one 
another. You can do that online. But it's diffi- 
cult if you never meet face-to-face. The stu- 
dents look forward to living together, getting 
together for meals, shopping together, and 
giving one another the kind of support they 
need to get through the program. 

"At the same time, even our electronic ped- 
agogy has aspects of the old pedagogy — call- 
ing on people and expecting participation, is- 
suing assignments with due dates. A lot of the 
structure in this new world comes directly from 
the old world. So we're not so much moving 
from the traditional model of teaching to the 
cyberworld; we're doing both." 

In a forthcoming paper, DeSanctis and col- 
league Senior Associate Dean Blair Sheppard 
note that GEMBA transfers traditional labels 
— "courses," "libraries," "rooms," "calendars," 
"lounges" — to the virtual learning space. To 
them, it's not the technological wizardry that 
makes GEMBA a model for learning; what's 
vital about this world of the virtual, they say, 
is how the technology promotes collaboration 
and community. 

One student told them that participants 
come to "know each other well" through their 
"conversational writing." As they work elec- 
tronically on teams, they learn a lot about the 
attitudes and aptitudes of far-flung peers. 
"The quant [itative] people outline the intri- 
cacies of 'quant' issues, the conceptual people 
outline the meaning and logic of things, the 
good writers edit final products, we circulate 
lots of drafts in a systematized way, and we 
stick to deadlines," in the words of one team 
member. DeSanctis and Sheppard say that 
with such fluid electronic interchanges, pro- 
fessors have an easy time buying into the col- 
laborative learning environment: Students 
help shape the direction and content of class 
discussions, and they help identify speakers, 
business sites, and class activities when the 
GEMBA classroom shifts from the cyberworld 
to the real world. 

As they consider the impact of distance- 
learning programs, DeSanctis and Sheppard 
are skeptical that universities will become 
nothing but virtual organizations. Technology 
won't be "the driver" of education, they say; it 
will be part of the "infrastructure" of educa- 
tion. And it will have a transforming impact, 
promoting new relationships and new ways of 
learning. The "classroom of the future" — an ar- 
ray of electronic links — may supplement the 
classroom of the present. Will it supplant the 
classroom of the present? An answer of sorts 
came from last December's experience with 
the initial GEMBA group, as they gathered in 
Durham for classes, meals, social events, and 
a basketball game. The high-spirited camara- 
derie from that gathering seemed to carry a 
message: that living and learning can't be con- 
fined to the virtual world alone. ■ 





Jim Reynolds, a native of the desert 
Southwest, dresses defiantly in mere 
T-shirt and shorts against the re- 
lentless sun of a southern New 
Mexico July. He stands confronting 
a gangly creosote bush that stub- 
bornly thrusts its water-seeking roots 
deep into the sun-blasted, coarse 
sand. As the hot sun and a bone-dry 
wind strip precious moisture from 
their bodies, the Duke botany professor and 
his associates huddle over the shrub, wrapping 
strip-like sensors around its stems and plung- 
ing probes into the ground near its roots, like 
preparations for a lie-detector test. 

Around them, the Chihuahuan desert shim- 
mers under a vast sky flecked with morning 
clouds. The desert floor's brushy patchwork of 
tans, browns, and bleached-out greens reveals 
countless more thickets of olive-colored cre- 
osote bushes, their branches covered with tiny 












evergreen leaves. With them grow their part- 
ners in environmental subversion, the mes- 
quite bushes, whose delicate mimosa-like leaves 
camouflage thorny branches. 

Today, Reynolds' team hopes its test subject 
will give up more secrets of its nefarious suc- 
cess — more about the means, motive, and op- 
portunity by which these scraggly desert in- 
vaders overran a region once covered with a 
luxurious carpet of grass only a century ago. 

As a scientist, Reynolds doesn't really hold 
a grudge against either creosotes or mesquites. 
"It's more of an admiration society," he says. 
"They are both unique plants that have adapted 
in different ways to very harsh, arid conditions. 
It's a natural progression of things. When you 
disturb a system, that's what you get." 

Duke ecologists Reynolds and William 
Schlesinger have spent decades trying to fig- 
ure out this disturbance that transformed a 
landscape. They've worked with scientific col- 


March -April 1998 

leagues from six different institutions, enduring 
the desert's insults on their sprawling 250,000- 
acre study site at a former cattle range near Las 
Cruces, New Mexico. The two scientists lead 
the Jornada Long-Term Ecological Research 
(LTER) program, a multimillion-dollar effort 
funded by the National Science Foundation 
to study "desertification" of grassland. 

The researchers' dedication arises from 
more than scientific curiosity; they know that 
unraveling this ecological mystery could stem 
a massive, global encroachment of deserts 
that seems to be getting worse. Worldwide, 
they say, almost 20 million square miles of 
grasslands and farmland face the prospect of 
deterioration into a scrub wasteland or worse: 
Consequences could include mass migration 
or starvation. Each year, desertification now 
claims an area equal to about 10 percent of 
South Africa. 

The Duke scientists also know that under- 
standing this devil is in the details. So, the 
electronic sensors Reynolds and his colleagues 
install on the bush will feed a stream of de- 
tailed data into the recorder boxes. The re- 
sult: round-the-clock surveillance of how the 
creosote bush and surrounding soil make use 
of the scant nine inches of rain the area aver- 
ages annually. 

Rain has always been a stranger to these 

ly, to be replaced by rapidly spreading desert 
bushes and pockets of bare ground. Similar 
desertification also happened beyond the 
Jornada, spreading over broad areas of former 
grasslands of the West. 

The decline in grazing disturbed the ranch- 
ers, and that soon brought in the politicians. 
In 1912, the U.S. Department of Agriculture 
created the Jornada Experimental Range to 
investigate the dilemma. And in the 1930s, ag- 
riculture department workers bent on bringing 
the cattle back their grass began a desperate 
bush eradication campaign. "They tried fire," 
says Schlesinger. "They tried chains and bull- 
dozers. They also tried reseeding with black 
grama, but bunch grasses are very difficult to 
re -seed. They even tried to bring camels here 
to eat down the shrubs and let the grasses come 
back. But the camels were no fools. They only 
ate the shrubs after the grasses were gone." 

In 1981, the NSF launched the Jornada 
LTER program to bring the tools of science to 
bear on the problem. Initially led by scientists 
from New Mexico State University, the pro- 
gram changed leadership in 1990 to Reynolds 
and Schlesinger. Like all good scientists, they 
and their colleagues began first with a hy- 
pothesis: the most likely perpetrators of 
desertification were grazing cattle. By the sci- 
entists' theory, heavy grazing does more than 

the spread of the vast Sahel desert. 

But good scientists must also investigate 
alternatives to their theories, and the Duke 
scientists have considered competing hypothe- 
ses. Drier weather could also cause grasses to 
lose ground to desert, they say. In fact, they 
suspect the Chihuahuan desert has switched 
from grasses to shrubs several times before in 
its 9,000-year history. Also, humans could be 
guilty in another indirect way, besides running 
cattle into the grassland. For one thing, the 
human- caused buildup of carbon dioxide 
from a century of fossil-fuel burning could 
have triggered desertification, since CO2 can 
also affect plant growth patterns. Or humans 
may be guilty of disrupting natural desert pro- 
cesses by curbing range fires, which actually 
help some plants proliferate. 

"The weakest hypothesis is probably that 
kangaroo rats caused the desertification," says 
Schlesinger, a James B. Duke Professor of Bo- 
tany as well as a professor in the Nicholas 
School of the Environment. "The idea was 
that an explosion of kangaroo rats accompa- 
nied the ranchers' elimination of wolves and 
coyotes. The kangaroo rats then dispersed 
desert shrub seeds and buried them, making 
them far more able to germinate." But what- 
ever the cause, once a shrub invasion begins, 
it launches a "cycle of degradation" that 




parts, even when the plain lay covered with 
grass, fooling travelers into the sometimes fa- 
tal belief that they could find water there. 
Spanish traders four centuries ago dubbed the 
region Jornada del Muerto (Journey of the Dead). 

Despite its seeming lushness, the land was 
arid, and its grass, mostly a kind called black 
grama, led a knife-edge existence. Most of the 
time, the stream and lake beds, called arroyos 
and playas by the Spanish, lay dusty dry. But 
the black grama, with evolutionary genius, 
made their own beds to lie in, say the scien- 
tists. The cover of grass protected the soil 
from the drying sun and wind, and the plants' 
shallow mesh of roots trapped any available 
moisture. The moisture that did evaporate in 
the sun's glaring heat quickly rose to spawn 
thunderstorms that kept the cycle going. 

But this delicate life-giving balance was 
somehow upset after 1880, when new drilling 
technology first allowed cattlemen to punch 
wells 400 feet down to the water table. These 
deep wells sustained their cattle, and ranchers 
soon ran some 20,000 head into the Jornada. 
After only two decades of such intense graz- 
ing, the grass cover began to thin significant- 

reduce grass cover. Livestock trampling also 
compacts the soil, making it tougher for the 
infrequent rains — mainly falling in sudden 
summertime deluges — to seep into the top- 
soil. In the good old days of grassland, black 
grama grass promoted this seepage by absorb- 
ing some of the raindrops' energy, discourag- 
ing erosion and runoff, and trapping rainwater 
to nourish its shallow roots. 

With grass removed and soil mashed, rain 
and wind carried off vital soil carbon and 
nutrients, trapping them in pockets where 
conditions favor the growth of the deep-root- 
ed creosote and mesquite. Once grown, these 
"crafty" shrubs improved their lot by trapping 
more windblown and waterborne soil and 
nutrients beneath themselves. Thus, "islands 
of fertility" built up around the shrubs, trans- 
forming desert shrub lands into patchy clus- 
ters of bush with bare earth in between, 
unlike the relatively homogenous soils of 
grasslands. In North America, a similar deser- 
tification has occurred in the transition areas 
between semi-arid and arid lands in western 
Texas and eastern New Mexico. And in West 
Africa, an analogous process may have aided 

Jornada scientists have found hard to reverse. 

Miles from Reynolds' wiring job on the cre- 
osote bush, the tall, rangy Schlesinger and his 
cohorts toil on their own research plots — 
230-square-foot fenced patches where they 
conduct life-and-death experiments on the 
plants growing there. Their eighteen such 
plots sit in a transition zone between grass- 
land and desert, a location that allows them 
to subject plants to treatments that could flip- 
flop the ecology in either direction, with the 
right coaxing. 

To study how desertification happens, "you 
want to look at the edges of deserts," says 
Schlesinger. "We're in one right now. The Chi- 
huahuan Desert is transitional between the 
really grim deserts of the Southwest and the 
grasslands of the Great Plains." The scientists' 
ecological coaxing has included herding cat- 
tle into some plots to try to pinpoint the ef- 
fects of grazing; spraying plots with herbicide 
to explore the effects of removing all the shrubs; 
and even burning off areas to evaluate which 
plants re-colonize after a range fire, and how 
quickly. "But these are not just shrub and 
grass experiments," Schlesinger, a specialist in 


soil chemistry, emphasizes. "We want to come 
hack in five years and see whether the treat- 
ments — grazing or non-grazing, shrubbery re- 
moval or non-removal — make any difference 
in the spatial distribution of soil nutrients." 

The scientists have already confirmed such 
a change in nutrient distribution in studies of 
soil from grassland and desert scrub outside 
the Jornada, but they still haven't found the 
"smoking gun," evidence that cattle caused 
Jornada desertification. However, cattle have 
been implicated dead-on in desertification else- 
where in the Southwest, Schlesinger notes. A 
study found that cattle-trampling damaged 
delicate soil crusts constructed by beneficial 
algae and fungi. These organisms harbor vital 
bacteria that convert nitrogen from the air 
into soil-nutrient nitrogen, and destroying the 
crust disrupts their ecology. 

Reynolds' shrub scrutiny also includes test- 
ing the hardy creosote and mesquite for their 
resistance to drought. His group has built 112 
"rainout shelters" with removable plastic roofs 
to test the importance of rain to the shrubs. 
In some cases, they blocked out all rainfall to 
bushes for an entire summer, which is the 
Jornada's wettest season. To their utter sur- 
prise, the artificial drought had no effect on 
the plants. Both creosote and mesquite — 
mesquite can extend its taproots as deep as 

seventy feet in search of water — survived 
quite nicely. "We thought that summer rain- 
fall was really critical because nearly two- 
thirds of the rain here occurs during the sum- 
mertime," says Reynolds. But detailed analysis 
showed that heavy summer thunderstorm 
rains quickly ran off or evaporated, never pen- 
etrating deeply enough into the soil to reach 
the shrubs' deep roots. The winter rains real- 
ly mattered to the shrubs. "Winter provides 
very gentle rains over longer periods of time, 
with really nice saturation of the soils," Rey- 
nolds says. 

Back at Duke, Reynolds also directs the Duke 
Phytotron, a high-tech complex of computer- 
controlled greenhouses and plant growth cham- 
bers that allows scientists to control precisely 
growing conditions in their experiments. When 
not torturing shrubs in a sun-blasted desert, 
he works in an air-conditioned computer room 
in the Phytotron building, constructing math- 
ematical computer models of plant environ- 
ments. Such models help scientists make sense 
of the complicated interrelationships of clima- 
tic variations, plants, roots, soils, soil microbes, 
and animals that must be understood in 
studying desertification. "We don't pretend that 
our models are correct, because they aren't," 
Reynolds admits. "But they help us generate 
neat ideas and hypotheses that we can test." 

But the necessary hard data can only be 
wrested from the land itself. In their scientif- 
ic quest, the Jornada scientists will continue 
to suffer the choking dust from rattling along 
in trucks for miles on washboard roads and 
endure the vicious summer desert heat. They 
will also continue to conduct experiments that 
sometimes resemble a scene from a Fellini 
movie: researchers standing in the desert in 
raincoats, directing water pumped from a 
tanker truck to create an artificial rainstorm 
onto a creosote bush mounted on a Christ- 
mas tree stand, and then meticulously observ- 
ing where each droplet tails from the bush; or 
scientists clambering up towers to retrieve 
samples of soil dust blowing in the wind; or 
those who painstakingly collect data on water 
runoff at 900 different, precisely mapped points 
in the vast wasteland. 

Despite the sometimes eccentric-looking 
nature of the experiments, the purpose is 
dead serious. Information gathered by scien- 
tists over decades of excruciatingly hard work 
may help rescue vast tracts of land from the 
desert. And it could offer profoundly hum- 
bling insights into the intricate machinery of 
nature, one day saving populations on the 
brink from starvation. ■ 

March -April 1998 



^B&- eorge Bush, who served as the forty- 
BE MM first president of the United States 
^^ from 1989 to 1993, will deliver Duke's 
1998 commencement address Sunday, May 17. 

Says Duke President Nannerl O. Keohane of 
Bush: "His many years of service to the nation, 
from his combat experience in World War II 
to his remarkably broad career of government 
leadership, culminating in his election as presi- 
dent of the United States, give him a uniquely 
valuable perspective on the challenges and op- 
portunities that our students will encounter." 

During his term in office, Bush successfully 
fought for and signed into law the Americans 
with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Clean Air 
Act. Under his leadership, an unprecedented 
international coalition force, led by the United 
States, liberated Kuwait from Iraqi occupation, 
which led to a renewal of the stalled Mideast 
peace process. He also created the "1,000 Points 
of Light" program, which led to a renewed na- 
tional emphasis on volunteerism. 

Since leaving office, Bush has focused his 
time and energy on the completion of the 
George Bush Presidential Library, located on 
the campus of Texas A&uM University at Col- 
lege Station. He serves as the chairman of the 
Eisenhower Exchange Fellowship, and hon- 
orary chairman of the Points of Light Founda- 
tion, and is a member of the board of visitors 
at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. 

Bush and his wife, Barbara, who live in 
Houston and Kennebunkport, Maine, have 
helped support more than 150 charitable or- 
ganizations in their community and around 
the country, from fighting drug abuse to pro- 
moting literacy. In 1995 and 1996, they helped 
raise more than $20 million for charity. 



Duke's annual economic impact on the 
city and county of Durham weighs in 
at an estimated $1.9 billion. According 
to a recent study, a tally of local spending by 
the university, its students, and visitors in 
1996-1997 arrived at an estimated $944 mil- 
lion. The impact of that spending, however, is 

In the paint: a colorful collection of Cameron Crazies conspire for Carolina confrontation 


at least twice that amount, according to the 
study, because each dollar spent initiates at 
least one more round of spending before it 
leaves the local economy. 

"Understanding the extent to which Duke 
is an important engine of economic activity in 
Durham can help all of us, both on campus 
and off it, appreciate the degree to which Dur- 
ham and Duke are inextricably engaged with 
each other," says President Keohane. "It adds 
to our understanding of a complex and im- 
portant town/gown relationship that we are 
committed to enhancing." 

As the largest employer in Durham County 
and the third largest private employer in North 
Carolina, Duke annually infuses an estimated 
$1.01 billion into the community. The univer- 
sity employed 16,145 Durham residents out of 
a total workforce of 22,000 in 1996-1997. Other 
effects include university purchases, services, 
donations, and student and visitor spending. 

The seventeen-page report, "Durham and 
Duke," was the university's first study of its 
economic impact on its home community. It 
was conducted by Duke's public affairs office, 
with consultation from economists at Duke 
and North Carolina State University as well 
as government and outside data models. 



Duke has announced the lowest tui- 
tion increase in thirty-two years for 
continuing students in the two un- 
dergraduate colleges-along with an extra $800 
annually for new arts and sciences students. 
The two-tiered tuition structure is modeled 
after similar programs adopted in 1988-89 and 
1994-95 that sparked new investments in un- 
dergraduate education and faculty develop- 

Thirty percent of the funds from the new 
two-tiered tuition plan will be invested in fi- 
nancial aid. The balance of the monies gener- 
ated will go to support an enhancement fund 
for five undergraduate education programs and 
faculty support that, according to university 
officials, will have an immediate impact on 
the quality of undergraduate education. The 
targeted areas are the freshman "Focus" pro- 
grams, which integrate living and learning ex- 
periences; new "capstone" seminars for seniors; 
more opportunities for independent research; 
strengthened foreign-language courses; and a 
Center for Teaching, Learning, and Writing, 
which will add to and consolidate existing 
programs. With support from other sources, 
the plan will allow Duke to hire some thirty 
new faculty appointments in arts and sciences 
and engineering over the next five years. 
Under the plan, approved at the board of 

trustees' February meeting, tuition for contin- 
uing students in Trinity College of Arts and 
Sciences in 1998-99 will go up 4 percent to 
$22,420; for new students, tuition will be 
$23,220, a 7.7 percent increase. Continuing and 
new students in the School of Engineering will 
see their tuition rise by 4 percent to $23,310. 


Joe Alleva, Duke's associate athletics di- 
rector since 1987, succeeded Tom But- 
ters as director of athletics in March, 
concluding a four-month-long national search. 
The forty-four-year-old Alleva joined the 

athletics staff in 1980 and was named assis- 
tant athletics director in July 1986. As associ- 
ate director, he has been responsible for fiscal 
and budgetary management in the depart- 
ment and over time, at Butters' direction, had 
assumed responsibility for many of the depart- 
ment's day-to-day operations. He was also as- 
sistant director of the Iron Dukes, the athlet- 
ic scholarship fund-raising group that raises 
more than $4 million annually and endows 
146 scholarships for Duke student-athletes. 

Alleva was an All-America quarterback at 
Lehigh in 1974 and was the team captain in 
1975, his senior year. He also lettered in baseball 
during his college career. He began working at 
Duke in 1976 in the office of the vice president 
and later as an administrator at Duke Hos- 
pital before joining the athletics department. 


Capturing the conscience of 
the king: Gray, with Osmond 
as Anna 


In his backstage dressing 
room, with his royal-red ki- 
mono hanging conspicuous- 
ly nearby, Kevin Gray '80 spent 
some time this winter musing 
about life in the theater. It's a 
life that brought him to the 
lead role in Phantom of the 
Opera (Duke Magasjne, Febru- 
ary-March 1991). And, through 
the end of February, it landed 
him in The King and I. Gray 
played the King — a "stressed 
out and angry" King, as he de- 
scribed it-in the Broadway pro- 
duction. In its final weeks, the 
production brought on singer 
Marie Osmond as Anna, the 
British schoolteacher who de- 
velops a complex attachment to 
the King. 

"What's nice about this play 
is that you don't need to make 
it contemporary; it is contem- 
porary," Gray said. "Despite the 
advent of all the technologies 

that seem to make the world 
smaller, we still have very little 
experience of other people's 
cultures — how alien they can 
be to us, and how alien our cul- 
ture can be to them." 

The Rogers and Hammer- 
stein musical is approaching 
the half-century mark, but 
many of its themes are timeless, 
or at least ahead of their time, 
Gray said. "I think ultimately 
the play has the message that 
life is full of surprising journeys 
that happen when we bounce 
off each other, that you never 
know who is going to walk into 
your room — or what room 
you're going to walk into — that 
is going to change your life. 
This is a man who has a very 
delicately balanced life. And a 
woman who is a complete 
stranger walks into that life and 
changes everything. In the 
same way, here is a woman 

who walks out of a very or- 
dered Victorian world. Even 
though they can't be compati- 
ble, their lives are forever 
changed. That's the most excit- 
ing part of what life is — going 
through that door, or opening it 
and seeing who comes in." 
Now Gray is considering 
opening a new door for himself 
as he weighs directing oppor- 
tunities. "I am very familiar 
with the process from the 
actor's side. I would be curious 
to see the process from the 
other side, to see how it all fits 
together." Not that he's averse 
to returning to his more famil- 
iar stage roles. "You have to 
work with what you have in 
your arsenal at a particular 
time in your life. But certainly 
fifteen years from now, there 
will be a different set of things 
in the arsenal." 

March -April 1998 45 

The search, which concluded in late 
February, was highly public, with sportscaster 
Dick Vitale, for example, calling Alleva the 
best choice in a national broadcast. Men's 
basketball coach Mike Krzyzewski had also 
made clear his support for Alleva. Along the 
way, a number of publicly-identified candi- 
dates removed themselves from considera- 
tion. The Chronicle, in a highly critical edito- 
rial, called the search process "sloppy and 
indecisive" and pointed to "a power struggle 
showing for everyone to see." 

Alleva was one of four finalists brought to 
President Keohane by a search committee. In 
announcing the appointment, Keohane said 
of Alleva: "His accomplishments at Duke and 
the support he's received from people within 
the athletics department demonstrate the 
very high regard with which he is held by his 
colleagues, those who know him best. ... I am 
confident that under Joe's leadership we will 
continue the tradition of excellence and sup- 
port for student-athletes, both on the fields 
and in the classrooms, that is a hallmark of 

Butters, who had held the position for thir- 
ty-one years, said, "It has been a wonderful 
ride for me." None of the accomplishments 
during his tenure would have been possible 
"without the guidance and support of Joe 
there," he added. 



In what will be the National Institutes of 
Health's first large-scale test of a health- 
food store product, Duke has received a 
$4-3-million grant to study the herbal depres- 
sion "remedy" St. John's wort. 

The roadside weed St. John's wort, or 
Hypericum perforatum, grows prolificacy and 
contains a combination of chemicals that 
reputedly offer therapeutic treatment for 
depression. St. John's wort has been widely 
used for centuries among practitioners of 
phytotherapy, or plant-based medicine, and is 
already an accepted remedy for depression 
in Europe, particularly in Germany, where 
66 million doses of the herb were prescribed 
in 1994- American interest in the plant has 
skyrocketed in the past several years as word 
of its availability and cost-effectiveness 
spread. But, up until now, there have been no 
studies of long-term effects on diagnosed suf- 
ferers of depression who use the drug. 

Winning the much sought-after contract 
will offer Duke Medical Center researchers a 
chance to demonstrate the strengths of the 

Outdoor artifacts: some of the billboards in gift 
collection that includes posters and placards 

department of psychiatry and behavioral sci- 
ences, as well as the Clinical Research Insti- 
tute, which has organized huge clinical trials 
around the world. 

Physicians at Duke are coordinating with of- 
ficials from as many as twelve other centers 
around the country to enroll 336 psychiatric 
outpatients with moderate depression. Pa- 
tients will be divided into three groups — 
those receiving either doses of St. John's wort, 
a placebo, or a commonly prescribed drug for 
depression — and results following six 
months of therapy will be compared. 

Researchers hope to answer questions about 
exactly how the plant's chemicals work on 
the brain. The plant's alkaloid extracts likely 
affect the action of at least two neurotrans- 
mitters — dopamine and GABA. Both are 
linked to depression or anxiety, but to what 
extent is unknown. 


To some, they are an eyesore. To others, 
they are a window to the past of our 
American landscape. All debate aside, 
a donated collection of one dozen historic 
billboards and hundreds of thousands of 
other outdoor advertisements has joined the 
university's Special Collections Library. 

In October, a scale -model presentation of 
six of the billboards was displayed in the front 

lobby of Perkins Library on West Campus, 
"advertising" the new holdings, a gift from the 
Outdoor Advertising Association of America 
(OAAA). The collection features subway pla- 
cards, wartime posters, and bus displays, among 
other items. The materials, now located in 
Duke's John W Hartman Center for Sales, 
Advertising, and Marketing History, were pre- 
viously housed at Fairleigh Dickinson Uni- 
versity in Rutherford, New Jersey. 


Perhaps the most dramatic moment in 
a March campus speech came when 
ex-skinhead Tom Leyden displayed his 
tattoo-covered arm to his audience-evidence 
of the extent to which he was involved with 
the Hammer Skin Nation, an international 
racist skinhead movement. A year and a half 
ago, Leyden re-evaluated his beliefs, and he 
now speaks for the Simon Wiesenthal Center, 
a Jewish human-rights organization. 

Addressing a crowd of about 250 in the 
Griffith Film Theater, Leyden discussed his in- 
volvement in the movement and why he quit. 
In high school, he had become involved in the 
punk rock scene. It was at that point when he 
first began associating with racist skinheads. 
"White -power rock is the equivalent of gang- 
ster rap," he said. "Music is the most powerful 
weapon on the face of the planet." 

I always stop 
at the R | TZ 

4 bedrooms, 3 baths... 2 FORDS 


After working his way up the hierarchy of 
the Hammer Skin Nation, witnessing and 
participating in many acts of violence, and 
spending so much time in county jail that the 
people knew him "on a first-name basis," 
Leyden began to rethink his racist ideology. 
Although a number of factors made him 
reconsider his beliefs, ultimately his children 
caused the turnaround. "For the first time, 

they held a mirror up to my face," Leyden said 
of his sons. "They would be ten times tougher, 
meaner, and more loyal because they would 
be second generation neo-Nazi skinheads." 

Now, Leyden travels around the country 
with the Simon Wiesenthal Center, sharing 
his experiences. "The reason I talk," Leyden 
told his audience, "is because if I didn't, I 
would be just as much to blame." 



When John Tye '98 
told his parents 
that he had won a 
Rhodes Scholarship, they were 
more than just a lit tie surprised. 
"They were extremely excited," 
he says: He hadn't even told 
them that he had applied. 

Tye says he too was "very 
excited" when he learned on 
December 6 that he was one of 
thirty-two Americans chosen 
for the prestigious scholarship. 
This is the fifth straight year a 
Duke student has won a 
Rhodes, and the twenty-sev- 
enth time the university has 
had a winner since the program 
was established in 1903. 

The Trinity senior from 
Belmont, Massachusetts, sur- 
vived a series of "pretty stress- 
ful" interviews to claim one 
of the scholarships, which 
entitles him to two years of 
study at Oxford University in 
England. Academic expenses, 
fees, and transportation are 
paid, along with a stipend 

of $23,240. He says he plans 
to study philosophy, politics, 
and economics. 

At Duke, Tye is part of 
Program II, which allows 
students to design their own 
curriculum. His major is titled 
"Adaptive and Intelligence 
Systems"; he studies computer 
modeling of decision-making 
processes and neurosciences. 
"I've been looking at complex 
systems with lots of interactive 
parts. For example, the brain 
has lots of neurons, which are 
relatively simple things, yet 
when they are combined, 
beautiful properties emerge. 
I've also studied the economy 
and financial markets and 
how group behavior emerges 
from the decisions made by 
individuals," he says. 

Program II "is one of the 
best things I've done at Duke. 
I've really learned a lot" He 
says he also learned a lot by 
taking time off from his studies 
to work in Nicaragua, where 

Tye: independent study 
achieved Rhi'des-worthiness 

he installed pipes for a new 
water and sewage system for a 
small community, and in 
Honduras, where he worked 
in an orphanage. 

Mary Nijhout, Trinity College 
associate dean and coordinator 
of the Rhodes Scholarship 
program, describes Tye as a 
"wonderful person" who meets 
the program criteria for aca- 
demic achievement, integrity, 
leadership, and athletic ability. 
She says the program looks 
for "young leaders who will 
go on to be great leaders" and 
that Tye obviously fits into 
that category. 

This year, 990 students from 
314 colleges and universities ap- 
plied for the thirty-two scholar- 
ships. Two went to students at 
the University of North Carolina 
at Chapel Hill. Rhodes Scholar- 
ships were established at the 
turn of the century by the estate 
of Cecil Rhodes, a British phi- 
lanthropist and colonialist. 

— Melznda Stubbee 

The boards of Triangle Hospice and Duke 
University Health System have entered 
final negotiations on a proposed merger 
that will enhance and expand the options for 
"end-of-life care" for terminally-ill patients. 

The agreement will formalize a long-standing 
relationship between Triangle Hospice and the 
Duke Medical Center. During their nineteen- 
year affiliation, Duke has provided curative 
care to medically ill patients while Triangle 
Hospice has focused on pain management 
and quality-of-life issues. 

"The merger will allow Triangle Hospice to 
serve a much broader range of patients by 
providing the stability and patient referral base 
of a large academic health system, while intro- 
ducing hospice care as a critical component of 
managed health-care delivery," says Terry Fisher, 
president of the board of Triangle Hospice. 

Under the terms of the proposed merger, 
Triangle Hospice will retain its name and its 
mission, with community program direction 
coming from a Triangle Hospice Community 
Advisory Committee. The committee will have 
significant representation from the current 
Triangle Hospice board of directors as well as 
from Duke and the community at large. The 
fifty-five -member Triangle Hospice staff will 
become employees of the Duke University 
Health System. 


multidisciplinary team of Duke Uni- 
^ versity Arthritis Center researchers 
. will spend the next four years, with 
the support of a $4.3-million grant from the 
National Institutes of Health, piecing together 
possible answers to the puzzling disease rheu- 
matoid arthritis. 

As the nation's only Specialized Center of 
Research (SCOR) on rheumatoid arthritis, the 
Duke center will be taking a four-pronged ap- 
proach to understanding the basic mecha- 
nisms that trigger joint destruction in the 
chronic inflammatory disease that affects 
more than one million Americans. 

"The idea behind a center-based approach 
is to bring scientists and clinicians together to 
try to understand the key steps in the dis- 
ease," says professor of immunology David 
Pisetsky, the primary investigator for the study 
and chief of rheumatology, allergy, and clinical 
immunology at Duke. "Each of the four pro- 
jects under the grant has a physician and a 
basic researcher to try to use new techniques 
to address clinically relevant research. We 

March -April 1998 47 

want both to understand the disease process 
and to find new therapies for patients." 

The first of the four projects will focus on 
the molecules that regulate trafficking of cells 
to the joints and the interaction between 
cells and joint tissue. The researchers will 
continue to explore the inflammatory role of 
CD44, a receptor found on T-cells in joint 
fluid. The second study will examine the rela- 
tionship between rheumatoid arthritis and 
nitric oxide, which has been found in high lev- 
els in affected joints. The third study will tar- 
get adhesion molecules, a group of proteins 

connected to the early stages of immune cell 
migration to joints. The final project will study 
the array of chemokines and chemokine re- 
ceptors in the joints and their role in regulating 
cell activity. 

The four studies involve researchers from 
rheumatology, immunology, hematology, ortho- 
pedics, and biomedical engineering, all focused 
on the critical steps in the activation and mi- 
gration of immune cells to the joint, Pisetsky 
says. The current project builds on Duke re- 
search conducted under SCOR grants over 
the past ten years. 

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Two recent gifts are meant to make a 
campus impact in varying ways. 
Thanks to $1.5 million in contribu- 
tions from the Glaxo Wellcome corporation 
and foundation, Duke Medical Center has 
established the Glaxo Wellcome Professorship 
of pharmacology and cancer biology. Anthony 
Means, chairman of the department, says the 
professorship gives the medical center an op- 
portunity to recruit a pre-eminent senior sci- 
entist who applies modern techniques to the 
detection, prevention, or cure of cancer. The 
addition of "a leading cancer biologist" to the 
department, he says, "will speed our progress 
even more toward unraveling the mechanisms 
that underlie this hugely complex series of 

Researchers in the department use basic con- 
cepts of biology and chemistry to determine 
how cells integrate signals received in re- 
sponse to drugs, growth-promoting or growth- 
inhibitory substances, from the molecular level 
to the whole animal. Their research brings an 
integrated perspective to an understanding of 
how molecules, cells, organ systems, and or- 
ganisms function. 

An individual with a long-standing con- 
nection to the medical center — who also ad- 
mires the corporate stewardship of board of 
trustees chairman Randall L. Tobias — is be- 
hind another gift. Corporate newsletter pub- 
lisher Evelyn Y. Davis and the Evelyn Y. Davis 
Foundation are giving Duke $100,000 to 
assist seniors who have expressed a career 
interest in business journalism. 

The Evelyn Y. Davis Scholarship Endow- 
ment Fund will support up to five $1,000 
scholarships each year for seniors who are in 
need of financial assistance, have demonstrat- 
ed superior academic achievement, and are 
interested in a career in business or political 
journalism. "I think it is very important to do 
what you can to help people," says Davis, who 
lives in Washington, D.C. Tobias, chairman of 
the board and chief executive officer of Eli 

Supporting future journalists: donor Davis, left, 
with trustee chair Tobias 


Lilly and Company, says, "I am particularly 
pleased that [the gift] will go to help deserv- 
ing students who hope to report on business 
and its role in society." 

Davis' late father, Herman Dejong, taught 
at Duke Medical School. She edits and pub- 
lishes Highlights and Lowlights, a Washington- 
based newsletter for corporate chief executive 
officers. She has been described by news 
media as a "corporate gadfly" who owns stock 
in 110 corporations and who attends dozens of 
stockholders' meetings annually. 


v . The Samuel DuBois Cook Society was in- 
augurated in February to commemorate 
trustee emeritus Samuel DuBois Cook, who in 
1966 joined Duke's political science faculty. 
He was the first African-American professor 
named to the faculty of a predominantly white 
university in the South. The society — open to 
students, faculty, and staff — recognizes new 
leaders on campus who are working toward 
the advancement of African Americans and 
improved race relations. Cook delivered the 
keynote address and presided over the founders' 
dinner inaugurating the society, which was 
named by President Keohane last year. 

v , Robert E. Reinheimer and Wanda T Wallace 
have been named associate deans for execu- 
tive education at the Fuqua School of Business. 
The former managing directors for Fuqua's ex- 
ecutive programs will share administrative re- 
sponsibility for the school's open-enrollment 
and customized, company-specific executive 

■S Jean Spaulding M.D. 72, adjunct faculty 
member in die psychology department, has been 
appointed vice chancellor for health affairs. 
The Durham psychiatrist, well-known for her 
community involvement, will serve as a senior 
member of Duke Medical Center's leadership 
team recruiting and mentoring medical center 
faculty, students, and alumni, with a focus on 
under-represented minorities and women. 
Spaulding was the first African-American 
woman to attend Duke's medical school. 

'i John Arnold Board B.S.E. '82, M.S. '82, 
associate professor of computer science and 
electrical and computer engineering, and Eric 
John Toone, associate professor of chemistry, 
have been named to the first two chairs in the 
Bass Program for Excellence in Undergrad- 
uate Education. The Bass Program is a $40- 
million initiative to endow faculty chairs and 
recognize faculty who are both gifted teachers 
and scholars. The program was created by a 
gift from Anne and Robert Bass. 

Tired and wet: As tfieV?gu stretched into a week, participo 


Continued from page 9 

t of rain and fatigue 

Over the years legend has it that it was my 
idea to sit quietly and neatly on the quad. My 
memory is that we engaged in collective deci- 
sion making. I was concerned about the prin- 
ciple and movement tactics more than disci- 
pline. I was conscious about responsibility and 
not having us dismissed as "crazies" (some of 
the guerrilla tactics of the SDSers were fright- 
ening). The lessons from my youth participat- 
ing in demonstrations were applied to the Vigil 
as much for survival (how not to get beaten 
by the police) rather than a recipe for a suc- 
cessful protest. 

I still have a feeling of awe when I think 
about waking up that first morning on the 
quad. I did not believe the numbers of stu- 
dents who had joined the Vigil during the 
night. It was incredible how the amount of 
space we used up had multiplied. It was heart- 
ening to see faculty members with us. There 
were graduate students whose spouses would 
bring their children to visit and sit with their 
parents during the day. 

Some things about the Vigil will always re- 
main with me. Jesse Helms, who was then a 
commentator on WRAL-TV describing us as 
"the clutter on the lawn" with pure contempt 
in his voice. The nightly rallies on the quad in 
support of the non-academic workers' strike, 
with high-visibility visitors from the radical 
world like David Harris and Joan Baez. A del- 
egation from UOCI and Durham's black com- 
munity marching in on day two or three and 
sitting down with us for the afternoon. Dis- 

cussions about our bank account — we had 
raised $6,000 or so for the union strike fund 
in a few days, and suddenly there was talk 
about a tax ID number and investment stra- 
tegies. Good meals served on the quad from 
the Chicken Box, opening up a whole new 
world to white students who had not ven- 
tured into the wonderful world of African- 
American cuisine.... 

Does my life style reflect my activist expe- 
riences as a student? The answer is mostly yes, 
though I wish I would make more time to do 
more. People in the Durham African-Ameri- 
can community still speak warmly of the 
Duke students who were supportive of their 
causes in the Sixties. Many of us continue to 
work for social justice. We are environmen- 
talists, radical feminists, champions of human 
rights. We are involved in international is- 
sues. We have chosen jobs in the nonprofit 
sector that are not quite the norm for gradu- 
ates of our era. We have tried to make a dif- 
ference as we raise our children. And for many 
of us, the determination to work for progres- 
sive change is a part of the legacy of our time 
at Duke, and the lessons we learned as we 
struggled together as students. 

Christopher Edgar '68 majored 

in economics, joined delta slgma phi, 
and opposed the vlgil. he is now a 
lawyer \t Law Weathers &. Richard- 
son in Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

March -April 1998 49 

There were several reasons why I did not 
support the movement that culminated in the 
Vigil. First, I did not see the connection be- 
tween Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination 
and the strike by the non-academic employees. 
They were totally unrelated events that hap- 
pened to occur at about the same time. The 
non-academic employee strike was a local labor 
action for union recognition and for higher 
wages. The sympathetic factor, of course, was 
that many of the non-academic employees 
were African American. 

Secondly, the occupation of Dr. Knight's 
personal residence was very distressing to me. 
As president of my fraternity, I had had occa- 
sion to deal with Dr. Knight on a limited basis 
in connection with a housing issue for the fra- 
ternity. I found him to be a very considerate 
and decent person. I felt that he probably was 
not prepared for the vituperation and lack of 
civility exhibited by some of the students oc- 
cupying his residence. Nor was I. I think that 
Dr. Knight would likely have been sympathe- 
tic to many of the student demands had they 
given him a chance to work through them. 

Thirdly, I did not think that it would be in 
the university's best interests to recognize a 
union for the non-academic employees. Nor 
did I support the wage demands of the non- 
academic employees. Basically, I felt that the 
administration had a duty to its students to 
try to provide the highest quality education at 
the lowest possible cost. (It still has a duty to 
its students to do so.) Certainly, the universi- 
ty had a duty to its employees as well, but in 
balancing those duties, the welfare of the stu- 
dent body at large should come first. In my 
view, a unionized work force would make it 
more difficult to control long-term costs. The 
wage demands were a more difficult issue for 
me, but at the time I did an informal survey of 
local employers who were exempt from the 
federal minimum wage requirements and found 
that Duke paid wages that were comparable to 
other employers for comparable types of work. 

Fourthly, there were some politically active 
students who were working hard to develop a 
protest movement on campus. I was a senior 
representative on the Associated Students of 
Duke University (ASDU) and had spent the 
entire year wrangling with some of these stu- 
dents. We had a fundamentally different view 
of the function of student government. They 
thought that student government should be 
active in national political and social issues. I 
believed that student government should 
pretty much be limited to student and cam- 
pus issues. 

Dr. King's assassination created a perfect 
opportunity for those who were protest mind- 
ed. Several of the activist "student leaders" were 
involved in the occupation of Dr. Knight's 
residence and ultimately in the Vigil. Based 
on my experience in ASDU, the involvement 

of some of the student leaders caused me to 
question the validity of the movement. Dr. 
King's death had a profound effect on many 
of our classmates. Many felt compelled to do 
something to express their feelings and the 
strike of non-academic employees provided a 
platform for them to do so. 

On the other hand, most Duke students 
did not participate in the Vigil. In addition, 
there was a significant number of Duke stu- 
dents, myself included, who worked in the 
cafeterias to keep them open during the strike. 

There were a wide variety of views that 
existed among the students, and presumably 
faculty, at the time. My recollection is that once 
the Vigil started, people seemed to respect each 
other's opinions. The change in tone was a 
constructive development and probably made 
the Vigil a beneficial experience for the uni- 

Jack Boger os was one of tf 

leaders of the student movement. 
After graduation, he earned hi^ 
m \ster's of divinity from Yale 
dlvinm school and his juris doctor 
from the University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill. He then 
worked for twelve years in the 
naacp's legal defense fund's death- 
penalty project. in 1990, he joined the 
unc i \\\ faculty, where he teaches 
courses on the constitution and 
civil rights issues. 

Before I got to Duke I was alert to the civil 
rights movement that had taken wing in 
North Carolina. My family was liberal Demo- 
crat, which I suspect was not normal at the 
time. Duke was an important part of my so- 
cial and political awakening and development. 
One of the most prominent events of our 
freshman year was Martin Luther King's visit 
to campus right after he had won the Nobel 
Peace Prize. He made a powerful impression. 
The moral depth and clarity of his thought 
and his call toward a re-ordered society really 
set the tone [for that time] .... 

There were also a number of other forces at 
work. There were people on campus who had 
not only good values with regard to social 
ethics, but who put themselves on the line 
long before students came. Faculty like John 
Strange [political science] , John Cell [history] , 
Anne Firor Scott [history] , Tom McCollough 
[religion], Robert Osborne [religion], Peter 
Klopfer [zoology] . There were also symposia 
that were very provocative, that explored ques- 
tions such as what should the role of the uni- 
versity be in society... and in the class ahead 
of us there were some phenomenal, electric 
seniors who were thoughtful, committed peo- 
ple who daily raised questions around campus 
about all kinds of issues.... 

[At the time of King's assassination] I was 
attending a religion department symposium 
around the theme "The Theology of Hope". . . . 
Someone came down the aisle and told every- 
one Martin Luther King had been shot. The 
theology of hope seemed instantaneously ir- 
relevant. I left, stunned at the news.... 

The crowd at Knight's house got very large; 
we really covered the floor. A couple of peo- 
ple were charged with making pleas to him on 
behalf of the crowd. He listened but said he 
couldn't do anything. We were all sitting there 
with the TV on, watching buildings burning 
in Washington and rioting in cities and there 
was a very real feeling that this was an apoc- 
alyptic age. There was a feeling that if we 
couldn't get a rich, prosperous, progressive 
school like Duke to do something as modest 
as talking about the president ending his mem- 
bership in a segregated country club, or calling 
for modest wages for black employees, then 
there was not much hope for our society.... 

I heard later that they did increase wages 
but fired a number of workers to cover the 
costs. I left Duke and didn't come back to Duke 
for a long, long time. It would have been nice 
for the university to have offered courses on 
the issues raised by the Vigil. There was a large 
percentage of the student body who had never 
been involved before, and it would have been 
great to offer courses in the social sciences, 
economics, religion, on race relations and ethics 
that allowed people to reflect on that. ... 

For us, the civil rights movement was an 
immediate issue that could be appreciated. 
There as an evident moral justice to the basic 
things that were being asked for. These were 
not special preferences or breaks. This was 
about the right to sit at a lunch counter or go 
to a college like Duke. Those were inescap- 
able issues which raised profound questions 
every single day. We're now in a time where 
the questions are much more nuanced and 
difficult and they're not on the front burner. 
There's great prosperity, no war, the poor and 
disenfranchised are mostly out of sight. So I 
don't claim a great moral virtue for the time 
when I came of age. It's just that circumstances 
and issues were unavoidable. 

David Roberts c \m to duke on 
an nrotc scholarship in 1963, 
flunked out, reapplied, and was 
admitted again in 1965. a political 
science major, he was the battalion 
officer for his nrotc unit. he is now 
president of focus advisors, ln( . \np 
lives in Oakland, Californj \. 

When I first arrived at Duke in September 
1963, my class was the first integrated under- 
graduate class at the university, with just five 
black students. Durham and the South in gen- 
eral were still in the throes of acknowledging 


the coming impact of the civil rights struggle. 
Dave Birkhead, a freshman Chronicle reporter, 
was beaten up at a Klan rally within a couple 
of months of his arrival at Duke. I joined a 
fraternity where a fellow pledge insisted that 
he would sooner go thirsty than 
drink out of a cup after a "nig- 
ger." Dorm arguments revolved 
around how certain football 
players had ever gotten into 
Duke and whether the U.S. 
should take a stand against 
communism in Laos. JFK was 
assassinated in my third month 
at Duke.... 

The night Martin Luther 
King was killed, a march to 
President Knight's house led to g 
an invitation by him for several 

hundred students to enter and , jj^" V^L - '■- V u 
talk. He seemed as anguished as .'""•? 5^. ;<F . jJ&r' 
we and his invitation seemed ^*£ "*Cy~ ,^£jj[ 
genuine. A sleepless night 
talk and anger and debating 
how to make a difference wii 
our protest ended with a 
to campus and the settinj 
the Vigil on the main 

skipped the Graduate Record " ■""» .' 0f^^ 
Exam that Saturday morning 
and made camp with hundreds of 
others. [I] risked court martial 
and posting to Vietnam for dis- 
obeying standing orders to 

Twenty-four hours after graduation, I was 
disembarked on a sunny airstrip at Guantan- 
amo Bay, Cuba, where I spent six weeks look- 
ing across barbed wire at Cuban soldiers, 
physically and emotionally far removed from 

a- with ^^' &1JS/ ^-.---v 

.return fit- *| ^f f& 
igupof L^T , f Wj *3&~> H*& 

quad. I ^..^ J^^T'^ 
Record *'- r~ JL.Z' S& _<fe 

and humbled by that memory. In the arro- 
gance of my twentysomething righteousness, I 
was convinced that there should be no sanc- 
tuary for those who treated blacks the way 
the university acted. I was convinced that this 
was evil and unjust and should 
be confronted wherever its pro- 
ponents could be found. Today, I 
realize the depth of personal 
anguish and uncertainty that 
one can know in times of crisis 
and conscience. Whether it was 
Dr. Knight opening his home to 
hundreds of angry students, or 
the trustee praying in the 
Chapel, or the student deciding 
whether to participate in the 
Vigil under threat of expulsion, 
we were all in anguish, we were 
all in despair, we were all seek- 
ing to find the right and just way 

Jeff Van Pelt 69 w 



Sitting firm: Although the crowd on the quad swelled i 
For five days we made com- atmosphere dways remained orderb 
mon cause with one another 

and the workers. Many of us found ourselves 
in growing realization that the world might 
not be so predictable, that our lives might not 
progress from comfort to comfort, that we 
would not have the luxury of ignoring or 
merely observing the anguish and misfortunes 
of black Americans. We were convinced of 
the justice of our protest. We were convinced 
of the base intentions of those who opposed 
us. We knew we were right. We knew history 
was on our side. 

One of the rainy nights during the Vigil, I 
went to the Chapel to dry out for a few hours. 
While I was lying on a pew, an older man 
entered and sat several rows away, looked up 
at the ceiling and then bowed his head. I rec- 
ognized him as one of the trustees who had 
stood up before the students several hours 
earlier. I immediately rose and walked toward 
him to confront him with the injustice of the 
university's refusal to recognize the workers. I 
stopped to ask a couple of other students to 
go with me. For some reason, even though I 
was full of righteousness, I stopped short of 
speaking to him. Even in the midst of a pro- 
test, I supposed there was some right to priva- 
cy he held.... 

the campus and the Vigil.... [In the years that 
followed] I spent many hours learning my 
navigator's skills as a Naval Flight Officer. 
Among my duties was the responsibility for 
nuclear weapons on my aircraft. I decided that 
I could not act to use these weapons under any 
circumstances and asked to be granted Con- 
scientious Objector status. After four months 
of inquiry, the Navy granted me an Honorable 

In the thirty years since the Vigil, watching 
and experiencing life as an adult, a lawyer, a 
businessman, a husband and father, and a 
church member, I have come to realize for 
myself some of the difficult things I rejected 
as a student. I know that I have limits as a 
person. I know the limits of anger and righ- 
teousness as agents for change. I know the 
power of money and position. I better under- 
stand how economics drives change and evo- 
lution. I better understand the human ele- 
ments, too. The world is a less friendly place 
than I wished it to be. What we deserve and 
what we get is seldom consistent. Evil and 
good abound side by side.... 

And I remember the late-night visit of the 
trustee to the Chapel. Today, I am embarrassed 

\mong the core group of 
student leaders who 
helped coordinate both 
the march to doug 
Knight's house and the 
| Vigil. Earlier, he had 
elped usher in the 


IDuke University, \i>\< « wi u 


i >f Flowers, and lobbii i i for 


in Hamden, Connei mi i i. 

I entered Duke in 1965 a firm supporter of 
both the established social agenda and the 
U.S. role in the Vietnam War. As a child of a 
military family, I believed what I read in Time 
magazine and was uneasy around scruffy 
protesters of all stripes. As I became involved 
in campus religious groups, such as the YM/ 
YWCA and the University Christian Move- 
ment, I came into contact with students and 
ministers who were clearly ahead of me both 
spiritually and politically. Through informal 
teach-ins and bull sessions, I began to grasp 
the enormity of the lie upon which my idea of 
America was based. Two events made that 
realization undeniable. I smoked my first joint 
in 1967 (about the time Sgt. Pepper's came 
out), found it a delightful revelation, and real- 
ized that it did not lead inexorably to heroin 
and death; I had been lied to. In January 1968 
the Tet Offensive swept through Vietnam, tak- 
ing with it the illusion that we would win the 

March -April 1998 51 

war, and it became clear to me as I followed 
the reports that our country was fighting the 
good guys. That made us.... It was a shattering 

It is hard for people today to envision a 
time when virtually every American believed 
without question that we were and always 
had been the good guys, which is why we were 
a wealthy nation that never lost a war; that 
our leaders and law enforcement officials 
were on a mission from God; that such de- 
viance as long hair on men, pants on women, 
and protest on the quad was symptomatic of 
disease best effaced at its earliest manifesta- 
tion. My generation grew up with those be- 
liefs, so ingrained that we considered them not 
beliefs but simply "the way things are." The 
shock of having that Faberge-egg-like edifice 
crumble as it encountered a crush of reality, 
and the consequent transformation of my 
political and cultural outlook, was a terrible 
experience that I shrink to recall. 

The lies and the death and the greed and 
intolerance of the established order all seemed 
of a piece, which had to emanate from a sys- 
tem that was thoroughly evil. No one I knew 
felt that the Soviet system was the alterna- 
tive. Rather the conviction took hold that an 
entirely new attempt would have to be made 
to revive the American Dream. Many of us 
did find inspiration in the struggles of the 
Vietnamese and the Cuban Davids against 
the American Goliath, so purely idealistic and 
self-sacrificing did they appear to be, and 
many of us sought to support those struggles 
from our uncomfortable positions "in the belly 
of the monster." We moved, step by step, from 
tentative involvement to a willingness to sac- 
rifice our careers and possibly our lives in the 
struggle to sweep away the old evil and "make 
all things new." Of those who led the Vigil, it 
may have been a minority who felt as strong- 
ly as this about the need for radical change, 
but the feeling was in the air and served, 
along with the shattering trauma of Martin 
Luther King's death, to detach the thousands 
who joined us from the confines of socially 
acceptable behavior that would otherwise 
have kept them in their dorm rooms.... 

The first night Dr. John Strange asked the 
crowd assembled in Dr. Knight's cavernous 
living room for nominees to form a leadership 
committee. My name was called out by 
friends who were active in the counterculture 
movement, whom many on campus would 
have considered more "hippies" than "radi- 
cals".... I considered my most valuable contri- 
bution to have been the successful campaign 
to open up the Vigil beyond its initial core of 
a hundred or so for it to encompass the thou- 
sands it did ultimately. The method was to 
create gradations of support between partici- 
pation and non-participation. For example, 
we distributed cards to be pinned on shirts 

and coats that proclaimed "I Support the 
Vigil," providing a way for those not ready to 
join to begin the process of deciding to do so; 
after a time, the step from the sidewalk to the 
quad seemed not so enormous, and finally 

The success of the Vigil inspired me with 
the confidence that I could make a positive 
difference, if I could frame the right opportu- 
nity to join with 

l#* ** ' 


my fellow pro- 
gressives. That 
confidence was 
crucial to my ac- 
tivities in the suc- 
ceeding five years 
in Tallahassee, 
where I founded 
a large coopera- 
tive residential 
"community of 
friends in the 
country" and 
worked to estab- 
lish alternative 
institutions such 
as a free universi- 
ty, book co-op, May. second thoughts about theVigil 
food co-op, credit 

union, and low-income housing. I was acute- 
ly disappointed that such institutions did not 
grow into a more powerful influence on the 
national life, and that the Vigil has not yet led 
to a national effort by which progressive alum- 
ni would systematically support progressive 
student efforts on campus. Alumni support of 
the Vigil could have made such a difference. I 
resist the temptation to "fold theVigil," i.e., to 
accept it as a peak experience consigned to 
history, whose like we shall not see again. 

Randy May '68, j.d. 71, who was 


oi- Lampa Chi Alpha, is now a partner 
in the Washington, D.C., law firm 
Sutherland, Asbill 6k Brennan. He 
lives with his family in Potomac , 


I came to Duke as a graduate of a Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, public high school. 
My family politics were more liberal than the 
prevailing community, and I thought of myself 
at the time as being liberal. The social issue 
that was important to me when I arrived at 
Duke was ending segregation and trying to 
achieve equal opportunity because I had gone 
through a segregated school system.... 

We were all aware of, and influenced by, 
what was going on around the country, the 
Vietnam War and social issues like the civil 
rights movement. I can't remember how I heard 
about Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination, 
but I do remember marching to Doug Knight's 

house and spending the night there. As the 
Vigil unfolded, the issue that was most impor- 
tant to me was whether the university was 
treating its employees fairly, and paying them 
the minimum wage. 

The Vigil was a positive experience in the 
sense that it caused me to consider how one 
participates in the political process. But I've 
never been afraid to look back and try to 
learn from things 

I've done. And I 
have second 

thoughts about 
the Vigil. I've 
come to appreci- 
ate even more 
that universities 
should be, as 
much as possible, 
places where 
ideas are debated 
in an atmosphere 
free from the 
_ exercise of raw 
I power backed up 
| by various forms 
gof intimidation. 
Although the 
objectives were 
meritorious — or at least I thought so at the 
time — and most people who participated did 
so in good faith, I have concerns about an 
activity that, in essence, shuts down the uni- 
versity for an extended period of time. 

A lot of the Vigil had to do with youthful 
idealism, and that's good. But the purpose of 
a university is not only to stimulate idealism 
and channel it in constructive ways, but to 
create an environment where essentially all 
sides of a debate can be discussed in an at- 
mosphere that's free of intimidation. The Vigil 
may have been right for that particular [his- 
torical] time and purpose, but in retrospect I 
see that it's the type of activity that, if re- 
peated often, would not be conducive to estab- 
lishing a productive intellectual environment. 

John Cell 

s a history profes- 
sor who joined the faculty in 1962. 
He participated in campus teach-ins 
about the vietnam war, and during 
the Vigil, he advocated greater 
faculty involvement in the issue of 
collective bargaining for employees. 

Because of the Vigil, the history depart- 
ment split and it was extremely bitter for 
about three or four years, in some cases longer 
than that. That was typical of so many depart- 
ments, especially in the social sciences and 
humanities, in every university in the country. 
There was a real generational divide. I had 
one guy who didn't speak to me between 1968 
and when he left the university in 1981. He 


never took the trouble to understand what 
had happened, because I wasn't a rabble-rous- 
er, I was just trying to do something construc- 

In 1982, 1 wrote a book called The Highest 
Stage of Wlrite Supremacy, which examined 
various ideologies in the South and in South 
Africa. And that book reflects my thoughts 
about figuring out what segregation was and 
where it came from. It started out as an arti- 
cle but when it came out to fifty-five pages, I 
decided to make it into a book. I wrote most 
of the book over one summer. And the rea- 
son I was able to write with that kind of speed 
was because it dealt with issues, fundamental 
to my Southern upbringing and my very being, 
which I had avoided for so long and which 
needed to get out. The Vigil didn't start that 
rumbling — but it did have a lot to do with 
the process of articulation. 

I think the Vigil did make a difference in 
the institution. It marked the beginning of the 
changeover from having a board comprised of 
mostly conservative, North Carolina business- 
men [to a more progressive board] . The image 
Duke had of itself and the kind of people who 
were in positions of power changed. And there 
was a committed core of students from that 
period who are still involved. That is the kind 
of activism that did make a difference in peo- 
ple's lives, and made a difference in the insti- 
tution, too. 

Rees Shearer '68 was a history 


called HVD (Hate, Vengeance, and 
Destruction), which had launched "a 
systematic program to harass bl ml-, 
[ Jews, and later, 'liberals.' " Now an 


I arrived at Duke a child of the post-war 
(World War II) upper middle class, realizing 
that there were wrongs in our society but be- 
lieving in the great power and good will of the 
American people to right them. My family 
talked about these inequities around the din- 
ner table and the result was abundant nurture 
of mind and spirit as well as body, even as our 
family's Negro maid shuffled back and forth 
from the kitchen carrying the food we ate and 
the dishes we dirtied. As a schoolboy in north- 
ern Virginia, I graduated from racially segre- 
gated schools and lived in a racially and eco- 
nomically segregated community. 

One year before arriving at Duke, I took what 
was to become the largest step of my life, a 
step off the curb (of, appropriately enough, In- 

dependence Avenue) and became transformed 
from bystander to participant in the 1963 March 
on Washington. That transformation has never 
left me. Witnessing Dr. Martin Luther King's 
"I Have A Dream" speech at the Lincoln Me- 
morial that day was truly electrifying. I have 
never felt so full of hope since that time. In a 
word, Dr. King became my hero. 

When I arrived at Duke in 1964, the son of 
a bureaucrat and Democrats, I was a true be- 
liever in the Great Society. Already the Civil 
Rights Law of 1964 was on the books, busting 
apart Jim Crow's grip on public accommoda- 
tions, and other laws ending de jure segregation 
and assuring voting rights were in the works. 
Public schools were desegregating everywhere. 
President Lyndon B. Johnson's Wat on Poverty 
captivated my interest. I felt challenged to be 
among the army of those who would elimi- 
nate poverty and welcome a new age of social 
and economic justice. 

But just like at my own home, Duke was 
part of the very problem of social and econo- 
mic inequity that I and many others wished to 
eliminate. Many of the African-American 
women who cleaned up after our juvenile ex- 
cesses had worked for Duke for more than 
thirty years. Their work was demanding; it 
took a strong back and a strong stomach. 
Many of them counseled me and the other 
boys who slept through morning classes to get 
out of bed and take advantage of our privi- 
leged status. I had just come that summer from 
working as an unskilled, raw laborer in road 
construction at $1.65 an hour, the federal mini- 
mum wage at the time. The Fair Labor Stand- 
ard Act that dictated the minimum wage did 
not cover private, nonprofit agencies such as 

During the summer of 1966 as I was strug- 
gling in my quest to pass the language re- 
quirement, I took a history class on a lark to 
ease the burden of elementary French. I re- 
member the professor, Fred Krantz, a deeply 
sensitive and caring individual, came in one 
morning and declared that he could not teach 
today because our country had that day indis- 
criminately bombed military and civilian tar- 
gets in Haiphong, North Vietnam. He was on 
the verge of tears. I was caught by surprise: a 
professor, a man, almost tearful about LBJ's 
mission to preserve democracy. We had fought 
two world wars with the same purpose, right? 
Wasn't it true that Asian people valued life 
less than we did? After all, there are so many 
of them. This was no creeping awareness like 
the one telling me that there was something 
wrong about race in our country; it was a 
crashing question: Are we killing people for 
no purpose, perhaps even the wrong purpose? 
Maybe this war wasn't just going to go away. 
Maybe I would be faced with choosing whether 
or not to participate in it. These were abrupt 
feelings and heavy thoughts for a happy-go- 

lucky kid of twenty to contemplate on a lan- 
guid morning of a quiet, steamy Durham sum- 

On a warm evening in early April, word 
began to spread about King's assassination. I 
heard it from my roommate, who found me 
studying in East Campus library with my girl- 
friend (and now wife), Kathy Cunning ['69] . I 
went back to York House and turned on 
WDBS, which broadcast information about a 
student group that had marched from the 
campus to the president's house to demand 
that Local #77 be recognized as the bargaining 
agent for its members. That was all I needed 
to hear — these people were serious! I jumped 
in my car and drove over to Dr. Knight's 

In reflection, I think we needed Local #77 
more than they needed us. We needed a way 
to express regret, to dissociate ourselves from 
the assassination and to try to do something 
right about the dominant issue of our nation: 
race. Local #77 needed support from mem- 
bers of the campus community to bring their 
struggle to a level of new visibility and imme- 
diacy that the Duke administration could no 
longer ignore. I, for one, did not think about 
these things so much as act from a visceral 
need to say,"This is where I stand: I believe in 

I remember meeting in Page Auditorium to 
decide what to do next and whether to take 
the word of the trustees that they would han- 
dle the question of recognition appropriately. 
Our youthful exuberance, which had already 
begun to tatter in the elements, now ripped 
into two factions. Someone would forcefully 
state their opinion and this would be followed 
by loud boos and cheers. This went on and 
on. At that point I saw that we no longer had 
unity, which was really our only power. I felt 
that all the board had to do was wait us out 
— till exams, till summer — and they would 
win. That is what I mean about the power 
and limits of student movements. Students 
are fickle. They can come together for short 
periods of intense effort. It is, however, very 
difficult for students to maintain a sustained 
action over time. I felt hoodwinked and out- 
gunned by the administration. I felt that we 
had let down the very people we had so cav- 
alierly decided needed our help. I learned 
that students should be the support and not 
the focus of any non-academic employee ac- 
tion. Students are temporary residents of a 
university community, employees are more per- 
manent. That temporal quality in itself sets 
the boundaries of perseverance. 

For additional information about theVigil, visit us 
online at www.adm. 

March -April 1998 53 


The New History in An Old 
Museum: Creating the Past 
at Colonial Williamsburg 

By Richard Handler and Eric Gable. Durham: 
Duke University Press, 1997. 272 pages. $16.95 
paper, $49.95 cloth. 

In 1931 stonemasons were hard at work 
building Duke Chapel on the new Main 
Quad, designed to invoke the "dreamy 
spires" of historic Oxford University. While 
James B. Duke was constructing a Tudor Goth- 
ic campus to honor his father, the son of 
another millionaire was creating a very differ- 
ent national educational institution. Late that 
same fall, John D. Rockefeller Jr. hired brick 
masons to reconstruct the Capitol Building 
and the colonial Governor's Palace in Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia. He had secretly bought 
up most of the sleepy college hamlet, displac- 
ing many local residents in order to reconstruct 
the town to resemble Virginia's colonial capi- 
tal on the eve of the American Revolution. 

In 1934 Colonial Williamsburg already had 
more than 100 employees and drew 31,000 
visitors. Twenty-five years later, the site em- 
ployed 1,800 workers and absorbed more than 
400,000 paying visitors each year, bringing in 
nearly $10 million. By 1990 (undaunted by the 
success of a major theme park at nearby Busch 
Gardens), the restoration's ever- expanding 
staff was serving roughly a million paying cus- 
tomers annually and creating yearly operating 
revenues approaching $120 million. 

At about this time, two Virginia-based an- 
thropologists began more than a year of field- 
work at CW, taking tours, examining annual 
reports, and conducting hundreds of inter- 
views with managers, workers, guides, and vis- 
itors. Richard Handler and Eric Gable tell us 
they "wanted to understand Colonial Wil- 
liamsburg as an institution that makes history 
for the public," to explore "the total social life 
of a contemporary museum." 

The results of their foray make fascinating 
reading. Given wide -ranging access to mingle 
with the "natives" who work for CW, the pair 
of ethnographers come away with a revealing 
picture of the interconnections of culture and 
business in late twentieth-century America. 
They describe the institution's anxious con- 
cern for "authenticity," down to the smallest 
door hinge, and its incessant quest to convey 
a "proper image." The authors describe the 
contradictions between luring consumers to 



the- Past 

at Colon 

al WiHia 







buy collectibles and attracting visitors to ad- 
dress imponderables, between providing a 
challenging history lesson and a relaxing 
vacation. They probe the tensions between 
business managers with only a limited sense 
of the general educational mission and edu- 
cators with only a dim awareness of the finan- 
cial bottom line. Like partners in a strained 
marriage, top brass on both sides of the insti- 
tution seem to need one another, defend one 
another, and resent one another, while work- 
ing hard to hold things together and prosper 
in a changing world. 

What changes is not only the dress code 
and attention span of the average tourist, but 
history itself. And this, as the title suggests, is 
where the authors find their greatest fascina- 
tion and clearest story line. The New History 
of the tide does not refer to expanding archae- 
ological knowledge or clearer identification of 
porcelain fragments. Instead, it suggests the 
paradigm shift of the past generation, down- 
sizing the role of great men in history and 
emphasizing the active involvement of the 
majority population extending beyond white 
men of substance. Handler and Gable set out 
to discover how Mr. Rockefeller's "Old Mu- 
seum," built upon veneration for the Founding 
Fathers and the Virginia gentry, was coping 
with this not-so-new social history. 

In the early 1990s, the authors found that 
everyone — administrators, tour guides, visi- 
tors — had trouble reconciling the tensions 

posed by a post- Sixties historical perspective, 
especially when it came to the dilemmas rep- 
resented in the matter of race slavery. But a 
glance at this spring's new visitor brochure 
suggests that CW still has the marketing 
savvy to resolve most of these paradoxes. 
Shrewd copywriters reconcile exploring the 
past and collecting antiques under the head- 
line "They fought, they won, they decorated." 
Facing up to social conflict and enjoying the 
Southern sun are resolved with the squib 
"Here, there is rumor of rebellion and war 
everywhere.... There is also golf." The 
Founding Fathers still remain present and 
"accessible" ("Introduce the kids to some real 
father figures"), but enslavement is now all 
part of "Becoming American" ("Share a com- 
passionate moment with a slave"). 

This suggestive book prompts thoughts 
about more than Colonial Williamsburg. I 
found myself wondering whether Handler 
and Gable might find similar tensions if they 
became participant-observers at Mr. Duke's 
university instead of Mr. Rockefeller's muse- 
um. We too have lived with a strain between 
our educational mission and our financial pri- 
orities ever since the first stones were laid in 
the Depression years. We too have ongoing 
conflicts over our exclusionist inheritance and 
our multicultural present. What is the proper 
balance forour intelligent, upscale student con- 
sumers between challenging, even troubling, 
intellectual work and healthy relaxation, es- 
pecially if we are to expand our share of an 
increasingly competitive market? 

Again this spring CW is offering a special 
package, titled "Felicity in Williamsburg," 
inviting young girls and their moms to "expe- 
rience the world of Felicity, a spunky nine- 
year-old character from the American Girls 
Collection of books and dolls." Since Duke 
already makes deals with shoe manufacturers, 
perhaps there is a mutually beneficial contract 
with a doll company in our future. One thing 
is sure: The students from my class on the 
American Revolution who accompanied me 
on a short trip to Williamsburg over spring 
break were asked to read this provocative book 
before we set out. 

—Peter H. Wood 

Wood, professor of early American history at 
Duke, will be teaching his class on the American 
Revolution for the Master of Arts in Liberal 
Studies program this summer. 


A Way of Happening: Observations 
of Contemporary Poetry 

By Fred Chappell '61, A.M. '64- New York: 
Picador USA. 320 pages. $24. 

A collection of book reviews, even by a 
writer of spritely prose, has great po- 
tential for being dull. Most reviews 
come down to a word — yes or no — and a whole 
book of such reviews could be nothing more 
than a kind of Congressional roll call vote, with 
the deep-throated critic droning yea or nay ad 
nauseam. But if the critic taking on the job is 
one Fred Chappell, you can bet that the usual 
sort of voting is not what you're going to get. 

In A Way of Happening, Chappell has col- 
lected reviews produced over the years, most- 
ly for the Georgia Review, and, taken together, 
they provide a very fine map of the landscape 
of contemporary poetry in the United States. 
He achieves this cartography by means of 
what he calls the "essay-review," a meditative 
piece that concentrates its energies on the first 
half of the phrase. As he explains in the intro- 
duction, "I decided the assessments of books 
would have more point and cogency if they 
were organized around a single topic common 
to all of them." 

It's a good plan, and the reader of A Way of 
Happening is treated to discussions of humor, 
Southern poetry, narrative poetry, and the long 
contemporary poem, among others. These over- 
arching concerns make this book a valuable 
resource for anyone interested in what's hap- 
pening in American poetry, and Chappell's 
prose is a model for the student of creative 
nonfiction. Here, for instance, is how he starts 
the essay on humor: 

"A dreary thing happened to contemporary 
poetry on its way to the American forum. It 
tried to grow up, to dress in long pants and 
coat and tie, to comb its hair, and to sullen 
into dark irony. All too successful in these 
ambitions, it no longer skipped to the rhymes 
of Theodore Roethke, stopped attending the 
rent parties thrown by archy and mehitabel 
and their rowdy friends, and decided that the 
bumptious waggeries of e.e. cummings should 
be treated with Clearasil." 

If you're going to talk about humor in poet- 
ry, a humorous beginning is in order, especial- 
ly one that supplies some historical context 
for the subject at hand. Chappell, a gifted poet, 
novelist, and short-story writer, shows he knows 
how to put life as well as intelligence into lit- 
erary journalism. But he goes much further than 
just good beginnings. By applying his overall 
notion of, say, narrative poetry to specific in- 
stances of a poet's work, Chappell is able to 
make concrete what would otherwise be just 
theorizing. For example, after quoting a lengthy 
passage from Mary Kinzie's book Autumn Eros 
and Other Poems, Chappell is able to muse a bit 
on the role of narrative in fiction and poetry: 

"If we came across this passage in fiction, 
we would mark it as a faulty transition, flimsy 
and arbitrary. It would not be successful in 
narrative poetry, and even in this story poems 
it finally does not work: We are able to recog- 
nize the crossover between auditory and visual 
imagery as a bit of a cheat, and we must de- 
cide whether the charm of the notion makes 
up for its implausibility as a structural ele- 
ment. It is in instances like these that a lyric 
or story poet might with some justice claim 
'principle of association,' while a narrative 
poet might cry 'Foul!' " 

If you came across that passage (as you are 
now) unattached from the specific example it 
relates to, you might find it windy and aca- 
demic, but because Chappell has set it up care- 
fully — a hallmark of this book — it becomes 
instructive to poets, fiction writers, and liter- 
ary critics. 

Another instructive, and very refreshing, 
element of Chappell's review-essays is his will- 
ingness to take on some of the sacred cows of 
contemporary poetry. Multiculturalism has be- 
come the battle cry of many current antholo- 
gists who are dragging the "literary" results of 
get-in-touch-with-your-anger workshops into 
print. On this subject, Chappell cuts right to 
the chase: "That is the trouble with a poetry 
that has little content but much Attitude, with 
pages that are almost nothing but shockshuck 
and aggressojive. Such writing is mere emo- 
tional reflex triggered by rhetorical cliche, and 
it produces lines that are hasty, often insin- 
cere, and sometimes unwitting self-parodies." 

Chappell's more than three decades in the 
poetry reviewing business and his thorough 
knowledge of poetry, both classical and mod- 
ern, give such critical assessments the sting of 
truth. And the years of toiling in poetry's 
fields has made him tearless. You can hear his 
Appalachian persona,"01e Fred," chuckle, "You 
know, these days I just don't give a rat's ass," 
as the learned professor Chappell dismantles 
highly-praised poets like Alfred Corn, Allen 
Ginsberg, and Robert Bly. 

While Chappell takes poetry seriously, he 
doesn't take poets, including himself, too seri- 
ously. So, I'll let him have the last word about 
this book: "If the poet makes mistakes, how 
many more must the critic commit! The poet 
gets off easy by comparison; his blundered 
poems are soon forgotten. The critic's inept 
judgments show him a fool for as long as the 
poems he has wronged may live. Because I 
have tried my best to do right, I am willing to 
live with this prospect. But I don't look for- 
ward to it." 

— Miclwel Chitwood 

Chitwood's most recent book is The Weave Room, 
published by the University of Chicago Press. He 
is a visiting lecturer at the University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill. 


Continued from page 20 

and marketing them in a changing environ- 
ment for a changing clientele and a changing 

As the needs and expectations of career 
executives and other professionals evolve, it is 
critical that we meet the demands of our po- 
tential customers and those who hire our gradu- 
ates. Today at Fuqua, as well as at Duke's other 
professional schools, such examinations are now 
an ongoing part of curricular review and plan- 
ning. GEMBA has shown us that we should 
not be complacent about the successful pro- 
grams of the past. We must adapt and refine 
those programs to reflect new realities. 

Even as our world continues to shrink, the 
role of the modern university must continue 
to expand. As a university with global aspira- 
tions, we at Duke must reach out to students 
and faculty the world over as we seek to cre- 
ate a learning community enriched by many 
creeds and cultures. 

Our goal is to become more thoroughly 
international in our curriculum, our outreach, 
the people who teach and learn with us, so 
that being a global institution is not an add- 
on, but an intrinsic part of everything we do. 
Fuqua and GEMBA have helped us take a 
crucial step toward this goal. 


Reynolds Price 

James A. Schiff 

"Knowledgeable, comprehensive, and 
highly readable, this promises to remain the 
book on Price for years to come, appealing 
both to scholars and the general reader." 
— Jefferson Humphries, editor 
Conversations with Reynolds Price 

"Jim Schiff is our best critic of America's 
most difficult novelists — not Pynchon and 
Gaddis — but Price and Updike, whose 
works demand rhar we remember gods have 
spoken to women and men." 

— Tom LeClair, author 
The Art of Excess 

(1997) 217 pages, cloth 
#1-57003-126-6, $24.95 

March -April 1998 


"You can be in the military and 
join any hate group as long as you 
are 'inactive.' I had a swastika on 
my locker, I had tattoos, I had a 
copy of Mem Kampf. They were 
fully aware of my racist beliefs, 
but you will not find anything in 
my file about being a racist." 

"They went home without a 
check. My only goal was to pro- 
duce a safe party for the students 
here in a safe space. I've been 
taking more heat than anybody 
because I stepped up and tried to 
plan an alternative event in the 
midst of a terrible situation. I now 
know that foam is a failure." 


"I think the book itself is weird. 
If I got that manuscript in the 
mail, I'd be worried about its 

"He's a very straight shooter; he is 
taking this role very seriously." 

"This is groundbreaking and very 
exciting. This code of conduct is 

going to mean real changes, real 
improvements in the lives of gar- 
ment workers. It means that a 
major institution in our society, 
a university with all of its moral 
and political weight, is putting 
economic pressure on companies 
to produce apparel under decent 

"Today I find our public almost 
indifferent to the problem. I'm 
almost ready to suggest we ought 
to thank Saddam Hussein be- 
cause he keeps our attention on 
this problem." 

We asked fifteen undergraduates: 

your life at Duke? 

With the fresh air of springtime 
comes what some students see as 
the hot air of Duke Student 
Government campaigners. The 
responses were mixed: Some stu- 
dents understood the effect of 
DSG's work on a daily basis, oth- 
ers said the organization had no 
impact whatsoever. Many were 
pleased with the revised financial- 
aid car policy (by which students 
on financial aid are allowed to 

have cars on campus), but greater 
numbers expressed concern about 
DSG's management of the tent 
policy, which applies to students 
camping out for men's varsity bas- 
ketball games. 

"None of the policies that DSG 
has made this year have affected 
me in any way," says Trinity 
sophomore Rajeev Pandarinath. 
"You can never tell who is saying 
what, or what the end result is." 

Pandarinath's disenchantment 
with DSG is not rare. Many 
students were discouraged by 
the entire tenting system this 
year, which lasted for eight weeks 
and culminated in the lack of 
space in Cameron Indoor 
Stadium to accommodate all 
the tenters for the UNC game. 
"The power of the line monitors 
should not be left in the hands 
of the students," Trinity first-year 
Nathalie Corredor says. "It leads 
to too much corruption and 

Still, other students see DSG 
as an effective body that affects 
the campus in many positive 
ways. Trinity first-year Joe Creech 
is a DSG legislator: "As a member, 
it affects me in that I know a lot 
more about what's going on 
around campus. Knowing that 
puts you more in touch with 
the university community and 
gives you the sense that you can 
influence the community in 
ways that most people would not 
think of" 

Engineering junior Neil Berlin 
finds the theoretic virtues of DSG 
more appealing than the actual 
organization. "I think it's good 
that it is there to be the 'voice of 
the people,' but they do not do 
very much." 

Trinity senior Lindsay Smith 
disagrees with that assertion. "I 
think it definitely has an impact 
on the morale of students on 
campus. For the majority of stu- 
dents involved in different organi- 
zations, DSG makes a noticeable 

contribution to the functioning 
of these groups." 

Trinity sophomore Anya Sostek 
says that, although she may not 
acknowledge it on a daily basis, 
DSG does, in fact, have an impact 
on her life: "Sometimes they're 
really helpful. Changing the 
car policy really affects me — it's 

— compiled by ]aime Levy '01 

"A lot of people have questioned 
why the police are here with all 
their equipment. People are just 
revolting. They should have let 
us have [a bonfire] in one spot. 
Foam from five p.m. to eight p.m. 
was not going to compensate for 
a bonfire." 

Duke of eld and Hie new Duke" 

"I enjoyed the opportunity to 
celebrate and relish in the victory, 
but that feeling and spirit did 
not last very long because of the 
adversarial nature of the evening. 
My goal is for people to have 
fun and celebrate in a safe way, 
and, in the past, our major 
challenge has been with fire. 
Our approach was to eliminate 
fire, and what resulted was a g 

combative situation." i 




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JUNE 1998 



Cover: A small sampling — blossoms, 
leaves, seed pods, berries — of the 720,000 
plant specimen* carefully preserved at Duke's 
herbarium. Photos try Brent Clayton. 


Dubbed "the most sought-after high school player in the country," a Duke freshman 
reflects on a season of accomplishment 


From Costa Rica to Australia, from Bolivia to China, Duke botanists travel the planet 
to gather and study strands of life's intricate web 


Two American diplomats-ambassadors to the United Kingdom and Canada- 
talk about their roles at a time of instant communications and economic integration 

LONGING FOR HOME by Bridget Booher 37 

If she's managed physically to extricate herself from the palpable terrors of her 
childhood, a rising senior continues to be haunted by an ongoing ordeal she'll never 
completely escape 

ENTREPRENEUR OF THE HEART by Stephen Klaidman 40 

He once wanted to be a large-animal veterinarian; now John Simpson is fast becoming 
known as the godfather of Silicon Valley's medical-device industry 


A student-curated exhibition celebrates the cyber-culture scene of San Francisco 



A student discovers something about the life of a researcher-and about himself 


Funding financial aid, boosting the business school, celebrating a summer of dance, 
modeling a mathematical achievement 


Adventures in engineering 


A Northern Ireland assessment, some freshman advice-giving 


The Duke days of Terry Sanford page 28 




It was Basketball Times that dubbed Shane Battier "the most sought-after high school player in 
the country." In a profile from December of 1996 — Battier 's senior year in high school — the 
publication called him "something close to perfect": an academic achiever at a competitive Michigan 
high school, an athlete who shows both elegance and a physical style of play on the court, and an 
individual with a big smile, an intelligent sense of humor, and an unfailing politeness. 

Even before they scored their first bas- 
kets, the Duke freshman class — Wil- 
liam Avery, Elton Brand, Chris Burgess, 
and Battier — had earned plenty of accolades. 
As the season progressed, more would come 
their way. For Battier, those included being 
named to the 1998 Atlantic Coast Conference 
All-Freshmen Team, earning a place on Basket- 
ballTimes' All-Freshmen Third Team, and tak- 
ing ACC Rookie of the Week honors in Jan- 
uary. He finished the season placing third on 
the team for most minutes played, shooting 
over 50 percent from the floor, accumulating 
the team's second highest rebounding aver- 
age, leading the team in blocked shots, plac- 
ing second on the team in steals, and leading 
the team in charges taken. 

Duke won the ACC regular season, al- 
though it lost in the ACC tournament finals. 
It lost only one regular-season conference 
game — and never lost at home in Cameron 
Indoor Stadium. In April, Duke made it to the 
NCAA regional finals-the Elite Eight — where 
it was edged out by Kentucky. It ended the 
season with thirty-two wins and four losses. 

Last fall, Duke Magazine asked Battier to 
keep a season journal. As it turned out, it was 
a remarkable season for Duke basketball — and 
for Duke basketball's Shane Battier. 


Words really can't do justice to all the fear 
and excitement that I feel right now. Although 
the season began the first week of school with 

our first conditioning, individual workouts, 
and scrimmages, the season truly starts in a 
couple of hours when the clock strikes 12 and 
the Midnight Madness begins. As I stand in 
the corner of Cameron watching everybody 
file into the gym, I have so many questions 
and so many hopes. Am I ready? Has my 
work paid off? Will college basketball be 
everything it is hyped up to be and possibly 
more? I sit with Chris Burgess as we repeat- 
edly ask each other, "Could this be real?" 

Duke basketball is sacred. Every time I put 
on that practice jersey, I look at the name 
Duke and wonder if this could possibly be 
true. Then, as if the gods themselves were lis- 
tening, they send down the one man synony- 
mous with College Basketball, Mr. Dick Vi- 
tale. In an instant, all my questions about the 
realities of my situation were erased. Cameron 
Crazies. Dick Vitale. Duke basketball. It doesn't 
get any more real, and better, than this. 

Sitting in the locker room before the game, 
hearing the band play, feeling the excitement, 
makes me realize how fortunate I am. Pressure. 
No Fear. Well, a little. Indescribable emotion. 
Most definitely. 


The feeling I got when I ran onto Cameron's 
floor for the first time with 9,000 screaming 
maniacs is a cross between opening presents 
Christmas morning, opening up all the candy 
on Halloween, prom nights, and the first day 
of school. Midnight Madness was in fact every 

bit as mad as it was hyped up to be. As we ran 
out to get in lay-up lines, the noise, heat, sweat, 
and electricity of Cameron hit me. It was one 
of the best feelings ever. Growing up, I could 
never imagine an arena with this intensity. I 
think it's safe to say that tonight, I jumped 
higher than I ever have when I went through 
lay-up lines. And the funny thing is that I 
could have jumped a little higher — maybe. 

My seconds of pure adrenaline energy 
eventually came back to hurt me. After the 
lay-up lines, the game started and I had no 
energy left to do anything worthwhile. Now 
that I look back upon it, I would not change 
a thing. I gave the crowd a show and loved 
every minute. Forget the fact that I was terri- 
ble in the game. One of the highlights, how- 
ever, was awesome. After the introduction of 
the players, Coach K invited the "true Sixth 
Man" onto the floor for our team picture. The 
whole crowd came down from the stands and 
mobbed us. Just to see the excitement of 
everyone was well worth the near injury we 
faced as we were almost stampeded by the 
Crazies. Basketball is an amazing thing to 
bring so many so close to each other. 

After we pushed through the crowd and 
made it back into the locker room, all I could 
do was sit at my locker and stare into space. 
Mentally and physically, I was drained. I must 
have lost about ten pounds from sweat (those 
who know about the intense Cameron heat 
know what I'm talking about), and the best 
part about it is that, in six hours, I get to wake 


up and start real practice. Welcome to Col- 
lege Basketball! 

Note: For all the fun that last night brought, 
I am definitely paying for it now as I try to 
roll out of my bed and convince myself that 
mixing it up with a bunch of guys 6-foot-8 
and 250 pounds is actually worth getting out 
of bed for. When I was being recruited, they 
didn't tell me I'd be this sore. And only six 
months to go. 


After a week of practice, we finally got to 
show what we can do at the Blue -White 
scrimmage. My day was pretty low-key; I just 
hung around in my dorm and relaxed. Come 
game time, I got pretty excited, but not like 
Midnight Madness. I was going to be ready to 
play this time. 

As I came out for the game, the Crazies 
were loud and raucous. It's Parents' Weekend, 
so it's not vintage Cameron, but the parents 
surprised me with their energy. I felt good; 
this would be my coming-out party. As the tip 
went up and the game started, I wanted to get 
with the flow of the game. I scored the first 
four points via rebounds, I hit a three, then 
"It" happened. I saw a loose ball and I dived 

for it. Unfortunately, my teammate, Elton 
Brand, had the same idea. We butted heads. 
And I lost. I lay back on the floor hoping 
nothing had happened. However, like a great 
red flood, a cut over my eye opened up. It 
didn't hurt, but I was pretty mad because I 
was playing pretty well. Coach K came out to 
see how I was, since a pint of blood was on 
the floor. I told him the only thing I worried 
about was my modeling career. I got up and 
ran off the court to a standing ovation from 
the Crazies. It was great. The trainer, Dave, put 
butterfly strips on my eye and I ran onto the 
court to another standing "O" (I could get 
used to these ovations). 

My coach immediately put me into the 
game, I hit two three-pointers, and my team 
won. I finished leading all scorers and 
rebounders with sixteen points and six 
rebounds. I know everyone will expect that 
every time I step onto the court. Oh, well, I'll 
live with it! I'm ready to start playing some 
real games. 


Tonight we finally got some competition. We 
played Australia; most of the team were adult 
players who had played in the Olympics. We 
played so bad in the first half and were only 

losing by one, even though we gave up forty- 
nine points. We picked it up in the second 
half, however, and pulled out the five -point 
win. Even though it was an exhibition game, 
Coach K and the coaching staff and the play- 
ers made it seem like the middle of the ACC 
season. Personally, I thought I played all 
right — not great, not bad. It's been kind of 
difficult to change my role from being the 
franchise in high school to being a cog in col- 
lege. But I'm starting to develop a passion for 
defense. Even though we pulled out a win 
tonight, we all know we can play so much bet- 
ter. So I know I'd better enjoy my day off 
tomorrow, because I have a feeling practice 
on Monday is not going to be a Cakewalk. 


Cakewalk? Well, practice was more like boot 
camp today. First we went over the tape of the 
Australia game, analyzing every — and I mean 
every — mistake we made. I have a feeling tape 
sessions are not going to be my favorite times, 
but I understand they are crucial to becoming 
a championship team — though they really 
put a dent in the ego. Some of the mistakes 
we make are so brain-numbing, it seems only 
a complete idiot would commit them, as Coach 
K will not hesitate to point out. We knew we 

May-June 1998 

could have played much, much better than we 
did; I think we all know our potential as a team, 
and that we are not close to that level now. 

Days off go by faster than just about anything. 
Especially at Duke, when homework always 
looms on the horizon, off days do not have 
the same meaning as before. Maybe they 
should call them "less-work days." Neverthe- 
less, I wouldn't trade them for anything. I'm 
just really tired of practicing and beating on 
my teammates. I'm ready for the real games to 
start, and start they will: We have eight games 
in two and a half weeks. I'm not complaining, 
though. This is what I've been waiting for. 


For those who merely follow us on Sports- 
center or in the paper, they may hear of how 
special a coach Coach K really is. But only if 
you deal with him on a daily basis do you truly 
appreciate him. Today we played Chaminade 
in the opening round of the Maui Invitational. 
We played great in spurts, but awful (by our 
standards) in other spurts. We still won the 
game, 106-70. Even though we held a thirty- 
point advantage, we knew we didn't play well. 
Coach K was more than willing to let us know 
in the locker room. He gave us a verbal tongue - 
lashing after our less-than-Duke-like perfor- 

Some may think, wrongly, that Coach K is 
merely overreacting and is an ultra-perfec- 
tionist to a fault. Well, needless to say, the 
locker room was silent, as was the ride back to 
the hotel and post-game meal. You'd have 
thought we just lost in the "Sweet 16" round 
in the NCAA tourney and not just beaten a 
team by thirty. Coach K is a master psycholo- 
gist, however, and he would never let his play- 
ers get the feeling they are bad basketball 
players. So at the evening meeting, he reiter- 
ated all of our faults during the game and 
his concerns for the team, but he quickly 
showed us how special a team we could be if 
we started to do the little things that win 
championships. All of a sudden we went from 
a discouraged team to a hungry team ready 
for all comers. This is the power of Coach K. 


I can't wait. Today we play the reigning 
national champions, Arizona. Even though 
the game is ten hours away, I can feel the an- 
ticipation. In our meeting, Coach K stressed 
not to feel nervous but to anticipate the 
game. It's not too often you get to test your- 
self against a Top 5 team so early; this is a 
great chance for our young team to grow. We 
know Arizona is more experienced and cocky 
right now. I have a feeling we are going to play 
well, and if we can do the little things, there is 
no doubt we'll win. 

Well, we did it. We beat the champs. It's 
really scary to see our potential — we were up 
at one point by twenty-six. Even though we 
are young, we are young and good. There's a 
big difference. Wojo played his tail off and 
locked up the All-American Mike Bibby. He 
deservedly won the MVE I've never seen him 
that happy. He deserves it: He's probably the 
most underrated player in the country. Now 
that we've taken care of business, it's time to 
enjoy Maui. 


We suffered our first defeat of the year at 
Michigan, and for me it couldn't have come 
at a worse time. It was the first time I had been 
home since I came to Duke. It was pretty sur- 
real. Ever since I was a little kid, Crisler Arena 
seemed so far, so distant, I could never visual- 








ize myself playing there. It was the home of the 
Fab Five, Glen Rice, and a whole bunch of 
players better than I. But there I was yester- 
day, thrust into the sheer madness of it. It still 
really hasn't hit me that I'm at Duke, playing, 
starting for the (formerly) Number-One team 
in the nation. I really don't get nervous for 
games, but this was a new experience. I got 
booed for the first time in my life. Being from 
Detroit, I heard every "sell-out" chant in the 
book. It didn't bother me, though. After nine- 
teen years of playing the "good guy," it felt 
pretty cool to play the bad guy. 

Yesterday was also the first time we did not 
control the game. We got so eager to blow 
them out, that we did not play Duke basket- 
ball. I forgot what it felt like to be losing in a 
game, experiencing that nauseating feeling of 
exasperation. It was a feeling, however, that 
one must have in order to become a champi- 
onship team. We have to crave that feeling of 
going into an opposing gym, silencing the 
crowd, and looking into the other team's eyes 
and seeing fear. And then we rip their hearts 
out, win the game, and have a nice dinner 
afterwards. This is what being a road warrior 
is about. We will get there, too. Unfortunately 
we had to find out about this at one of my 
"favorite" places — home. 


I really thank the Lord that finals are over. 
I've never been as stressed as I am now. Even 
though I went to a very academically chal- 
lenging high school where a good portion of 
my classmates went Ivy League, nothing 
would prepare me for the anxiety I faced dur- 
ing my first finals at Duke. The Michigan trip 
did not help my cause, either. Being gone the 
weekend before finals did not make me too 
confident. Nevertheless, I poured every last 
bit of energy I had left in the semester toward 
studying and preparing. 

Did I forget to mention the fact that we 
still had the intense practices of the Number- 
Two Blue Devils? Even though I love the 
game of basketball, the idea of butting heads 
and banging elbows with a bunch of 6-foot-8, 
6-foot- 9, 260-pound giants is not really music 
to my ears. Mentally and physically, I can 
sense I have hit a proverbial "wall." My whole 
attitude and appearance have changed. I have 
no desire to do anything but sit on my bed 
and listen to Beethoven and Wynton Mar- 
salis. I made it through, though. I guess it must 
be true that what doesn't kill you only makes 
you strong. Regardless of my results, I feel as if 
a huge weight has been lifted from my shoul- 


After we crushed Mercer today, I'm finally 
going home for the first time since I've been 
at Duke. I really haven't been homesick that 
much, but it's good to know I'll be under my 
own covers tonight. It's a much-needed break 
from hoops. I need to step away from the 
game and totally refresh my mind, body, and 
spirit and rediscover my love for the game. 


The first true test of this team's character 
came today and will continue for the remainder 
of the season. Our leading rebounder, scorer, 
future player-of-the-year, and NBA lottery 
pick Elton Brand (A.K.A. Big E) went down 
with a broken foot. He's going to have surgery 
and he's out for the rest of the season. It 
couldn't have come at a more ironic time. 
Coach K had just explained the keys to suc- 
cess. Undoubtedly, it started with Elton; he 
was our constant, and we could always count 
on him for sixteen points and seven or eight 
boards a game. At first, everyone was in shock: 
How could this man-child, this beast under 
the boards, be humbled by the insignificant 5 
metacarpal that broke in his right foot? 

This is where the uniqueness of our team 
comes in. Most teams would just feel sorry for 
themselves after losing their leading scorer 
and rebounder, and self-destruct. Our team 
just picked itself off the ground, brushed off 
the hurt from our fall, and said, "Let's kick 
some tail." No one person in the country can 


replace Elton. He is that good. But if every- 
one else picks up his game to the next level, 
we will still be in for a special season. 

A wise man once said: "Success is not mea- 
sured in accomplishments, but in the ability 
to overcome adversity." 


I feel like I'm in the NBA right now, because 
all we do is wake up, play ball, eat, and sleep. 
I have no other responsibility. No school. No 
friends keeping me up. Just ball. But for two 
weeks we have nothing to do but play ball. 
I'm not complaining. 


Tonight we really gained a true sense of how 
lethal we can become. We stopped Maryland 
by forty at their placel It started with Trajan 
hitting a three right after the jump-ball, and 
the onslaught never ended. It was one of our 
best games of the year. Though usually defen- 
sive-minded, I hit a career-high eighteen p. nut---. 
We have a great chance of achieving success, 
and tonight we got a taste of it, because no 
one goes to someone's house and wins by forty 
in the ACC. 

Right now we are ranked Number Two in 
the country. It's kinda funny, though, because 
no one really thinks about or mentions the 
rankings. We all know we have much bigger 
plans than the rankings. Not to get ahead of 
ourselves, but with all the young talent com- 
ing in and already here, we shouldn't be out of 
the top five teams in the country for the next 
five years. For Duke that is no surprise: As a 
university, Duke is synonymous with the best. 


Two weeks in a hotel is long enough. I miss 
my own bed, my shower, my room. The NBA 
lifestyle was cool for a week. But I'm ready to 
go back to my old ways. 


After a close game vs. Clemson, we finally had 
a close game at home. Blowing a twenty-point 
lead, we escaped with a one -point win. Every- 
one plays their hardest against us. But that's 
okay, because we give them our best shot, too. 
I'm quickly learning why the ACC is the su- 
perior conference in the country. 


I really can't add anything that hasn't been 
said about the Duke -Carolina game. So on the 
eve of this game, I'm just glad we're done talk- 
ing to the media horde that surrounds this 
game, and glad we're about to play the game. 
The media attention for this game and the 
hype around it is unbelievable. Growing up in 
Michigan, I always knew the Duke -UNC game 
was around because they started the count- 
down three weeks away! The biggest question 

for me was: "Are you nervous for this game?" 
I honestly am not nervous; I am eager and 
really anticipating the game, but I'm not ner- 
vous. We are approaching the game like every 
other — like our biggest game of the year. We 
know the season is larger than any one game. 
Regardless of the outcome tomorrow night, 
we will still be on our track. But how sweet it 
will feel to walk among the Carolina Blue 
with a "W" 


This is probably one of the most sickening 
feelings I've ever experienced in my life. I'm 
talking about the UNC game. Yes, we got our 
heads handed to us; yes, we played bad; yes, I 
played like "a freshman" for the first time. I 
refuse to feel like this ever again. I really have 
a sense of what this rivalry is all about. Let's 
just say it's unfortunate I had to have a bap- 
tism by fire. We were humiliated in front of a 
national audience. Coach K wasn't too pleased 
with us, and I felt I personally let down every- 
one associated with Duke. It won't happen 

If that last entry was kind of short, I wanted 
to put that loss behind me now — even 
though that game will be in the back of my 
head for the next three and a half years! 
Especially with our very NCAA-toumament- 
like, fourteen-game stretch coming up with 
games at Clemson, UCLA, Georgia Tech, and, 
of course, the rematch vs. UNC. I've also picked 
up my game since the Carolina game; Coach 
K (very loudly and clearly) told me I needed 
to stop riding the proverbial "deferral train" 
where I don't assert myself because I'm a 
freshman. Those days are over. 


We won our most convincing road match of 
the year, a real war at Clemson. Roshown and 
Trajan played huge where it counted. Ro had 
twenty-three and Tra had a huge three and 
three -point play when it counted. (Even I got 
into the act with a big block!) We are playing 
well and, much to our surprise, Elton is com- 
ing back next game! Talk about momentum! 
Ranked Number Two in the country, tied for 
first in the ACC, playing well, and having one 
of our best players coming back — life is good! 


Elton practiced today for the first time. I for- 
got what it felt like to try to fight him in the 
post. I compare it to Atlas holding up the 
weight of the world. But I'm not complaining! 


| We are now Number One again after UNC's 
1 unfortunate loss vs. N.C. State. But it's kind 
i of funny that we're as excited as elementary- 

May-June 1998 

school kids on sloppy-joe day at lunch. Just 
another day at the office. 


This place is going crazy over "the rematch." 
Electricity is at an all-time high. People are 
going insane, especially since Elton is back. 
Now things will be different. 


Well, it's the night before "The Game," and 
the team went through K-ville tonight (pop. 
1,400 strong). It was a huge party! As we 
waded our way through, we developed a fol- 
lowing comparable to the Beatles. Duke fans 
are the best. There really is no comparison to 
any other fans anywhere. 

As we walked through the tents, we had 
been taking a lot of pictures with everybody. 
Well, as I was posing for a picture, somebody 
yelled out, "Who's your daddy?," to which 
somebody replied, "Battier!" And thus a chant 
was born. They repeated this chant about 
twenty times. All I could do was sit back, 
smile, and soak up the craziness that is the 
Cameron Crazies. Time to go to bed: I have 
some 'Heels to deal with tomorrow. 


Unbelievable! It all seems like a blur right 
now. Of course I'm talking about the Carolina 
game, Part II. At one point in the second half, 
we were down seventeen points. But we came 
back and won in an incredible fashion. In 
need of a bastion of stability, we rode the "El- 
train" to a victory. We played great basketball 
for the last eleven minutes. Our only lead of 
the game came with twenty-two seconds left 
in the game via a basket by Roshown. After 
UNC missed some big free throws and the 
buzzer sounded, all I felt was a wave of emo- 
tion shoot through my body. I looked around 
for someone to hug as the crowd stampeded 
onto the court, mobbing us. 

Before I knew it, J.D. Simpson and Chris 
Burgess gang-tackled me, as we tried to just 
take in every precious moment of our obvious 
peak of the season thus far. After the game, 
we went and just hung out with the crowd. It 
finally hit us that we would never play on this 
floor again as a team, which is kind of sad. I'm 
happy that our seniors were able to go out on 
top with a great win today. 


The ACC tourney is up next. And honestly, I 
don't know how to feel. I mean, I want to win 
more than anything, but this week-long tour- 
ney is very different. We've just completed the 
season as the only team ever in the ACC to 
have won fifteen games. That in itself is an in- 
credible feat. Even though we've had an in- ? 
credible season, it is very difficult to bask in | 
our success right now, since we are in the 1 


midst of approaching our higher goals. It will 
be much easier to sit back and enjoy our suc- 
cess once the season is over. But now we're 
just worrying about UVa. 

We didn't play particularly well against 
UVa. today. No excuse, we just didn't play well. 


After a close game with Clemson, where Will 
Avery was the hero with a last-second shot, 
it's Duke-UNC III. Playing them is almost old 
hat now! Compared to the first game, when 
my nerves were shot, I'm as cool as the other 
side of the pillow for this game. We were the 
ACC regular season champs and won an un- 
precedented fifteen games in conference play. 
But we still have not "locked up" the Number 
One seed in the East with a potential regional 
game in nearby Greensboro, where the home- 
court advantage might prove to be the differ- 
ence. Rumor has it that the winner of this game 
will get Number One in the East and the loser 
Number One in the South. In terms of the 
larger picture, this is a pretty big game. 


Well, we hung tough but lost. We didn't nec- 
essarily play bad, but not great, either. Win or 
lose, it is not a time to dwell on the ACC 
tourney, because, in an hour, we'll find out who 
we'll play in the NCAA tournament. 

It's really surreal to sit at the tournament 
selection show and finally be a part of all the 
talk about RPI ratings, strength of schedule, 
and at-large bids. Only at this time do you 
ever hear of teams like Prairie View A&M, 
Radford, College of Charleston, and Northern 
Arizona alongside Arizona, Duke, and Kansas. 

As expected, we got the shaft from the 
tournament selection committee, instead of 
being rewarded for our unprecedented regu- 
lar season, not to mention losing only once 
since February (how you finish the season plays 
a large role in seeding). We are being shipped 
out to Lexington, to Kentucky Wildcat land. 
What's even worse is that Kentucky, arguably 
the top Number Two seed, is in our regional. 


It's finally upon us — March Madness. It's sur- 
real to have gone from seeing the games for so 
many years growing up. And now, not only 
am I in the middle of the madness, we are 
expected to win the damn thing. As we pre- 
pare to play Radford in the first round, I 
remember all the times I would try to play 
hooky from school so that I could watch 
the games on CBS starting at noon on 
Thursday and Friday. I can't wait to get this 
show rolling. Everyone says we're too young 
to make any noise and that we're still a year 
away. But we beg to differ. We're young, con- 
fident, and hungry, and other teams are 
just scared as hell to play us. Youth can be a 

bad thing, but it is certainly a scary thing. 

After receiving a "warm" reception from 
the fans in Lexington, we took care of Rad- 
ford pretty handily. The fans in Lexington, 
home of the UK Wildcats, still hate us for 
knocking them out of the tournament thanks 
to Christian Laettner's "miracle shot." We take 
it all in stride and even laugh at it. When we 
decided to come to Duke, we knew we would 
be loved by few, hated by most, respected by 
all. The UK fans reminded us about some- 
thing that has been missing in the last couple 
of years: Success breeds jealousy. Well, if things 
go right, in a couple of games we'll be able to 
give it to UK and all their tans. 


Our game tonight vs. Oklahoma State was a 
tough one, but we played well enough to win. 









Again, we were welcomed by a chorus of boos 
and jeers, and we ran off the floor laughing all 
the way to the "Sweet Sixteen." 

There is a lot being made of the fact that 
no one on the roster has ever advanced to the 
"Sweet Sixteen," but it's not really a big deal. 
The whole basketball community thinks that 
we can't win because we are young. Tell that 
to the Fab Five of Michigan. 


Here we are in St. Petersburg, Florida, playing 
in the regional semifinals. The four teams here 
could be in the Final Four. Duke, Kentucky, 
UCLA, and Syracuse have all played in the 
finals in the last decade. The trip so far hasn't 
been too peachy: Our bus driver got us lost 
five minutes from the airport. We must have 
circled the same block five times. The hotel 
we stayed in wasn't what we were used to, 
either. It felt more like we were on spring 
break than playing in the NCAA tourney. It's 
cold and raining. But we are here to win ball 
games, not to enjoy a vacation. 


After our great win vs. Syracuse, when the 

freshmen really stepped up, it sets up a re- 
match of the greatest college basketball game 
ever: Duke vs. Kentucky. Anyone who knows 
anything about college basketball knows about 
the shot Christian Laettner hit against Ken- 
tucky at the buzzer to propel Duke into the 
Final Four and eventually the championship 
in 1992. The media are really hyping the his- 
tory behind the game. All of us were only in 
high school and middle school when this hap- 
pened, so it is not really a big deal for us. 


We came up a little short and lost the game 
today. We squandered a seventeen-point lead 
and now before you know it, the season is 
over. This is one of the lowest feelings of my 
life. The feeling of something so special, now 
over. The seniors deserve better. Wojo, Ro- 
shown, Ricky, and Todd all deserve to get out 
on top. We have nothing to be ashamed of, 
though. We know we are one of the nation's 
top teams, and people everywhere waited for 
us to falter and lose big, but we never folded. 
It hurts right now; words just can't describe 
the feeling. Of course, there were tears but, 
either way, the season was going to end with 
tears of joy or tears of happiness. It's really 
odd to go to Cameron and feel its emptiness. 
All I can say now is that this year Duke was 
knocking on the door. Next year we are going 
to knock it down. 


After taking a week off from everything bas- 
ketball-related, it is much easier to reflect on 
the truly great season we completed. So often 
in life one forgets to stop and smell the pro- 
verbial flowers, and such was the case for us 
during the basketball season. High expecta- 
tions are synonymous with Duke basketball. 
These expectations act as both blessings and 
curses. Only at a place like Duke would a sea- 
son that falls short of a Final Four be consid- 
ered an inability to achieve potential. Our 32- 
4 season will always be remembered with a 
plethora of "what-if 's." In this regard, the high 
expectations are a curse. 

How many schools, however, would give 
their left foot for a 32-4 season and a trip to 
the "Elite Eight"? There have been countless 
players in the history of basketball who have 
never experienced the thrill of playing in front 
of a sold-out, 45,000-seat stadium, or playing 
on television in front of a global audience. 
Few players have ever even come close to 
being ranked Number One in the nation in 
the polls. Some people spend their lives trying 
to make the cover of national publications. 
We have been fortunate to experience all of 

A 32-4 season is an incredible display of 
basketball. After a brief sabbatical from the 
top echelon, Duke is back on top. 

May -In 





From Costa Rica to Australia, from Bolivia to China, Duke botanists 
travel the planet to gather and study strands of life's intricate web. 

Lynn Bohs can stroll from Costa Rica to 
Australia in a minute or so, from Bolivia 
to China in less time, if she walks fast. 
And the Duke botanist can leap the decades 
from the 1930s to the 1950s to the 1980s with 
the twist of a few metal handles. Those han- 
dles open the sealed doors of some 700 gray 
steel cabinets crowding the rooms and halls of 
Duke's Biological Sciences building, and they 
contain the extraordinary scientific wealth of 
the 720,000 plant specimens of the Duke 

Bohs can open folder after folder, revealing 
myriad plant species, each displayed on a sheet 
of heavy, acid-free paper with a label docu- 
menting where, when, and how each was col- 
lected by generations of botanists who have 
led worldwide expeditions into forests, jun- 
gles, and tundra over the last half-century. A 
massive trove of flowering plants, ferns, mosses, 
lichens, and mushrooms, the herbarium com- 
prises one of the leading such collections at 
any university. Much more than an exercise 
in botanical bookkeeping, the collection con- 
stitutes an ecological treasure. The enduring 
dividends it returns include scientific insights 
into the Earth's complex web of plant life. The 
vast collection also enables Duke students to 
undertake broad-ranging tours of the world's 

flora without leaving campus. Although the 
herbarium has been compared to a library, it 
offers a far richer scientific resource than any 
collection of books, says Bohs, who is curator of 
the herbarium's collection of "vascular plants" 
— those with stems and leaves. 

"These specimens aren't a picture or a 
drawing of a plant. It's the plant itself," she 
says. "So, if you need to look at the hairs on 
the corolla of a flower under the microscope, 
you can look at the real hairs, not just a de- 
scription of them. Or, when someone first 
describes a specimen, even though they think 
they described everything, I might decide the 
internal stem structure is important. And with 
an actual specimen, I can go back and exam- 
ine that." Similarly, she and her colleagues can 
apply new technology to old herbarium spec- 
imens, yielding scientific insights undreamed 
of when the initial Duke collectors first 
traipsed through steamy, uncharted jungles in 
the 1930s gathering specimens. Certainly, none 
dreamed that their hard-won finds would be 
studied using futuristic electron microscopes 
and DNA sequence analysis to probe plants' 
evolutionary secrets. 

Also, since carefully preserved specimens 
can last for centuries, Duke's herbarium gives 
scientists and students alike a first-hand look 

at botanical history, says Bohs. Sadly, though — 
given that biologists estimate that 25 percent 
of all species will go extinct in the next quar- 
ter-century^ the herbarium may, in fact, be- 
come a last resting place for many plants that 
no longer exist. 

The Duke herbarium is used mainly by "sys- 
tematists," scientists whose aim is to document 
the Earth's biodiversity and the evolutionary 
relationships among organisms. Their insights 
take the form of "phylogenetic trees" — com- 
plex diagrams that reveal the hierarchies of 
species. Such missions are fundamental to in- 
ventorying the biodiversity of species, under- 
standing how they evolved, and — critically 
important — learning to preserve them even 
as rain forests are burned to make cropland 
and wetlands filled to make settlements. 

Says Jonathan Shaw, curator of the herbar- 
ium's 245,000-specimen moss collection: 
"Herbarium collections are the nuts-and-bolts 
reservoir, the most important critical resource 
for understanding patterns and levels of bio- 
diversity. Everything in systematics works 
from the foundation that the herbarium pro- 

Duke's botanists continue to build up that 
foundation, mounting expeditions, funded 
mainly by the National Science Foundation, 


1 1 



i--^ ( m not saying I'm an artist," 
\ji insists Sherri Herndon, 
!•£! who nevertheless artfully 
arranges the exotic Costa Rican 
plant just so on the large sheet 
of heavy herbarium paper — 
with leaves handsomely fanned 
out displaying both front and 
back, flowers and seeds up 
front. "But you have to have a 
feel for it," she adds, as she pre- 
pares to paste the specimen into 
place. "I really love it. I really 
love my job." 

No doubt Duke's botanists 
love having her do it, for Hern- 
don is considered a master of 
the art and craft of preparing 
plant specimens after more 
than three decades as the "heart 
of the herbarium," the chief 
preparer of tens of thousands of 
vascular plant specimens labori- 
ously fetched by the botanists 
on arduous treks to the ends of 
the Earth. 

Not many people can claim 
that their work will be appreci- 
ated a century from now, but 
no doubt some twenty-first-cen- 
tury botanist will give thanks 
for Herndon's meticulous care. 
"We're almost universally com- 
plimented on our herbarium 
specimens," says Robert Wilbur, 
who himself has contributed 
some 70,000 specimens to the 
herbarium over the decades. 
"Other botanists borrow our 
specimens by the thousands 
every year, and we get letters 
back saying what superior spec- 
imens they are. It's really re- 
warding. You don't want to cut 
corners when these specimens 
are so precious." 

Indeed, the initial pasting 
of plants on paper is only the 
beginning of the preparation 
process. Later, heavy parts 
such as thick stems and seed 
pods will be fastened by linen 
strapping and even sewn into 
place. An envelope will also be 
fastened to the sheet, just in 
case pieces should fall off, and 
to hold extra bits of material for 
closer study or possible DNA 

Herndon thoroughly docu- 
ments each specimen, prepar- 
ing a label that records the 
most exact location possible 
where the plant was collected, 
so botanists can return to the 
very spot, if necessary. She even 
includes such details as the 
colors of the flowers and the 
date the plant was collected, 
so scientists will know as much 
as possible about the point in 
the plant's life cycle when it 
was collected. 

The paste-up completed, she 
covers the herbarium sheet 
with wax paper and stacks it 

between layers of foam rubber 
to dry, creating a growing pile 
representing her day's work. 
That's one more specimen com- 
pleted. But what does Herndon 
think about the 40,000 others 
still waiting to be mounted, sit- 
ting in great stacks of card- 
board boxes in a room down 
the hall? And is she haunted by 
the backlog that grows by thou- 
sands every year? 

"I call it job security," she 
says, laughing. Then she slides 
another swatch of dried plant 
gently from its resting place 
between sheets of newspaper, 
pondering how to arrange it so 
the specimen will yield the 
keenest scientific insight for 
future scientists and students. 

A pressing profession: Herndon, 
in an office piled high with 
samples, meticulously prepares 
specimens for mounting 

that result in the addition of thousands of 
specimens each year to the collections. This 
summer Bohs is traveling to Bolivia in search 
of ancestors of the tree tomato, in hopes of 
adding to knowledge ot the origins of a useful 
food crop. Shaw spent a month last summer 
in the high Arctic gathering mosses, and 
plans to journey to southern Russia this sum- 
mer. Among the other botanical expedition- 
ers are Richard Searles, who dives into under- 
water seaweed forests in the Caribbean; Paul 
Manos, who prospects for unknown oak 
species in China and southeastern Asia; 
Rytas Vilgalys, who gathers fungi in Australia, 
New Zealand, and New Guinea; botany 
department chair Donald Stone, who seeks 
walnut and hickory relatives in Central 
America; and herbarium pioneer Robert 
Wilbur, who is completing a twenty-year pro- 
gram to collect and describe some 1,800 fern 
and flowering plant species from a lush low- 
land rain forest in Costa Rica. 

In their collecting trips, the Duke botanists 
serve as ambassador/educators, as well as col- 
lectors. They often forge research partner- 
ships with local scientists that aid both the 
host country's knowledge and Duke's re- 
search. Manos works with a local Chinese 
botanist who helps him collect his oak speci- 
mens and, in return, Manos performs sophis- 
ticated DNA analyses of plants that the 
Chinese researcher could not do otherwise. 
Searles is aiding Mexican researchers in cata- 
loguing the rich diversity of seaweeds in the 
waters of Cozumel, to give a baseline for con- 
servation efforts. 

Bohs, who works with local botanists in 
Costa Rica and South America, echoes her 
colleagues' admiration for the collaborators. 
"They are just fantastic," she says. "They have 
very few resources, their salaries are terrible, 
their facilities are primitive, and yet, they're 
excellent botanists." Also, as is the custom, 
the Duke botanists share their finds with 
their colleagues at other institutions, often 
collecting multiple specimens to parcel out to 
other herbaria. And through a loan program 
traditional in the profession, the Duke 
herbarium ships thousands of specimens each 
year around the world for study by fellow sci- 

The Duke botanists downplay the hazards 
of their field work, which may include snake 
bites, robberies, accidents on hazardous back- 
country roads, and even attack by hostile 
local drug lords. More important to them is 
the thrill of discovery of a species unknown in 
an area, or even a totally new species, a not- 
unusual occurrence even on treks through 
the "untamed wilderness" of North Carolina. 
Shaw recalls just such a home-grown surprise 
on one of his moss-hunting expeditions: "A 
year ago I was out on a field trip near High- 
lands, in Macon County, into an area that had 


been collected many, many times before. I 
picked up a moss that I didn't recognize, and 
when I got it back to Duke, it turned out to 
be a species widespread in the tropics, but 
previously unknown north of southernmost 

In fact, says Shaw, North Carolina turns out 
to be a refuge for many exotic plants. "The 
southern Appalachians had never been cov- 
ered by glaciers in the recent past, so there's a 
tremendous diversity of all sorts of plants and 
animals because the area's been available to 
plants and animals for so many more millions 
of years than further north." 

Shaw and his colleagues also find unpleas- 
ant surprises on their expeditions, in the form 
of a steady loss of plant species and their habi- 
tat. Says Shaw, "There are many habitats 
being destroyed in North Carolina alone. 
There are peat mosses known from a limited 
number of bogs in the mountains that have 
disappeared from the state, perhaps becoming 

even more rare 

Department chair Stone has seen the loss 
even more dramatically over his nearly four 
decades of collecting walnut species. "When I 
first went to Costa Rica in 1961, 1 put metal 
tags on the trees that I collected from. And 
over time, virtually all the tags have disap- 

peared as the trees have been cut down. 
Where there was once tropical rain forest, 
there is now a barren field." 

The universality of the botanists' depress- 
ing encounters has been dramatically con- 
firmed by a worldwide survey of plant species 
by a coalition of environmental and scientific 
groups. The survey, released in April, found 
that one in every eight plant species in the 
world — and nearly one in three in the U.S. — 
are under threat of extinction. The finding 
was especially alarming, the survey report 
asserts, given that plants undergird most of 
nature and, in fact, human life. Plants provide 
the basis for all human foods, much of our 
clothing and shelter, and most medicines. 

Once the Duke botanists return from the 
field with their valued specimens, Stone and 
his fellow systematists still use the time -hon- 
ored techniques of botanical description of 
leaves, flowers, and other structures to help 
distinguish species. But, increasingly, they de- 
pend on analytical machines that their prede- 
cessors from the early days would have be- 
lieved to be nothing less than science fiction. 
Stone studies the elegantly sculptured pollen 
grains to distinguish subtly different species of 
banana, as well as walnut and hickory — but 
he doesn't just peer into a traditional light 

microscope. Instead, he freezes the pollen and 
uses a superfine slicing microtome to make 
cross-sections of the dust-sized grains, which 
he scrutinizes using an electron microscope. 
"The pollen it turns out is a fairly complex 
unit, with six or seven layers to the wall," he 
says. "And these layers form in a specific way." 
Such clues can help Stone fit the plant 
species into a phylogenetic tree. 

Of all the new technologies, DNA analysis 
— similar to the method used by police labo- 
ratories — has become the chief tool of the 
modern systematist. Rather than catching 
criminals, the Duke botanists are interested 
in ferreting out plant lineages and species. 
The scientists use DNA sequence analyses of 
the different plants as a sort of "molecular 
clock" to compare how the plant species have 
changed and to organize them into phyloge- 
netic trees. Different genes prove useful for 
different kinds of measurement. To distin- 
guish subtle differences among different pop- 
ulations of a single species, the scientists ana- 
lyze genes that evolve rapidly over time — like 
using a stopwatch to time a Kentucky Derby. 
On a broader scale, to compare more distantly 
related species, the systematists choose genes 
that change slowly, like using a calendar to 
chart the passage of months. 

May-June 1998 11 

Shaw uses DNA analyses to map the many 
species of peat moss, also known as sphagnum 
mosses. "If we are interested in understanding 
the evolution of the whole peat moss genus, 
we'll choose a gene that evolves fairly slowly. 
Even closely related species will be identical 
for that gene. That means we can choose a 
sample that's representative of a species and 
not have to analyze fifty samples. But in stud- 
ies in which we're interested in a particular 
species and how it got such a broad geo- 
graphic range, then we're sampling individual 
populations worldwide of the species, and we 
need a gene that would have changed rapidly 

over the amount of time that a single species 
has been in existence." 

Some of his DNA studies investigate the 
fact that many mosses found in the North 
Carolina mountains are practically identical 
to those found in eastern Asia, including 
Japan. The puzzle of how such identical 
species can exist so widely separated from 
each other is important to understanding the 
basic mystery of how species of any animal or 
plant evolve and persist. "It's a million- dollar 
question," he says. "Did the mosses move back 
and forth between Asia and eastern North 
America? Or does this reflect ancient history, 
maybe species that are thirty to forty million 
years old, that somehow remained the same? 
It's a basic question in biology — why some 
plants and animals become different over 
that amount of time and others don't." 

Shaw's DNA detective work has also 
turned up instances in which humans might 
have had a hand, or maybe a foot, in dis- 
tributing plant species. He's used molecular 
analysis to sort out the mystery of the "copper 
mosses," rare organisms that thrive only in far- 
flung spots where they have encountered the 
copper- rich soils they need to grow. These dis- 
parate regions include the U.S., the Himalayas, 

the Philippines, South America, and Mexico. 
Using fast-changing "stopwatch" markers to dis- 
tinguish these mosses, Shaw and his colleagues 
discovered striking similarities between plants 
growing in Nepal and those growing happily 
in downtown Tokyo, under the drip lines of 
the copper-roofs of Buddhist temples. The in- 
triguing possibility, says Shaw, is that ancient 
Buddhists, migrating from western Asia into 
Japan, may have inadvertently carried hitch- 
hiking moss spores. Thus, he says, analysis of 
plants can give clues to human history. 

As for Rytas Vilgalys, he and his colleagues 
seek to unearth the mysteries of mushrooms, 


ambitiously performing DNA comparisons 
of 800 species to build a many-branched phy- 
logenetic tree. He is also performing cross- 
breeding experiments to explore the phe- 
nomenon of "intersterility," in which different 
species rarely interbreed, even when growing 
on the same log. "This species question is one 

of the oldest in biology. Why isn't there just 
one species with local variations?" he asks. 
"Nobody knows how these species maintain 
their individuality." Vilgalys and other biolo- 
gists believe that geographical separation may 
play a key role in species evolution, but the 
mysteries of species formation remain pro- 

The phylogenetic trees that the Duke sys- 
tematists build represent more than organiza- 
tional charts of plant species; they are maps 
that guide scientific insight into these myster- 
ies of evolution, according to Paul Manos. 
"Knowing the pattern of evolution, as is 

gained with phylogenetic trees, is critical to 
studying the process of evolution. These trees 
are used to test hypotheses of how organisms 
adapted and changed. So, it's really become 
apparent for any systematist that not only are 
they doing all the leg work for understanding 
how many species are out there, but they're 
usually going one step further. They're con- 
structing evolutionary hypotheses." 

Manos uses the Duke herbarium's wealth 
to show students dramatically the incredible 
richness of life that evolution has produced. 
"When I teach a course on plant families, I use 
the live plants to show part of the diversity. 
But then I also get the herbarium sheets to 
show just how diverse a plant family is. It's im- 
portant for students to really learn the entire 
breadth of plant species as much as possible." 

Unfortunately, for both the faculty and the 
students, Duke's herbarium has fallen far be- 
hind, both in space for plants and the computer 
technology to organize them. The hundreds of 
herbarium cases lining the biology building's 
hallways are nightmares for both scientists and 
fire marshals. The herbarium's record-keeping 
practices are reminiscent of the mom-and- 
pop grocery stores of the 1950s, consisting of 
laboriously handwritten records of specimen 


loans and, in fact, no overall inventory of the 
collection. Even as the herbarium runs out of 
room, thousands of new specimens stream in 
each year, the sign of an active, growing science. 
"We're overflowing right now," says Stone, 
"which means that the collections can't be 
properly taken care of, nor can they be ac- 
cessed readily by students and scientists, or 
shared with the community of scientists." 

Thus, Stone and the other botanists have 
proposed building a modern, efficient Duke 
Biodiversity Center for Teaching and Re- 
search that would give plants, faculty, and stu- 
dents alike a better home. The priceless plant 

tion now when we can't even maintain it 
properly and it's scattered throughout the 

To put it botanically, the Duke systematists 
believe that the new center will allow cross- 
fertilization of ideas and knowledge among 
scientists and students, resulting in a new 
breed of broad-ranging expert that can tackle 
the vast problems of preserving nature's bio- 
logical wealth. "Duke has individual strengths 
in biodiversity studies, but they are not inte- 
grated," says Vilgalys. "We have ecologists, we 
have systematists, and we have conservation 
biologists. But we don't have a space for peo- 

ple to get together to exchange ideas about 
this biodiversity crisis." 

The Duke botanists and their fellow biolo- 
gists are excruciatingly aware that ignorance 
of Earth's creatures could well spell doom 
for many. They live with the frustrating knowl- 
edge that science has discovered and cata- 
logued only a puny 15 percent of the 10- to 
100-million species of plants and animals 
estimated to inhabit the planet. Perhaps the 
most ironic, tragic symptom of our disregard 
for Earth's web of life, they say, is that we 
neglect the task of tracing its strands even as 
we unravel them. 

Family photos: from left, kapoc pods, Pachira 
aqiiatica (Bombacaceae) ; a variety of sunflower, 
Erigeron glabellus (Asteraceae) , the herbarium's 
oldest specimen, 1862; from the mangosteen family, 
Clusia valerii (Clusiaceae) ; and glistening oyster 
mushrooms (Pleurotus) 

specimens would be preserved in rooms with 
controlled temperature and humidity, isolated 
from plant-eating pests. And people would 
study and learn about the plants in the build- 
ing's teaching lab, offices, and auditorium. 
The $6-million investment would also attract 
federal funding to pay for motorized, mobile 
"compactor" shelving that telescopes to max- 
imize storage space. Such funding would also 
support the gargantuan task of creating the 
first computer database of the collection. 

Computer records could greatly enhance 
the herbarium's use by scientists at Duke and 
worldwide, says Bohs. "Right now, I can get 
on my computer and easily access informa- 
tion on specimens from herbaria at other 
institutions. In fact, I can even ask an herbar- 
ium in Costa Rica to pull a specimen and scan 
it into the computer so I can look at it over 
the Internet." Adds Stone, "Computerization 
is a chicken-and-egg situation, in a sense. It 
makes little sense to computerize the collec- 


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May -June 1998 13 







Two diplomats talk about 
their roles at a time of 
instant communications 
and economic integration. 

Winter warmth has descended 
on London; at least one relaxed 
swimmer is to be spotted in Hyde 
Park's Serpentine Lake. Expressing their own 
exuberance for an outdoors cause, a dozen 
anti-abortion protesters are waging a silent 
protest in front of the American Embassy. It's 
a building that hardly tries to fit in with 
Grosvenor Square and that, in fact, dominates 
the scene with its protruding communications 
equipment, its ostentatious golden eagle, its 
sprawling dimensions, and its concrete charm- 
lessness. And it's just blocks from Oxford 
Street — from Marks 6k Spencer, which hap- 
pens to own New York's venerable Brooks 
Brothers, and the American Cafe Bistro, which, 
with a taste for irony, advertises "traditional 
fish and chips." 

Back in the States, President Clinton has 
been finding his attention diverted by what has 
become known simply and quite universally 
as the Monica Matter. Undoubtedly hoping 
for some diversion from the diversion, Clin- 
ton is about to play host for visiting Prime 
Minister Tony Blair. 

Such summitry prompts some conversation 
on a BBC call-in show, where the host asks 
his listeners for a list of "things to send back 
to America." Among the first suggestions: 
"MTV' "high-five hand slaps," "sub-standard 
TV shows," and, inexplicably, "The Queen." 
"Frasier I adore," offers one caller. Someone 
chews out those who indulge in chewing gum 
for their "revolting habit," adding approvingly 
that the pursuit is banned in Singapore. "I 
absolutely hate it when somebody says, 'Have 
a nice day,' and they don't really mean it," 


Ambassador to the Court 
of St. James' 

suggests another caller. She proceeds to offer 
praise for the American service ethic. "I think 
customer service here in Britain is appalling. 
We as customers deserve a certain decorum." 
Long characterized by a certain decorum, 
the relationship between the two nations is 
sometimes strange, if only occasionally strained. 
And America's prime person in London in 
shaping that relationship is Ambassador Philip 
Lader '66. Just before Blair jets off to Wash- 
ington, Lader holds a press briefing for about 

a dozen British journalists. He begins with the 
casual observation that the prime minister will 
be the first head of state named Blair to be 
staying at Blair House, notes that Americans 
find the British prime minister an "intriguing 
personality," remarks on the president's policy 
predicaments — quite foreign to Britain's par- 
liamentary tradition — with an opposition-led 
Congress, and fields questions on showdowns 
with a special counsel and an Iraqi dictator. 
As he begins the briefing, a reporter whispers 



to a colleague, "Does anyone know the name 
of the ambassador?" Diplomacy doesn't always 
produce a high profile. 

Lader is the first American ambassador to 
the Court of St. James' born after the Second 
World War. (In his recently published memoirs, 
former ambassador Raymond Seitz has some 
fun with the origins of the formal title. He tracks 
it back to St. James' Hospital for lepers, which 
used to stand where the Palace of St. James 
now is.) His inaugural trip abroad was for 

graduate work at Oxford, between earning a 
master's in history at the University of Michi- 
gan and his law degree at Harvard. At Duke, 
he majored in political science and took a con- 
centration in religion. He did an independent 
study on William Temple, an archbishop of 
Canterbury between the world wars; when he 
had lunch recently with the current archbish- 
op, he managed to get a private viewing of the 
portrait of Temple. "I like to say that the first 
time I saw the American embassy was with a 

copy of Frommer's Europe on Five Dollars a 
Day in my hand — which shows you how long 
ago it was — from the second level of a red, 
double decker London bus." 

Lader has avoided practicing law, but his 
career has taken him into the spheres of gov- 
ernment, business, and education. Before his 
embassy assignment, he was administrator of 
the U.S. Small Business Administration. He 
had a couple of earlier roles in the Clinton 
White House — White House deputy chief of 
staff and assistant to the president, and de- 
puty director for management of the Office of 
Management and Budget. In his own trans- 
Atlantic economic relationship, he was exec- 
utive vice president of Sir James Goldsmith's 
U.S. holding company. He was president of 
Sea Pines Company, a developer and operator 
of large-scale recreational communities. 
After a stint as president of Winthrop College 
in South Carolina, he became an American 
transplant in Australia as the head of Bond 
University. He's probably best known for 
founding Renaissance Weekends, the family 
retreats designed to attract "innovative lead- 
ers" from a broad spectrum of endeavors — 
including Bill Clinton, from the time that he 
was governor of Arkansas. 

Just inside the embassy, the visitor encoun- 
ters a portrait gallery of Lader's predecessors. 
It's an impressive array of personalities — John 
Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren, James Mon- 
roe, Andrew Mellon, W Averell Harriman, 
Walter Annenberg. The first ambassador, John 
Adams, went on to become president of the 
United States, as did four others; eight be- 
came vice president. Lader's immediate pred- 
ecessor was William Crowe, former chairman 
of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. When Al Gore 
administered the oath of office to Lader in 
December, the vice president observed that 
the occasion marked a rare instance of a four- 
star admiral making way for a one-time Army 

If he's not enamored of military protocol, 
Lader appears to be enamored of a physical- 
fitness routine. Once a month, he devotes a 
weekend to walking Britain. The first week- 
end after Thanksgiving he did a fifty-three- 
mile coastal walk from Land's End in the 
southwest to Cornwall; in January he did a 
seventy-one-mile walk through Cornwall and 
Devon. "I'm a little short of Scotland now," he 
reports. "You really do get a good perspective 

May -June 1998 


Regal summons: Ambassador Lader and his wife, Linda he Sourd Lader, en route to Buckingham Palace to present his diplomatic credentials to the Queen 

at that pace. It's great: I stay at bed-and- 
breakfasts or pubs, and farmers don't know 
and don't care what my job is. It's a wonder- 
ful counterpoint to the black-tie dinners and 
the endless stream of formal meetings." 

One of his most striking impressions, he says, 
comes from a Sunday morning walk through 
a village of some twenty-five houses and a 
church that was several hundred years old. 
He came to a small general store filled with 
people trying to buy lottery tickets, and then 
an establishment offering Thai food. "Merry 
Olde England isn't always precisely what one 
might visualize." 

Four hundred years ago, British diplomat 
Sir Henry Wotton defined an ambassador as 
"an honest man sent abroad to lie for the 
Commonwealth." Picking up on that quote, 
Lader says, "Today, given the number of offi- 
cial meals, I feel like I've been sent abroad to 
eat for my country." He may be consuming 
plenty of British food fare, but that dubious 
obligation is not what is consuming him. A 
big part of his project in Britain is working to 
define the role of the ambassador at a time of 
instant communications, when Tony Blair and 
Bill Clinton speak together several times a 
week. "The model of the ambassador as hav- 
ing extraordinary and plenipotentiary powers 
really dates back a couple of centuries, when 
you went to another nation and it would take 
six weeks, at best, to communicate with your 

So today's model ambassador is more 
business executive than freelance diplomat. 
Lader is, after all, managing the alphabet-soup 
of agencies, from the I.R.S. to the F. A. A., that 
operate from the embassy. "Our embassies to- 
day are institutions in themselves," he says. 
"We have 600 employees. They represent twen- 
ty-seven different government agencies. The 
ambassador today is like a country manager of 
a multinational company. He knows that all 
his people are reporting back to somebody at 
company headquarters, but he's the point per- 
son who has to make sure they're not tripping 
over each other." 

His agenda has him managing what he calls 
"concierge" functions. That workmanlike term 
encompasses accommodating some 18,000 
official visitors to the embassy each year. It 
involves making arrangements for two Bill 
Clinton meetings in May: to Birmingham, Eng- 
land, for the so-called G-8 meeting of the 
major industrialized nations, and to a Lon- 
don-based summit involving the U.S. and the 
European Union. (Britain now holds the re- 
volving presidency of the E.U.) There was 
spring speculation about producing presiden- 
tial moments in Northern Ireland, to prop 
up the Good Friday peace agreement just 
before it's subjected to a referendum vote. 

Lader regularly steeps himself in something 
akin to traditional personal diplomacy as well. 
When the Northern Ireland talks came to 
London for a week, he organized an embassy 

reception for all the participants, hoping that 
such a gathering might cool the passions of 
the factions. Right after Clinton's May meet- 
ings, he's off again to Northern Ireland, where 
he's already accompanied Hillary Rodham 
Clinton and Senator Edward Kennedy on 
their visits. In Belfast, he'll help kick off a